|Birth name||Richard Bernard Skelton|
July 18, 1913|
Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.
|Died||September 17, 1997
Rancho Mirage, California, U.S.
|Golden Globe Awards|
|Cecil B. DeMille
1978 Outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry
|American Comedy Awards|
|American Comedy Awards
1989 Lifetime achievement
Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton (July 18, 1913 – September 17, 1997) was an American entertainer best known for his national radio and television acts between 1937 and 1971 and as host of the television program The Red Skelton Show. Skelton, who has stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in radio and television, also appeared in vaudeville, films, nightclubs, and casinos, all while he pursued an entirely separate career as an artist.
Skelton began developing his comedic and pantomime skills from the age of 10, when he became part of a traveling medicine show. He then spent time on a showboat, worked the burlesque circuit, then entered into vaudeville in 1934. The Doughnut Dunkers, a pantomime sketch of how different people ate doughnuts written by Skelton and his wife launched a career for him in vaudeville, in radio and in films. Skelton's radio career began in 1937 with a guest appearance on The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour which led to his becoming the host of Avalon Time in 1938. He became the host of The Raleigh Cigarettes Program in 1941 where many of his comedy characters were created and had a regularly scheduled radio program until 1957. Skelton made his film debut in 1938 alongside Ginger Rogers and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. in Alfred Santell's Having Wonderful Time, and he went on to appear in numerous musical and comedy films throughout the 1940s and early 1950s, such as I Dood It (1943), Ziegfeld Follies (1946) and The Clown (1953).
He was most eager to work in television, even when the medium was in its infancy. The Red Skelton Show made its television premiere on September 30, 1951, on NBC. By 1954, Skelton's program moved to CBS, where it was expanded to one hour and renamed The Red Skelton Hour in 1962. Despite high ratings, his television show was canceled by CBS in 1970 as the network believed more youth-oriented programs were needed to attract younger viewers and their spending power. Skelton moved his program to NBC, where he completed his last year with a regularly scheduled television show in 1971. After he no longer had a television program, Skelton's time was spent making up to 125 personal appearances a year and on his artwork.
Skelton's artwork of clowns remained a hobby until 1964, when his wife, Georgia, convinced him to have a showing of his work at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas while he was performing there. Sales of his originals were successful and Skelton also sold prints and lithographs of them, earning $2.5 million yearly on lithograph sales. At the time of his death, his art dealer believed that Skelton had earned more money through his paintings than from his television work.
Skelton believed his life's work was to make people laugh and wanted to be known as a clown, because he defined it as being able to do everything. He had a 70-year career as a performer and entertained three generations of Americans during this time. Many of Skelton's personal and professional effects, including prints of his artwork, were donated to Vincennes University by his widow, where they are part of the Red Skelton Museum of American Comedy.
- 1 Biography
- 1.1 Early years, the medicine show and the circus (1913–29)
- 1.2 Burlesque to vaudeville (1929–37)
- 1.3 Film work
- 1.4 Radio, divorce and remarriage (1937–51)
- 1.5 Television (1951–70)
- 1.6 Off the air and bitterness (1970–83)
- 1.7 Skelton onstage
- 1.8 Later years and death
- 2 Art and other interests
- 3 Fraternity and honors
- 4 Awards and recognition
- 5 Legacy and tributes
- 6 Filmography
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Sources cited
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early years, the medicine show and the circus (1913–29)
Born July 18, 1913, in Vincennes, Indiana, Richard Skelton was the fourth son of Ida Mae (née Fields) and Joseph E. Skelton. Joseph, a grocer, died two months before his last child was born; he had once been a clown with the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus. In Skelton's lifetime there was some dispute about the year of his birth. Author Wesley Hyatt suggests that since he began working at such an early age, he may have had to say he was older than he actually was in order to work.[note 1][note 2] Vincennes neighbors described the Skelton family as being extremely poor; a childhood friend remembered that her parents broke up a youthful romance between her sister and Skelton, because he was thought to have no future.
Because of the loss of his father, Skelton went to work at the age of seven, selling newspapers and doing other odd jobs to help his family, who had lost both the family store and home. He quickly learned the newsboy's patter and would keep it up until a prospective buyer bought a copy of the paper just to quiet him. In 1923, a man came up to the newsboy, purchased every paper he had and asked him if he wanted to see the show in town, giving him a ticket. The man, comedian Ed Wynn, was part of the show and later took the boy backstage. Skelton, who had already shown comedic tendencies, then realized what he wanted to do with his life.[note 3] He discovered at an early age that he could make people laugh. At the age of ten, Skelton auditioned to be part of a medicine show and was hired by "Doc" Lewis as an errand boy who sold bottles of medicine to the audience during the show. When he accidentally fell from the stage, breaking bottles of medicine as he fell, people laughed. Both Lewis and Skelton realized one could earn a living with this ability and the fall was worked into the show. He also told jokes and sang in the medicine show during his four years there. The pay was ten dollars a week and he sent all of it home weekly to his mother telling her, "We get plenty to eat, and we sleep in the wagon."
By age 14, Skelton had left school and was already a veteran performer, working in local vaudeville and on a showboat, "The Cotton Blossom", that traveled the Ohio and Missouri rivers. He enjoyed his work on the riverboat, moving on only after he realized that showboat entertainment was coming to an end. Young Skelton was interested in all forms of acting. He won a dramatic role with a stock theater company, but was unable to deliver his lines in a serious manner; the audience laughed instead. While performing in Uncle Tom's Cabin, Skelton was on an unseen treadmill; when it malfunctioned and began working in reverse, the frightened young actor called out, "Help! I'm backing into heaven!" He was fired before completing a week's work in the role. At age 15, he was on the burlesque circuit. The next year Skelton spent some time with the same circus with which his father had been a clown. Ida Skelton, who held two jobs to support her family after the death of her husband, never said that her youngest son had run away from home, but that "his destiny had caught up with him at an early age".
Burlesque to vaudeville (1929–37)
As burlesque comedy material became progressively more ribald, Skelton moved on. He insisted that he was no prude; "I just didn't think the lines were funny". He became a sought-after master of ceremonies for dance marathons (known as "walkathons" at the time), a popular fad in the 1930s. The winner of one of the marathons was Edna Stillwell, an usher at the old Pantages Theater.[note 4] She approached Skelton after winning the contest and told him that she did not like his jokes; he asked if she could do better. They married in 1931 in Kansas City, and Edna began writing his material. At the time of their marriage Skelton was one month away from his 18th birthday; Edna was 16. When they learned that Skelton's salary was to be cut, Edna went to see the boss; he resented the interference, until she came away with not only a raise, but additional considerations as well. Since he had left school at an early age, his wife bought textbooks and taught him what he had missed. With Edna's help, Skelton received a high school equivalency degree.[note 5]
The couple put together an act and began booking it at small midwestern theaters. When an offer came for an engagement in Harwich Port, Massachusetts, some 2,000 miles from Kansas City, they were pleased to get it because of its proximity to their ultimate goal, the vaudeville houses of New York City. To get to Massachusetts they bought a used car and borrowed five dollars from Edna's mother, but by the time they arrived in St. Louis they had only fifty cents. Skelton asked Edna to collect empty cigarette packs; she thought he was joking, but did as he asked. He then spent their fifty cents on bars of soap, which they cut into small cubes and wrapped with the tinfoil from the cigarette packs. By selling their products for fifty cents each as fog remover for eyeglasses, the Skeltons were able to afford a hotel room every night as they worked their way to Harwich Port.
The "Doughnut Dunkers"
Skelton and Edna worked for a year in Camden, New Jersey, and were able to get an engagement at Montreal's Lido Club in 1934 through a friend who managed the chorus lines at New York's Roxy Theatre. Despite an initial rocky start, the act was a success, and brought the couple theater dates throughout Canada.[note 6] While in Montreal, they ran into a New York vaudeville producer, who promised the pair a booking at Loew's State Theatre if they could come up with a new routine for the engagement. Edna had an idea as they were having breakfast in a hotel coffee shop as she and Skelton watched how those around them ate doughnuts and coffee. They devised the "Doughnut Dunkers" routine, with Skelton's visual impressions of how different people ate doughnuts.[note 7] The skit won them the Loew's State engagement and a handsome fee.
The couple viewed this engagement as Skelton's big chance. They hired New York comedy writers to prepare material for the Loew's engagement, believing they needed more sophisticated jokes and skits than the material Skelton normally performed. His New York audience did not laugh or applaud until he abandoned the newly written material and began performing his "Doughnut Dunkers" and other older routines.[note 8] In 1937, while he was entertaining at the Capitol Theater in Washington, DC, President Franklin D. Roosevelt invited Skelton to perform at a White House luncheon. During one of the official toasts, Skelton grabbed Roosevelt's glass, saying, "Careful what you drink, Mr. President. I got rolled in a place like this once." His humor appealed to FDR and Skelton became the master of ceremonies for Roosevelt's official birthday celebration for many years afterward.
Skelton's first contact with Hollywood came in the form of a failed 1932 screen test. In 1938 he made his film debut for RKO Pictures in the supporting role of a camp counselor in Having Wonderful Time. He appeared in two short subjects for Vitaphone in 1939: Seeing Red and The Broadway Buckaroo. Actor Mickey Rooney contacted Skelton, urging him to try for work in films after seeing him perform his "Doughnut Dunkers" act at President Roosevelt's 1940 birthday party. For his MGM screen test, Skelton performed many of his more popular skits, such as "Guzzler's Gin", but added some impromptu pantomimes as the cameras were rolling. "Imitation of Movie Heroes Dying" were Skelton's impressions of the cinema deaths of stars like George Raft, Edward G. Robinson and James Cagney.
Skelton began appearing in numerous films for MGM. In 1940 he provided comic relief as a lieutenant in Frank Borzage's war drama Flight Command, opposite Robert Taylor, Ruth Hussey and Walter Pidgeon. In 1941 he also provided comic relief in Harold S. Bucquet's Dr. Kildare medical dramas, Dr. Kildare's Wedding Day and The People vs. Dr. Kildare. Skelton was soon starring in comedy features as inept radio detective "The Fox", the first of which was Whistling in the Dark (1941) in which he began working with director S. Sylvan Simon, who would become his favorite director. He reprised the same role opposite Ann Rutherford in Simon's other pictures, including Whistling in Dixie (1942) and Whistling in Brooklyn (1943). In 1941, Skelton began appearing in musical comedies, starring opposite Eleanor Powell, Ann Sothern and Robert Young in Norman Z. McLeod's Lady Be Good. In 1942 Skelton again starred opposite Eleanor Powell in Edward Buzzell's Ship Ahoy, and alongside Ann Sothern in McLeod's Panama Hattie.
In 1943, after a memorable role as a nightclub hatcheck attendant who becomes King Louis XV of France in a dream opposite Lucille Ball and Gene Kelly in Roy Del Ruth's Du Barry Was a Lady, Skelton starred as Joseph Rivington Reynolds, a hotel valet besotted with Broadway starlet Constance Shaw (Powell) in Vincente Minnelli's romantic musical comedy, I Dood It. The film was largely a remake of Buster Keaton's Spite Marriage; Keaton, who had become a comedy consultant to MGM after his film career had diminished, began coaching Skelton on set during the filming. Keaton worked in this capacity on several of Skelton's films, and his 1926 film The General was also later rewritten to become Skelton's A Southern Yankee (1948), under directors S. Silvan Simon and Edward Sedgwick. Keaton was convinced enough of Skelton's comedic talent that he approached MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer with a request to create a small company within MGM for himself and Skelton, where the two could work on film projects. Keaton offered to forego his salary if the films made by the company were not box office hits; Mayer chose to decline the request. In 1944, Skelton starred opposite Esther Williams in George Sidney's musical comedy Bathing Beauty, playing a songwriter with romantic difficulties. He next had a relatively minor role as a "TV announcer who, in the course of demonstrating a brand of gin, progresses from mild inebriation through messy drunkenness to full-blown stupor" in the "When Television Comes" segment of Ziegfeld Follies, which featured William Powell and Judy Garland in the main roles. In 1946, Skelton played boastful clerk J. Aubrey Piper opposite Marilyn Maxwell and Marjorie Main in Harry Beaumont's comedy picture The Show-Off.
Skelton's contract called for MGM's approval prior to his radio shows and other appearances. When he renegotiated his long-term contract with MGM, he wanted a clause that permitted him to remain working in radio and to be able to work on television, which was then largely experimental. At the time, the major work in the medium was centered in New York; Skelton had worked there for some time and was able to determine that he would find success with his physical comedy through the medium.[note 9] By 1947, Skelton's work interests were focused not on films, but on radio and television. His MGM contract was rigid enough to require the studio's written consent for his weekly radio shows, as well as any benefit or similar appearances he made; radio offered less restrictions, more creative control and a higher salary. Skelton asked for a release from MGM after learning he could not raise the $750,000 needed to buy out the remainder of his contract. He also voiced frustration with the film scripts he was offered while on the set of The Fuller Brush Man, saying, "Movies are not my field. Radio and television are."[note 10] He did not receive the desired television clause nor a release from his MGM contract. In 1948, columnist Sheilah Graham printed that Skelton's wishes were to make only one film a year, spending the rest of the time traveling the U.S. with his radio show.
Skelton's ability to successfully ad-lib often meant that the way the script was written was not always the way it was recorded on film. Some directors were delighted with the creativity, but others were often frustrated by it.[note 11] S. Sylvan Simon, who became a close friend, allowed Skelton free rein when directing him. MGM became annoyed with Simon during the filming of The Fuller Brush Man, as the studio contended that Skelton should have been playing romantic leads instead of performing slapstick. Simon and MGM parted company when he was not asked to direct retakes of Skelton's A Southern Yankee; Simon asked that his name be removed from the film's credits.
Skelton was willing to negotiate with MGM to extend the agreement provided he would receive the right to pursue television. This time the studio was willing to grant it, making Skelton the only major MGM personality with the privilege. The 1950 negotiations allowed him to begin working in television beginning September 30, 1951. During the last portion of his contract with the studio, Skelton was working in radio and on television in addition to films. He would go on to appear in films such as Jack Donohue's The Yellow Cab Man (1950), Roy Rowland and Buster Keaton's Excuse My Dust (1951), Charles Walters' Texas Carnival (1951), Mervyn LeRoy's Lovely to Look At (1952), Robert Z. Leonard's The Clown (1953) and The Great Diamond Robbery (1954), and Norman Z. McLeod's poorly-received Public Pigeon No. 1 (1957), his last major film role, which originated incidentally from an episode of the television anthology series Climax!. In a 1956 interview, he said he would never work simultaneously in all three media again. As a result, Skelton would make only a couple of minor appearances in films after this, including playing a saloon drunk in Around the World in Eighty Days (1956), a gambler in Ocean's 11 (1960), and a Neanderthal man in Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines (1965).
Radio, divorce and remarriage (1937–51)
Performing the "Doughnut Dunkers" routine led to Skelton's first appearance on Rudy Vallée's The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour on August 12, 1937. Vallée's program had a talent show segment and those who were searching for stardom were eager to be heard on it. Vallée also booked veteran comic and fellow Indiana native Joe Cook to appear as a guest with Skelton. The two Hoosiers proceeded to trade jokes about their home towns, with Skelton contending to Cook, an Evansville native, that the city was a suburb of Vincennes. The show received enough fan mail after the performance to invite both comedians back two weeks after Skelton's initial appearance and again in November of that year. On October 1, 1938, Skelton replaced Red Foley as the host of Avalon Time on NBC; Edna also joined the show's cast, under her maiden name. She developed a system for working with the show's writers: selecting material from them, adding her own and filing the unused bits and lines for future use; the Skeltons worked on Avalon Time until late 1939. Skelton's work in films led to a new regular radio show offer; between films, he promoted himself and MGM by appearing without charge at Los Angeles area banquets. A radio advertising agent was a guest at one of his banquet performances and recommended Skelton to one of his clients. He went on the air with his own radio show, The Raleigh Cigarettes Program, on October 7, 1941. The bandleader for the show was Ozzie Nelson; his wife, Harriet, who worked under her maiden name of Hilliard, was the show's vocalist and also worked with Skelton in skits.
"I dood it!"
Skelton introduced the first two of his many characters during The Raleigh Cigarettes Program's first season. The character of Clem Kadiddlehopper was based on a Vincennes neighbor named Carl Hopper, who was hard of hearing.[note 12] Skelton's voice pattern for Clem was similar to the later cartoon character, Bullwinkle; there was enough similarity to cause Skelton to contemplate filing a lawsuit against Bill Scott, who voiced the cartoon moose. The second character, The Mean Widdle Kid, or "Junior", was a young boy full of mischief, who typically did things he was told not to do. "Junior" would say things like, "If I dood it, I gets a whipping.", followed moments later by the statement, "I dood it!" Skelton performed the character at home with Edna, giving him the nickname "Junior" long before it was heard by a radio audience. While the phrase was Skelton's, the idea to try using the character on the radio show was Edna's. Skelton starred in a 1943 movie of the same name, but did not play "Junior" in the film.
The phrase was such a part of national culture at the time, when General Doolittle conducted the bombing of Tokyo in 1942, that many newspapers used the phrase "Doolittle Dood It" as a headline. After a talk with President Roosevelt in 1943, Skelton used his radio show to collect funds for a Douglas A-20 Havoc to be given to the Soviet Army to help fight World War II. Asking children to send in their spare change, he raised enough money for the aircraft in two weeks; he named the bomber "We Dood It!" In 1986 the Soviet newspaper Pravda offered praise to Skelton for his 1943 gift and in 1993, the pilot of the plane was able to meet Skelton and thank him for the bomber.[note 13]
Skelton also added a routine he had been performing since 1928. Originally called "Mellow Cigars", the skit entailed an announcer who became ill as he smoked his sponsor's product. Brown and Williamson, the makers of cigarettes, asked Skelton to change some aspects of the skit; he renamed the routine "Guzzler's Gin", where the announcer became inebriated while sampling and touting the imaginary sponsor's wares. While the traditional radio program called for its cast to do an audience warm-up in preparation for the broadcast, Skelton did just the opposite. After the regular radio program had ended, the show's guests were treated to a post-program performance. He would then perform his "Guzzler's Gin" or any of more than 350 routines for those who had come to the radio show. He updated and revised his post-show routines as diligently as those for his radio program. As a result, studio audience tickets for Skelton's radio show were in high demand; there were times where up to 300 people needed to be turned away for lack of seats.
Divorce from Edna, marriage to Georgia
In 1942, Edna announced that she was leaving Skelton but would continue to manage his career and write material for him. He did not realize she was serious until Edna issued a statement about the impending divorce through NBC. They were divorced in 1943, leaving the courtroom arm in arm. The couple did not discuss the reasons for their divorce and Edna initially prepared to work as a script writer for other radio programs. When the divorce was finalized, she went to New York, leaving her former husband three fully prepared show scripts. Skelton and those associated with him sent telegrams and called her, asking her to come back to him in a professional capacity.[note 14] Edna remained the manager of the couple's funds because Skelton spent money too easily. An attempt at managing his own checking account that began with a $5,000 balance, ended five days later after a call to Edna saying the account was overdrawn. Skelton had a weekly allowance of $75, with Edna making investments for him, choosing real estate and other relatively stable assets. She remained an advisor on his career until 1952, receiving a generous weekly salary for life for her efforts.
The divorce meant that Skelton had lost his married man's deferment; he was once again classified as 1-A for service. He was drafted into the army in early 1944; both MGM and his radio sponsor tried to obtain a deferment for the comedian, but to no avail. His last Raleigh radio show was on June 6, 1944, the day before he was formally inducted as a private; he was not assigned to the entertainment corps at that time. Without its star, the program was discontinued, and the opportunity presented itself for the Nelsons to begin a radio show of their own, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.
By 1944, Skelton was engaged to actress Muriel Morris, who was also known as Muriel Chase; the couple had obtained a marriage license and told the press they intended to marry within a few days. At the last minute, the actress decided not to marry him, initially saying she intended to marry a wealthy businessman in Mexico City. She later recanted the story about marrying the businessman, but continued to say that her relationship with Skelton was over. The actress further denied that the reason for the breakup was Edna's continuing to manage her ex-husband's career; Edna stated that she had no intention of either getting in the middle of the relationship or reconciling with her former husband. He was on army furlough for throat discomfort when he married actress Georgia Maureen Davis in Beverly Hills, California, on March 9, 1945; the couple met on the MGM lot.[note 15] Skelton traveled to Los Angeles from the eastern army base where he was assigned for the wedding. He knew he would possibly be assigned overseas soon and wanted the marriage to take place first. After the wedding, he entered the hospital to have his tonsils removed. The couple had two children; Valentina, a daughter, was born May 5, 1947 and a son, Richard, was born May 20, 1948.
A cast of characters
After being assigned to the entertainment corps, Skelton performed as many as ten to twelve shows per day before troops in both the United States and in Europe. The pressure of his workload caused him to suffer exhaustion and a nervous breakdown. His nervous collapse while in the army left him with a serious stuttering problem. While recovering at an army hospital in Virginia, he met a soldier who had been severely wounded and was not expected to survive. Skelton devoted a lot of time and effort to trying to make the man laugh. As a result of this effort, his stuttering problem was cured; his army friend's condition also improved and he was no longer on the critical list. He was released from his army duties in September 1945. His sponsor was eager to have him back on the air, and Skelton's program began anew on NBC on December 4, 1945.
Upon returning to radio, Skelton brought with him many new characters that were added to his repertoire: Bolivar Shagnasty, described as a "loudmouthed braggart"; Cauliflower McPugg, a boxer; Deadeye, a cowboy; Willie Lump-Lump, a fellow who drank too much; and San Fernando Red, a conman with political aspirations. By 1947, Skelton's musical conductor was David Rose, who would go on to television with him; he had worked with Rose during his time in the army and wanted Rose to join him on the radio show when it went back on the air.
On April 22, 1947, Skelton was censored by NBC two minutes into his radio show. When he and his announcer Rod O'Connor began talking about Fred Allen being censored the previous week, they were silenced for 15 seconds; comedian Bob Hope was given the same treatment once he began referring to the censoring of Allen.[note 16] Skelton forged on with his lines for his studio audience's benefit; the material he insisted on using had been edited from the script by the network before the broadcast. He had been briefly censored the previous month for the use of the word "diaper". After the April incidents, NBC indicated it would no longer pull the plug for similar reasons.
Skelton changed sponsors in 1948; Brown & Williamson, owners of Raleigh cigarettes, withdrew due to program production costs. His new sponsor was Procter & Gamble's Tide laundry detergent. The next year he changed networks, going from NBC to CBS, where his radio show aired until May 1953. After his network radio contract was over, he signed a three year contract with Ziv Radio for a syndicated radio program in 1954. His syndicated radio program was offered as a daily show; it included segments of his older network radio programs as well as new material done for the syndication. He was able to use portions of his older radio shows because he owned the rights for rebroadcasting them.
Skelton was unable to work in television until the end of his 1951 MGM movie contract; a renegotiation to extend the pact provided permission after that point. He signed a contract for television on NBC with Procter and Gamble as his sponsor on May 4, 1951, and said he would be performing the same characters on television as he had been doing on radio. The MGM agreement with Skelton for television performances did not allow him to go on the air before September 30, 1951. His television debut, The Red Skelton Show, premiered on that date: at the end of his opening monologue, two men backstage grabbed his ankles from behind the set curtain, hauling him offstage face down.[note 17] A 1943 instrumental hit by David Rose, called "Holiday for Strings", became Skelton's TV theme song. The move to television allowed him to create two non-human characters, seagulls Gertrude and Heathcliffe, which he performed while the pair were flying by tucking his thumbs under his arms to represent wings and shaping his hat to look like a bird's bill. He patterned his meek, henpecked television character of George Appleby after his radio character, J. Newton Numbskull, who had similar characteristics.[note 18] His "Freddie the Freeloader" clown was introduced on the program in 1952, with Skelton copying his father's makeup for the character. He learned how to duplicate his father's makeup and perform his routines through his mother's recollections. A ritual became established at the end of every program, with Skelton's shy boyish wave and words of, "Good night and may God bless."[note 19]
During the 1951–52 season, the program was broadcast from a converted NBC radio studio. The first year of the television show was done live; this led to problems as there was not enough time for costume changes; Skelton was on camera for most of the half-hour, including the delivery of a commercial which was written into one of the show's skits. In early 1952, Skelton had an idea for a television sketch about someone who had been drinking not being able to know which way is up. The script was completed and he had the show's production crew build a set that was perpendicular to the stage, so it would give the illusion that someone was walking on walls. The skit, starring his character Willie Lump-Lump, called for the character's wife to hire a carpenter to re-do the living room in an effort to teach her husband a lesson about his drinking. When Willie wakes up there after a night of drinking, he realizes he is not lying on the floor but on the living room wall. Willie's wife goes about the house normally, but to Willie, she appears to be walking on a wall. Within an hour after the broadcast, the NBC switchboard had received 350 calls regarding the show, and Skelton had received more than 2,500 letters about the skit within a week of its airing.
Skelton was delivering an intense performance live each week, and the strain showed in physical illness. In 1952, he was drinking heavily from the constant pain of a diaphragmatic hernia and marital problems; he thought about divorcing Georgia.[note 20] NBC agreed to film his shows in the 1952–53 season at Eagle Lion Studios, next to the Sam Goldwyn Studio, on Santa Monica Boulevard in Hollywood. Later the show was moved to the new NBC television studios in Burbank. Procter & Gamble was unhappy with the filming of the television show, and insisted that Skelton return to live broadcasts. The situation caused him to think about leaving television at that point. Declining ratings prompted sponsor Procter & Gamble to cancel his show in the spring of 1953, with Skelton announcing that any future television shows of his would be variety shows, where he would not have the almost constant burden of performing. Beginning with the 1953–54 season, he switched to CBS, where he remained until 1970. For the initial move to CBS, he had no sponsor. The network gambled by covering all expenses for the program on a sustaining basis; his first CBS sponsor was Geritol. He curtailed his drinking and his ratings at CBS began to improve, especially after he began appearing on Tuesday nights for co-sponsors Johnson's Wax and Pet Milk Company.
By 1955, Skelton was broadcasting some of his weekly programs in color, which was the case approximately 100 times between 1955 and 1960. He tried to encourage CBS to do other shows in color at the facility, but CBS mostly avoided color broadcasting after the network's television set manufacturing division was discontinued in 1951.[note 21] By 1959, Skelton was the only comedian with a weekly variety television show; others who remained on the air, such as Danny Thomas, were performing their routines as part of situation comedy programs. He performed a preview show for a studio audience on Mondays, using their reactions to determine which skits needed to be edited for the Tuesday program. For the Tuesday afternoon run-through prior to the actual show, he ignored the script for the most part, ad-libbing through it at will. The run-through was well attended by CBS Television City employees Sometimes during sketches, both live telecasts and taped programs, Skelton would break up or cause his guest stars to laugh.[note 22]
Richard's illness and death
At the height of Skelton's popularity, his nine year old son Richard was diagnosed with leukemia and was given a year to live. While the network told him to take as much time off as necessary, Skelton felt that until he went back to his television show, he would be unable to be at ease and make his son's life a happy one. He returned to his television show on January 15, 1957, with guest star Mickey Rooney helping to lift his spirits. In happier times, he frequently mentioned his children on his program, but found it extremely difficult to do so after Richard became ill; Skelton resumed this practice only after his son asked him to. After his son's diagnosis, Skelton took his family on an extended trip, so Richard could see as much of the world as possible. When they arrived in London, there were press accusations that the trip was more about publicity than his seriously ill son. There were also newspaper reports about Richard's illness being fatal, which were seen by the boy. The family returned to the United States after the British press stories.
The Skelton family received support from CBS management and from the public following the announcement of Richard's illness. Skelton himself was beset by a serious illness and by a household accident which kept him off the air. He suffered a life-threatening asthma attack on December 30, 1957, and was taken to St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica, where his doctors said that "if there were ten steps to death, Red Skelton had taken nine of them by the time he had arrived".[note 23] Initially hospitalized for an indeterminate length of time, Skelton later said he was working on some notes for television and the next thing he remembered, he was in a hospital bed; he did not know how serious his illness was until he read about it himself in the newspapers. His illness and recovery kept him off the air for a full month; Skelton returned to his television show on January 28, 1958.
Richard died on May 10, 1958; it was ten days before the child's tenth birthday. Skelton was scheduled to do his weekly television show on the day his son was buried. Though there were recordings of some older programs available which the network could have run, he asked that guest performers be used instead. Calling themselves The Friends of Red Skelton, his friends in the television, film and music industries organized The Friends Of Red Skelton Variety Show, which they performed to replace The Red Skelton Show for that week; by May 27, 1958, Skelton had returned to his program. The death of Richard profoundly affected the family; while Richard's model trains were in a storeroom of the Bel Air mansion by 1961, Skelton refused to have them dismantled. In 1962, the Skelton family moved to Palm Springs while Skelton used the Bel Air home only on the two days when he was in Los Angeles for his television show taping.
The Red Skelton Hour
In early 1960, Skelton purchased the old Charlie Chaplin Studios and updated it for videotape recording. With a recently purchased three-truck mobile color television unit, he recorded a number of his series episodes and specials in color. Even with his color facilities, CBS discontinued color broadcasts on a regular basis and Skelton shortly thereafter sold the studio to CBS and the mobile unit to local station, KTLA.[note 24] Prior to this, he had been filming at Desilu Productions. Skelton then moved back to the network's Television City facilities, where he resumed taping his programs until he left the network. In the fall of 1962, CBS expanded his program to a full hour, retitling it The Red Skelton Hour. While a staple of his radio programs, he did not perform his "Junior" character on television until 1962, after extending the length of his program.
Skelton frequently employed the art of pantomime for his characters: a segment of his weekly program was called the "Silent Spot" and the sketch was performed in pantomime. He attributed his use of pantomime and few props to his early days when he did not want to have a lot of luggage, so he crafted routines that used few of them. He explained that the right hat was the key to his being able to get into character.
Skelton's season premiere for the 1960–61 television season was a tribute to the United Nations. Six hundred people from the organization, including diplomats, were invited to be part of the audience for the show. The program was entirely done in pantomime, as UN representatives from 39 nations were in the studio audience. One of the sketches he performed for the UN was that of the old man watching the parade. The sketch had its origins in a question Skelton's son, Richard, asked his father about what happens when people die. He told his son, "They join a parade and start marching." In 1965, Skelton did another show in complete pantomime. This time he was joined by Marcel Marceau; the two artists alternated performances for the hour-long program, sharing the stage to perform Pinocchio. The only person who spoke during the hour was Maurice Chevalier, who served as the show's narrator.
In 1969, Skelton performed a self-written monologue about the Pledge of Allegiance. In the speech, he commented on the meaning of each phrase of the pledge. He credited one of his Vincennes grammar school teachers, Mr. Laswell, with the original speech. The teacher had grown tired of hearing his students monotonously recite the pledge each morning; he then demonstrated to them how it should be recited, along with comments about the meaning behind each phrase. CBS received 200,000 requests for copies; the company subsequently released the monologue as a single on Columbia Records. A year later, he performed the monologue for President Richard Nixon at the first "Evening at the White House", a series of entertainment events honoring the recently inaugurated president.
Off the air and bitterness (1970–83)
As the 1970s began, the networks began a major campaign to discontinue long-running shows that they considered stale or lacking youth appeal. Despite Skelton's continued strong ratings, CBS saw his show as fitting into this category and canceled the program along with other comedy and variety shows hosted by veterans such as Jackie Gleason and Ed Sullivan.[note 25] Performing in Las Vegas when he got the news of his CBS cancellation, Skelton said, "My heart has been broken." His program had been one of the top ten highest rated shows for 17 of the 20 years he was on television. Skelton moved to NBC in 1970 in a half-hour Monday night version of his former show. Its cancellation after one season ended his television career, and he returned to live performances. In an effort to prove the networks wrong, he gave many of these at colleges and proved popular with the audience. Skelton was bitter about CBS's cancellation for many years afterwards. Believing the demographic and salary issues to be irrelevant, he accused CBS of bowing to the anti-establishment, anti-war faction at the height of the Vietnam War, saying his conservative political and social views caused the network to turn against him.[note 26] He had invited prominent Republicans, including Vice President Spiro Agnew and Senate Republican Leader Everett Dirksen, to appear on his program.[note 27][note 28]
There were personal as well as professional changes taking place in Skelton's life at this time. He divorced Georgia in 1971 and married Lothian Toland, daughter of cinematographer Gregg Toland, on October 7, 1973. While he disassociated himself from television soon after his show was canceled, his bitterness had subsided enough for him to appear on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson on July 11, 1975; it was his first television appearance since he no longer had a television program. Johnny Carson, one of his former writers, began his rise to network television prominence by substituting for Skelton after his dress rehearsal injury in 1954.[note 29] Skelton was also a guest on The Merv Griffin Show in October of the same year. Any hopes he may have had to ease back into television through the talk show circuit came to an abrupt halt on May 10, 1976, when Georgia Skelton committed suicide by gunshot on the 18th anniversary of Richard Skelton's death.[note 30] Georgia was 54 and had been in poor health for some time. He put all professional activities on hold for some months as he mourned his former wife's death.
Skelton made plans in 1977 to sell the rights to his old television programs as part of a package which would bring him back to regular television appearances. The package called for him to produce one new television show for every three older episodes; this appears to not have materialized. In 1980, he was taken to court by 13 of his former writers over a story that his will called for the destruction of recordings of all his old television shows upon his death.[note 31] Skelton contended his remarks were made at a time when he was very unhappy with the television industry and were taken out of context. He said at the time, "Would you burn the only monument you've built in over 20 years?" As the owner of the television shows, Skelton initially refused to allow them to be syndicated as reruns during his lifetime.[note 32] In 1983, Group W announced that it had come to terms with him for the rights to rebroadcast some of his original television programs from 1966 through 1970; some of his earlier shows were made available after Skelton's death.
Skelton's 70 year career as an entertainer began as a stage performer. He retained a fondness for theaters, and referred to them as "palaces"; he also likened them to his "living room", where he would privately entertain guests. At the end of a performance, he would look at the empty stage where there was now no laughter or applause and tell himself, "Tomorrow I must start again. One hour ago, I was a big man. I was important out there. Now it's empty. It's all gone."
Skelton was invited to play a four week date at the London Palladium in July 1951. While flying to the engagement, Skelton, Georgia and Father Edward J. Carney, were on a plane from Rome with passengers from an assortment of countries that included 11 children. The plane lost the use of two of its four engines and seemed destined to lose the rest, meaning that the plane would crash over Mont Blanc. The priest readied himself to administer last rites. As he did so, he told Skelton, "You take care of your department, Red, and I'll take care of mine." Skelton diverted the attention of the passengers with pantomimes while Father Carney prayed. They ultimately landed at a small airstrip in Lyon, France. He received both an enthusiastic reception and an invitation to return for the Palladium's Christmas show of that year.
Though Skelton had always done live engagements at Nevada hotels and appearances such as state fairs during his television show's hiatus, he focused his time and energy on live performances after he was no longer on the air, performing up to 125 dates a year. He often arrived days early for his engagement and would serve as his own promotion staff, making the rounds of the local shopping malls. Before the show, his audiences received a ballot listing about 100 of his many routines and were asked to tick off their favorites. The venue's ushers would collect the ballots and tally the votes. Skelton's performance on that given day was based on the skits his audience selected. After he learned that his performances were popular with the hearing-impaired because of his heavy use of pantomimes, Skelton hired a sign-language interpreter to translate the non-pantomime portions of his act for all his shows. He continued performing live until 1993, when he celebrated his 80th birthday.
Later years and death
In 1974, Skelton's interest in film work was rekindled with the news that Neil Simon's comedy The Sunshine Boys would become a movie; his last significant film appearance had been in Public Pigeon No. 1, in 1956. He screen tested for the role of Willy Clark with Jack Benny, who had been cast as Al Lewis. Although Simon had planned to cast Jack Albertson, who played Willy on Broadway, in the same role for the film, Skelton's screen test impressed him enough to change his mind. Skelton declined the part, however, reportedly due to an inadequate financial offer, and Benny's final illness forced him to withdraw as well. George Burns and Walter Matthau ultimately starred in the film.[note 33]
In 1981, Skelton made several specials for HBO including Freddie the Freeloader's Christmas Dinner (1981) and the Funny Faces series of specials. He gave a Royal Command Performance for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds in 1984, which was later shown in the U.S. on HBO. A portion of one of his last interviews, conducted by Steven F. Zambo, was broadcast as part of the 2005 PBS special The Pioneers of Primetime.
Skelton died on September 17, 1997 at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California, at the age of 84, after what was described as "a long, undisclosed illness". He was interred in the family's private room in The Great Mausoleum's Sanctuary of Benediction at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, in Glendale, California, where his son, Richard, and former wife, Georgia, are also buried. Skelton was survived by his widow, Lothian Toland Skelton; his daughter, Valentina Marie Skelton Alonso; and granddaughter Sabrina Maureen Alonso.
Art and other interests
Skelton began producing artwork in 1943, but kept his works private for many years. He said he was inspired to try his hand at painting after visiting a large Chicago department store that had various paintings on display. Inquiring as to the price of one which Skelton described as "a bunch of blotches", he was told, "Ten thousand wouldn't buy that one." He told the clerk he was one of the ten thousand who would not buy the painting, instead buying his own art materials. His wife Georgia, a former art student, persuaded him to have his first public showing of his work in 1964 at the Sands hotel in Las Vegas where he was performing at the time. Skelton believed painting was an asset to his comedy work, as it helped him to better visualize the imaginary props used in his pantomime routines.
In addition to his originals, Skelton also sold reproductions and prints through his own mail order business. He made his work available to art galleries by selling them franchises to display and sell his paintings. He once estimated the sale of his lithographs earned him $2.5 million per year.[note 34] Shortly after his death, his art dealer said he believed that Skelton made more money on his paintings than from his television work. At the time of his death, Skelton had produced over 1,000 oil paintings of clowns. When asked why his artwork focused on clowns, he said at first, "I don't know why it's always clowns." He continued after thinking a moment by saying. "No, that's not true—I do know why. I just don't feel like thinking about it ..."[note 35] At the time of Skelton's death, his originals were priced at $80,000 and upward.
Skelton was a prolific writer of both short stories and music. After sleeping only four or five hours a night, he would wake up at 5 AM and begin writing stories, composing music, and painting pictures. He wrote at least one short story a week and had composed over 8,000 songs and symphonies by the time of his death. He wrote commercials for Skoal tobacco and sold many of his compositions to Muzak, a company that specialized in providing background music to stores and other businesses. Skelton was also interested in photography; when attending Hollywood parties, he would take photos and give the film to newspaper reporters waiting outside. He was never without a miniature camera and kept a photographic record of all his paintings. Skelton was also an avid gardener who created his own Japanese and Italian gardens and cultivated bonsai trees at his home in Palm Springs, California.
Fraternity and honors
Skelton was a Freemason, a member of Vincennes Lodge No. 1, in Indiana. He also was a member of both the Scottish and York Rite. He was a recipient of the Gold Medal of the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, for Distinguished Service in the Arts and Sciences. On September 24, 1969, he received the honorary 33rd degree in the Scottish Rite and was a Gourgas Medal recipient in 1995. Skelton became interested in Masonry as a small boy selling newspapers in Vincennes, when a man bought a paper from him with a five dollar bill and told him to keep the change. The young Skelton asked his benefactor why he had given him so much money; the man explained that he was a Mason and Masons are taught to give. Skelton decided to become one also when he was grown. He was also a Shriner in Los Angeles.
Skelton was made an honorary brother of Phi Sigma Kappa at Truman State University. In 1961 he became an honorary brother of the Phi Alpha Tau Fraternity of Emerson College when he was awarded the Joseph E. Connor Award for excellence in the field of communications. He also received an honorary degree from the college at the same ceremony. Skelton received an honorary high school diploma from Vincennes High School. He was also an honorary member of Kappa Kappa Psi National Honorary Band Fraternity; Skelton had composed many marches which were used by more than 10,000 high school and college bands. In 1986, Skelton received an honorary degree from Ball State University.
The Red Skelton Memorial Bridge spans the Wabash River and provides the highway link between Illinois and Indiana on U.S. Route 50, near Skelton's home town of Vincennes. He attended the dedication ceremonies in 1963.
Awards and recognition
In 1952, Skelton received Emmy Awards for Best Comedy Program and Best Comedian. He also received an Emmy nomination in 1957 for his non-comedic performance in Playhouse 90's presentation of "The Big Slide". Skelton and his writers won another Emmy in 1961 for Outstanding Writing Achievement In Comedy. He was named an honorary faculty member of Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Clown College in 1968 and 1969.
Skelton's first major post-television recognition came in 1978, when the Golden Globe Awards named him as the recipient for their Cecil B. DeMille Award, which is given to honor outstanding contributions in entertainment. His excitement was so great upon receiving the award and a standing ovation, that he clutched it tightly enough to break the statuette. When he was presented with the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences' Governor's Award in 1986, Skelton received a standing ovation. "I want to thank you for sitting down," he said when the ovation subsided. "I thought you were pulling a CBS and walking out on me." The honor came 16 years after his television program left the airwaves.
Skelton received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Screen Actors Guild in 1987, and in 1988, he was inducted into the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences' Television Hall of Fame. He was one of the International Clown Hall of Fame's first inductees in 1989. Skelton and Katharine Hepburn were honored with lifetime achievement awards by the American Comedy Awards in the same year. He was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame in 1994. Skelton also has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his radio and television work.
Legacy and tributes
Skelton preferred to be described as a clown rather than a comic: "A comedian goes out and hits people right on. A clown uses pathos. He can be funny, then turn right around and reach people and touch them with what life is like." "I just want to be known as a clown," he said, "because to me that's the height of my profession. It means you can do everything—sing, dance and above all, make people laugh." His purpose in life, he believed, was to make people laugh.
In Groucho and Me, Groucho Marx called Skelton "the most unacclaimed clown in show business", and "the logical successor to [Charlie] Chaplin", largely because of his ability to play a multitude of characters with minimal use of dialogue and props. "With one prop, a soft battered hat," Groucho wrote, describing a performance he had witnessed, "he successfully converted himself into an idiot boy, a peevish old lady, a teetering-tottering drunk, an overstuffed clubwoman, a tramp, and any other character that seemed to suit his fancy. No grotesque make-up, no funny clothes, just Red." He added that Skelton also "plays a dramatic scene about as effectively as any of the dramatic actors." In late 1965 ventriloquist Edgar Bergen, reminiscing about the entertainment business, singled out Skelton for high praise. "It's all so very different today. The whole business of comedy has changed — from 15 minutes of quality to quantity. We had a lot of very funny people around, from Charley Chase to Charlie Chaplin and Laurel and Hardy. The last one of that breed is Red Skelton."  Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures also praised Skelton, saying, "He's a clown in the old tradition. He doesn't need punch lines. He's got heart."
Skelton and Marcel Marceau shared a long friendship and admiration of each other's work. Marceau appeared on Skelton's CBS television show three times, including one turn as the host in 1961 as Skelton recovered from surgery. He was also a guest on the three Funny Faces specials that Skelton produced for HBO. In a TV Guide interview after Skelton's death, Marceau said, "Red, you are eternal for me and the millions of people you made laugh and cry. May God bless you forever, my great and precious companion. I will never forget that silent world we created together." CBS issued the following statement upon his death: "Red's audience had no age limits. He was the consummate family entertainer—a winsome clown, a storyteller without peer, a superb mime, a singer and a dancer."
The Red Skelton Performing Arts Center was dedicated in February 2006 on the campus of Vincennes University, one block from the home in Vincennes where Skelton was born. The building includes an 850-seat theater, classrooms, rehearsal rooms, and dressing rooms. Its grand foyer is a gallery for Skelton's paintings, statues, and film posters. The theater hosts theatrical and musical productions by Vincennes University, as well as special events, convocations and conventions. The adjacent Red Skelton Museum of American Comedy opened on July 18, 2013, on what would have been Skelton's 100th birthday. It houses his personal and professional materials, which he had collected since the age of ten, in accordance with his wishes that they be made available in his hometown for the public's enjoyment. Skelton's widow, Lothian, noted that he expressed no interest in any sort of Hollywood memorial.[note 36] The museum is funded jointly by the Red Skelton Museum Foundation and the Indiana Historical Society. Other Foundation projects include a fund that provides new clothes to Vincennes children from low-income families. The Foundation also purchased Skelton's birthplace and continues to finance its restoration. Restoration continues as well at the historic Vincennes Pantheon Theatre, where Skelton performed during his youth.
The town of Vincennes has held an annual Red Skelton Festival since 2005. A "Parade of a Thousand Clowns", billed as the largest clown parade in the Midwest, is presented, followed by family-oriented activities and live music performances.
- Having Wonderful Time (1938)
- Flight Command (1940)
- The People vs. Dr. Kildare (1941)
- Whistling in the Dark (1941)
- Dr. Kildare's Wedding Day (1941)
- Lady Be Good (1941)
- Ship Ahoy (1942)
- Maisie Gets Her Man (1942)
- Panama Hattie (1942)
- Whistling in Dixie (1942)
- DuBarry Was a Lady (1943)
- Thousands Cheer (1943)
- I Dood It (1943)
- Whistling in Brooklyn (1943)
- Bathing Beauty (1944)
- Ziegfeld Follies (1946)
- The Show-Off (1946)
- Merton of the Movies (1947)
- The Fuller Brush Man (1948)
- A Southern Yankee (1948)
- Neptune's Daughter (1949)
- The Yellow Cab Man (1950)
- Three Little Words (1950)
- Duchess of Idaho (1950)
- The Fuller Brush Girl (1950, cameo)
- Watch the Birdie (1950)
- Excuse My Dust (1951)
- Texas Carnival (1951)
- Lovely to Look At (1952)
- The Clown (1953)
- Half a Hero (1953)
- The Great Diamond Robbery (1954)
- Susan Slept Here (1954, cameo)
- Around the World in 80 Days (1956, cameo)
- Public Pigeon No. 1 (1957)
- Ocean's 11 (1960, cameo)
- Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines (1965)
Box Office Ranking
For a number of years US exhibitors voted Skelton among the most popular stars in the country:
- Red Skelton's Favorite Ghost Stories. 1965. OCLC 3695410.
- A Red Skeleton in Your Closet; Ghost Stories Gay and Grim. 1965. OCLC 1744491.
- Gertrude & Heathcliffe. 1974. OCLC 1129973.
- The Ventriloquist. 1984. OCLC 144598647.
- Old Whitey. 1984. OCLC 144598636.
- The Great Lazarus. 1986.
- Adir, Karin (2001). The Great Clowns of American Television. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1303-4.
- Affron, Charles and Mirella (2009). Best Years: Going to the Movies, 1945–1946. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4845-6.
- The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States. University of California Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0-520-20970-1.
- Balducci, Anthony (2011). The Funny Parts: A History of Film Comedy Routines and Gags. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8893-3.
- Danilov, Victor J. (1997). Hall of Fame Museums: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30000-4.
- Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507678-8.
- Foster, Charles (2003). Once Upon a Time in Paradise: Canadians in the Golden Age of Hollywood. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-55002-464-7.
- Gehring, Wes (2008). Red Skelton: The Mask Behind the Mask. Indiana Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-87195-275-2.
- Heim, Michael (2007). Exploring Indiana Highways: Trip Trivia. Exploring America's Highway. ISBN 978-0-9744358-3-1.
- Hyatt, Wesley (2004). A Critical History of Television's The Red Skelton Show, 1951–1971. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1732-2.
- Knopf, Robert (1999). The Theater and Cinema of Buster Keaton. Princeton University. ISBN 978-0-691-00442-6.
- Langman, Larry; Gold, Paul (2001). Comedy Quotes from the Movies: Over 4,000 Bits of Humorous Dialogue from All Film Genres, Topically Arranged and Indexed. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1110-8.
- Maltin, Leonard; Green, Spencer (2010). Leonard Maltin's Classic Movie Guide: From the Silent Era Through 1965. Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-29577-3.
- Marx, Arthur (1979). Red Skelton: An Unauthorized Biography. E. P. Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-18953-4.
- Marx, Groucho (1959). Groucho And Me. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80666-7.
- Mott, Robert L. (2003). Radio Live! Television Live!: Those Golden Days When Horses Were Coconuts. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1812-1.
- Nachman, Gerald (2000). Raised on Radio. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22303-5.
- Pendergast, Sara and Tom (1999). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. St. James Press. ISBN 978-1-55862-400-9.
- Reid, John Howard (2006). Hollywood Movie Musicals. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4116-9762-1.
- Sterling, Christopher H. (2013). Biographical Dictionary of Radio. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-99376-3.
- Vogel, Michelle (2006). Marjorie Main: The Life and Films of Hollywood's "Ma Kettle". McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-6443-2.
- Skelton's birth certificate lists him as Richard Bernard Eheart. This was the name of his father's stepfather and it appears Joseph Skelton used his stepfather's surname at times. There is also an account of Skelton's using a birth certificate of one of his older brothers as proof he was legally of age.
- Hyatt also refers to the 1980 People magazine story where Skelton says he is in his seventies.
- Skelton also told another version of this actor and young newsboy story, with Raymond Hitchcock as the actor.
- Edna Stillwell had two marriages following her divorce from Skelton, first to director Frank Borzage and then to Leon George Pound.
- Skelton became a well-read man with a fine memory which he began training in his youth.
- Since much of Skelton's success had been in Canada at this point, many reviewers believed he was Canadian, calling him "a Canadian lad".
- Skelton copyrighted the original "Doughnut Dunkers" routine and every possible variation of it.
- The problem with doing the "Doughnut Dunkers" skit was that Skelton had to eat nine doughnuts at every performance. He was performing five times a day and eating 45 doughnuts. He gained almost 35 pounds rapidly and had to shelve the routine for a while until he lost the weight.
- Examples of pre-World War II television programming from WNBT, New York; the station is known as WNBC today.
- Keaton became frustrated because of Skelton's focus on his radio program, while Skelton wanted better film scripts. Gehring quotes Skelton's movies vs radio and television statement while on the set of The Fuller Brush Man as, "Movies are not my friend. Radio and television are." In a 1948 interview, Skelton explained that his MGM salary was $2,000 weekly and that his radio salary was $8,000 per week. The cost of answering his MGM fan mail was billed to Skelton. When Skelton agreed to make appearances approved by MGM, he did not receive the fee for his work; it went to MGM, who continued to pay him the contracted $2,000 per week. Since Skelton's radio program participation was noted in his MGM contract, his radio show salary went to him and not to MGM.
- Director Jack Donahue, who directed Watch the Birdie, commented about Skelton's tendency to ad-lib, "God help us all. If he manages to say it in English, write it down and we'll use it."
- Carl Hopper was a contemporary and a boyhood friend of Skelton. Hopper, who was hearing-impaired, was often ridiculed or shunned because of his hearing problem. As a boy, Skelton made it a point to include Hopper in the activities of his childhood in Vincennes.
- At their 1993 meeting, the former Soviet bomber pilot told Skelton he would have thanked him for the bomber some time ago, but a U.S. diplomat told him that Skelton was dead.
- The couple cared deeply for each other, but for reasons known best to them both, could have a successful professional relationship, but not a marriage. Skelton can be seen in the film Whistling in the Dark dancing with one of his female co-stars with his fingers crossed. In a 1942 interview, he explained the reason for this, saying he only loved Edna and when he did romantic film scenes, he always crossed his fingers to indicate that the screen emotion was not real. After his engagement to actress Muriel Morris ended, Skelton tried to persuade Edna to remarry him; he was not successful.
- Skelton later referred to Georgia as "Little Red". There is evidence that Skelton also referred to Edna Skelton by this nickname. A sketch by Skelton has a plaque reading "Red Skelton sketch of Wife Edna Skelton". The original is at the Red Skelton Museum Foundation in Vincennes, Indiana.
- Fred Allen was censored when he referred to an imaginary NBC vice-president who was "in charge of program ends". He went on to explain to his audience that this vice-president saved these hours, minutes and seconds that radio programs ran over their allotted time until he had two weeks' worth of them and then used the time for a two week vacation.
- The comedic hard knocks took their toll; before Skelton had reached the age of 40, he needed leg braces and a cane for the cartilage that was destroyed in both of his knees.
- After the death of Richard, Skelton performed the George Appleby character wearing his son's eyeglasses.
- Skelton's original sign-off phrase was "God bless". When he came to believe it appeared he was commanding something of God, he added the word "may" to the sign-off. In a 1978 interview, Skelton was asked about his frequent use of the phrase. His answer was, "I say "may God bless" to people because I want them to find the same happiness I've found. After all, God is good.". In 1982, he was being interviewed in Wilmington, North Carolina, and declined a cameraman's request for a posed shot of him waving and saying the phrase. Skelton's explanation was that he felt doing it in this way would make it not genuine. "I don't use it as a gimmick. I mean it from the bottom of my heart."
- Skelton had to be given oxygen to complete one of his live television programs in June 1952; his doctors ordered him to take a rest from all performing after his television show schedule ended later in the month.
- See Color television for a more complete treatment of the CBS color issue.
- One of his former writers called the laughter a "survival technique"; the script was on the floor out of camera range and this was where one looked when a line was forgotten. Skelton also appeared to enjoy his material as much as his audience did. While breaking into laughter during a story in a live performance, Skelton tried to apologize by saying "I know what's coming!"
- Earlier in the day, the Skeltons received some discouraging news about Richard's medical condition.
- Photo of Skelton's color television mobile unit
- See rural purge for more information on this topic.
- Skelton also offered another reason for his CBS show's cancellation: that the network had asked him and Jackie Gleason to shift their family-oriented comedy toward racier scripts, and that both he and Gleason turned them down.
- Dirksen, who had a narrative hit record, Gallant Men, appeared on Skelton's CBS show on April 18, 1967. His Gallant Men had won the 1967 Grammy for Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording.
- Agnew was a special guest and introduced Skelton on the premiere of his NBC Television show on September 14, 1970.
- When Skelton was injured during a rehearsal and admitted to a hospital, the live television program had lost its star two hours before its scheduled air time. Carson was selected to fill in for Skelton and earned the praise of television writers for his impromptu work. This was the beginning of Carson's career as a network television performer.
- In 1966, Georgia Skelton was wounded in a shooting at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas while her husband was performing in the main showroom. Valentina Skelton and her boyfriend heard the gunshot; Georgia was found in the bedroom, surprised and confused about what had happened. Georgia did not feel safe without a gun and the couple brought it to Las Vegas with them. The Clark County Sheriff declared the shooting to be accidental. Gehring refers to Georgia's shooting in Las Vegas as a suicide attempt in an interview with Valentina Skelton.
- The People magazine story goes on to say that Skelton was willing to reconsider his call for the destruction of all recordings of his television show, if an arrangement could be made to distribute them to home video only.
- Skelton used a pseudonym of Victor van Bernard for his television performances and named his television production company Van Bernard Productions.
- Skelton offered another explanation for refusing the Willy Clark role: "I turned down the movie The Sunshine Boys because I refused to call Jack Benny a son of a bitch and to look up under a nurse's dress."
- Though aware of the value of his artwork, Skelton did not view his works from a strictly monetary standpoint. He would often do an impromptu sketch on whatever was at hand—often a restaurant's linen napkin—and present it to a fan he was visiting with.
- Skelton also painted ducks and had completed over 3,000 paintings of them in 1973. When he was not pleased with a painting, he threw it into the trash; Skelton's garbage collector rescued these discarded works and sold them.
- Skelton gave an interview in 1984 where he said he had kept all his personal effects since the age of ten; he also indicated that he would "let someone else go through it".
- "Red Skelton Father of 7 Pound Daughter". The Meriden Daily Journal. May 5, 1947. p. 3. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Adir, p. 202
- "Rites For Skelton Son:Leukemia Victim's Funeral Will Be Held Today". The New York Times. May 12, 1958. p. 50. Retrieved April 1, 2014. (pay-per view)
- "'Cagney and Lacey' Captures Top Awards at 38th Emmys". Los Angeles Times. September 22, 1986. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- "Eight inducted into TV Academy Hall of Fame". Palo Verde Valley Times. January 20, 1989. p. 2. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- "Director Herbert Ross Sweeps Movie Categories". Times Daily. January 27, 1978. p. 8. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Hepburn, Skelton among comedy honorees". The Pittsburgh Press. May 24, 1989. p. C11. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Severo, Richard (September 18, 1997). "Red Skelton, Knockabout Comic and Clown Prince of the Airwaves, Is Dead at 84". The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Lovable Clown Red Skelton Dies". The Deseret News. September 18, 1997. p. A9. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 6
- "Red Skelton, TV and Film's Quintessential Clown, Dies". Los Angeles Times. September 18, 1997. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Glatzer, Hal (April 28, 1980). "Red Skelton Isn't Clowning Around When It Comes to His Paintings-they fetch $40,000 per". People. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Gehring, Wes D., ed. (March 1996). Red Skelton and Clem Kadiddlehopper. Indiana Magazine of History. pp. 46–55. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Miller, Russ (July 19, 2007). "Red Skelton: An American Legend". The Goldendale Sentinel. p. 2. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- Parry, Florence Fisher (September 14, 1946). "I Dare Say!". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 2. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- Gehring, pp. 43–45
- Swanson, Pauline (April 1949). The Skelton Saga. Radio-TV Mirror. pp. 56–60, 93–99. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Wetzsteon, Ross (March 14, 1977). "Red, the Renaissance Goof". The Village Voice. pp. 17, 18. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Pendergast, Vol.1, p. 388
- "Red Skelton just wants to be a clown". Lawrence Journal-World. November 9, 1966. p. 18. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Gehring, p. 8
- "Red Skelton Remembered as Area Performer Years Ago". Observer-Reporter. May 13, 1971. p. D3. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Red Skelton's Wife Seeks Divorce: Continues to Write His Gags". Warsaw Daily Union. December 30, 1942. p. 3. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Bronzini, Tom (November 19, 1982). "Red Skelton's Former Wife, Edna, Dies". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 19, 2011. "Edna Skelton Pound, a comedy writer who wrote some of Red Skelton's best-known comic routines during and after their 12-year marriage, has died." (pay-per-view)
- "Edna Skelton Pound Dies". The Modesto Bee. May 19, 1982.
- "Skelton's Ex-Wife Married to Director". The Pittsburgh Press. November 26, 1945. p. 15. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "California Death Index 1940–1997". FamilySearch.org. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Othman, Frederick C. (August 17, 1941). "If It Weren't For His Wife Edna, He Would Be a Bum-Says Red Skelton". The Telegraph Herald. p. 13. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 7
- Beck, Marilyn (September 21, 1969). "Making Audiences Laugh Is Just One Of His Talents". Ocala Star-Banner. pp. 8, 22. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Franchey, John R. (June 1942). Everything's Funny But Love. Radio-Television Mirror. pp. 8, 9, 46. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Gehring, p. 66
- Jubera, Drew (May 26, 1989). "Skelton always felt like a millionaire". Lakeland Ledger. p. 1C, 7C. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Adir, p. 197
- Shearer, Lloyd, ed. (April 15, 1950). Is He a Big Laugh!. Collier's Weekly. pp. 22–23, 55. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- "Rialto Theatre". The Daily Times. July 6, 1938. p. 5. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Sterling, p. 343
- Hyatt, p. 9
- Heffernan, Harold (August 2, 1941). "It Happened In Hollywood". The Sunday Morning Star. p. 1. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Hyatt, p. 10
- Gehring, p. 191
- Thomas, Bob (October 13, 1953). "Red Skelton, Pleased With Release By MGM; Back on TV Tonight". Reading Eagle. p. 26. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Laugh Getter". Eugene Register-Guard. October 5, 1941. p. 20. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- Cohen, Harold V. (January 8, 1944). "Red Skelton Comes to the Stanley In Another "Whistler"". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 12. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- Gehring, p. 319.
- Foster, p. 23
- Gehring, p. 154.
- Langman and Gold, p. 286
- Gehring, pp. 174–190
- Knopf, p. 34
- Thomas, Bob (July 16, 1948). "Cornel Wildes Plan Separate Careers". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. p. 6. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Adir, pp. 199–201
- Affron, p. 138
- Vogel, p. 33
- "Red Skelton Imprint Ceremony". Chinese Theatres. June 18, 1942. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- MacPherson, Virginia (November 28, 1947). "Skelton Has Dreary Time Confining Comedy to Work". The Windsor Daily Star. p. 21. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- "Pre-WWII television programming from WNBT, New York". Early Television. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Gehring, p. 171
- Thomas, Bob (November 19, 1947). "Skelton Says He'll Give Up Films For Television". The Evening Independent. p. 14. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Gehring, pp. 171–172
- Chambers, Sue (January 3, 1948). "The Sad Little Boy". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 12. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Quigg, Jack (September 20, 1949). "Skelton Says Comedy Needs Action, Not Gab". The Evening Independent. p. 20. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Macpherson, Virginia (June 2, 1950). "Red Skelton Is Going Movies' 'Double Screen' One Better". Spokane Daily Chronicle. p. B3. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Skelton Famous For Added Bits In His Pictures". The Evening Independent. September 22, 1948. p. 6. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Abrams, Mark (April 23, 1992). "Recalling a Golden Age". Reading Eagle. p. B8. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Parsons, Louella O. (December 21, 1947). "Red Skelton Doesn't Plan To Leave Metro-Goldwyn". p. 40. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- Bacon, James (March 16, 1952). "Irrepressible Cutup, Red Skelton Takes TV By Storm". Youngstown Vindicator. p. C21. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Johnson, Erskine (November 3, 1950). "Red Skelton Pleased With Latest Contract". Ottawa Citizen. p. 10. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- Balducci, p. 286
- Reid, p. 46
- Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. April 1990. p. 111. ISSN 0148-7736.
- "List of 194 Post-1948 Films IN MGM Vault". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 13. February 23, 1957. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Maltin, p. 528
- "Climax!". CTVA-Classic TV Archive. September 8, 1955. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- Thomas, Bob (May 15, 1956). "It All Goes In Cycles Red Skelton Explains". Ottawa Citizen. p. 31. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- American Film Institute, p. 1097
- Gehring, pp. 72–77
- "Avalon Time". Radio Echoes. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Thomas, Bob (March 26, 1949). "Red Skelton's Writers Tell How His Gags Are Launched". The Meriden Daily Journal. p. 6. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Hyatt, pp. 9–11
- Goldin, J. David. "The Raleigh Cigarette Program Starring Red Skelton". RadioGold. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Hopes Doolittle Dood It Again!". Movie-Radio Guide. June 1942. p. 3. Retrieved May 22, 2011. (large file) (PDF)
- Hyatt, p. 11
- Adir, p. 199
- Steinhauser, Si (March 5, 1942). "Skelton's Success Due Wife". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 35. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "'Old Acquaintance' Drama Of Feminine Ways". The Montreal Gazette. January 22, 1944. p. 9. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Churvis, Mac (May 30, 1942). "Doolittle Dood It". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 116. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Life on the Newsfronts of the World". Life: 30. June 1, 1942. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Shabad, Theodore (November 7, 1986). "Red Skelton Wins Praise in Soviet Union". Harlan Daily Enterprise. p. 3. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Pilot thanks Red Skelton for warplane". Beaver County Times. May 25, 1993. p. A2. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Is No Recluse". The Mount Airy News. April 17, 1984. p. 11A. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Dunning, p. 570
- "Mrs. Skelton Quits as Red's Wife, Stays on as Red's Agent". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 30, 1942. p. 8. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Comedian Red Skelton Marries Former Model". Lewiston Morning Tribune. March 10, 1945. p. 3. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Leave Arm In Arm". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 12, 1943. p. 12. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Cosby, Vivian (November 13, 1949). "Edna Skelton:Lasting Loyalty". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 4. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Daniel, Jesse (January 16, 1944). "Divorce Can't Part Edna and Red". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 14. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Gehring, pp. 134–135
- "Da Proboscis In Hot Demand". The Spokesman-Review. March 8, 1952. p. 5. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- "Consider Deferment For Film Comedian". The Telegraph-Herald. May 17, 1944. p. 6. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 13
- "Red, Muriel Make Ready for Wedding". Lewiston Morning Tribune. April 8, 1944. p. 5. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Skelton Marriage Cancellation Real Mystery". The Evening Independent. April 11, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton to Join Army May 25". The New York Times. May 13, 1944. Retrieved May 19, 2011. "Red Skelton will be Private Richard Skelton on May 25." (pay per view)
- "Edna and Red Skelton Collection". Indiana Historical Society. p. 9. Retrieved June 1, 2014.(PDF)
- "Red Skelton To Get Wife, Lose Tonsils". Ludington Daily News. March 8, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
- "Red Skelton to Wed Montana Girl". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. February 12, 1945. p. 3. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Faces Busy Time Today". The Evening Independent. March 8, 1945. p. 7. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Richard Freeman Skelton-California Death Index". FamilySearch.org. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Lurlene Tuttle; radio, TV actress". The Day. May 30, 1986. p. B15. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Laughter For Peter. Radio-TV Mirror. May 1952. pp. 41, 84. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- "B&W Hopes That Red Skelton May Be Ex-GI By Fall". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 6. May 5, 1945. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 14
- Hyatt, pp. 14–15
- "Bob Hope and Red Skelton Join Fred Allen as 'Silent Stars'". Reading Eagle. April 22, 1947. p. 14. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- "NBC Also Stills Skelton and Hope on Radio Ribbing". Spokane Daily Chronicle. April 23, 1947. p. 14. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "NBC Drops Ban on Radio Jibes". The Leader-Post. April 24, 1947. p. 4. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton-Radio Hall of Fame". Museum of Broadcast Communications. 1994. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 16
- "To Star in Transcribed Series Packaged By Ziv". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 5. January 16, 1954. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "Re-airing Rights Owned By Skelton". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 2. January 30, 1954. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Signed to Multi-Million Contract". Ellensburg Daily Record. May 4, 1951. p. 10. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Signs Radio, TV Contract". Reading Eagle. May 4, 1951. p. 27. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- "Skelton To Air Live as TVA Waives 60-Day Kine Limit". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 4. June 16, 1951. ISSN 0148-7736. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Rubber Face on TV". Life: 71–75. October 22, 1951. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 15
- Gehring, preface, xvi
- LaSalle, Mick (January 25, 1989). "Replay: Red Skelton at the Circle Star, 1989". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Mott, pp. 163, 164
- Witbeck, Charles (June 2, 1959). "Red Skelton Runs Through". The Miami News. p. 4B. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Alert, Dora (May 1959). The Tragi-Comic World of TV. TV-Radio Mirror. pp. 42, 43, 76, 77. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Hyatt, pp. 3, 29
- Steelman, Ben (November 5, 1982). "America's Clown-Red Skelton Comes to Wilmington". StarNews. p. 1C, 7C. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Red Skelton-Hoosier legend left us laughing". Logansport Pharos-Tribune. September 19, 1997. p. 4. Retrieved August 5, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Harris, David L. (September 30, 1978). "Comedian Red Skelton Still A Charmer". The News and Courier.
- Arthur Marx, p. 163
- Gehring, p. 231
- "Red Skelton Show live on NBC-TV". NBC Television. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Helter Skelton. Collier's. March 29, 1952. pp. 26–27. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Adir, pp. 208, 210
- "Red Skelton Will Undergo Hernia Operation". Lewiston Evening Journal. December 12, 1952. p. 19. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Ordered By Doctors to Take Rest". Reading Eagle. June 10, 1952. p. 21. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Skelton In Hospital". The Calgary Herald. March 4, 1952. p. 3. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Arthur Marx, p. 178
- Thomas, Bob (October 22, 1952). "Red Skelton May Quit TV If His Sponsor Bars Films". Reading Eagle. p. 22. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Skelton, P & G Stew Boiling". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc): 1. November 22, 1952. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Craig Resigns as B&B Veepee For Radio-TV/Skelton Plans Variety Format". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc): 5. May 30, 1953. ISSN 0148-7736. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Arthur Marx, p. 194
- "Skelton To get 8:30 Tues. Slot". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 3. September 13, 1953. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "CBS-TV May Boost Skelton Show To Hour in All-Out Tuesday Fight". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc): 2. May 15, 1954. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 46
- "Color Programs Every Day On Two Television Networks". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 30. September 22, 1956. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "CBS Orders Suspension Of All TV Color Plans". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 5. October 27, 1951. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Thomas, Bob (October 9, 1959). "Red Skelton Keeps Busy". Times Daily. p. 5. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Lowry, Cynthia (August 21, 1962). "Red Skelton: Most Durable of TV Comics". The Free-Lance Star. p. 2. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Fantazia, Joan (April 30, 1998). "Watching Red Skelton Means You'll Never Laugh Alone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Nachman, pp. 39, 40
- Kloss, Gerald (February 1, 1985). "Old-pro Skelton is laugh-perfect". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 8. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Sad Skelton Stays At Home". Middlesboro Daily News. January 5, 1957. p. 2. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- "Medics Say Son Of Red Skelton May Live A Year". Star-News. January 4, 1957. p. 2. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Oppenheimer, Peer J. (August 7, 1957). "No Time For Tears". Eugene Register-Guard. p. 10D, 11D. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Skelton Mugged For Camera But Real Drama Was Backstage". Beaver Valley Times. January 16, 1957. p. 1. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 63
- "Skeltons Hope Victims of Leukemia Will Benefit From Son's Fatal Illness". The Knickerbocker News. May 12, 1958. p. 6A. Retrieved April 1, 2014.(PDF)
- "Red Skelton's Son Doesn't Go Along With Talk of Doom". St. Joseph News-Press. August 1, 1957. p. 5. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Cuts Short World Tour, Hurt and 'Insulted' by British Press". St. Petersburg Times. August 5, 1957. p. 1. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Defends Trip". Middlesboro Daily News. August 3, 1957. p. 1. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Improves After Attack". The Deseret News. December 31, 1957. pp. 1–2. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Bacon, James (January 1, 1958). "Red Skelton, Upset Over Son's Illness, Almost Suffocates". Times Daily. p. 10. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Jokes About His Illness". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. January 9, 1958. p. 19. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Indefinite Hospital Stay Due For Red Skelton". The Bulletin. January 2, 1958. p. 9. Retrieved May 19, 1958.
- "Red Skelton Itching to Work Soon". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. January 9, 1958. p. 10. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Practices for Return to TV". The Milwaukee Journal. January 27, 1958. p. 2. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Bacon, James (May 12, 1958). "Red Skelton's Son Dies Thinking of Mother". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 1. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Skelton Family Finds Solace In Son's Battle With Leukemia". Ocala Star-Banner. May 12, 1958. p. 1. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "Skelton off air tonight for son's rites". Ellensburg Daily Record. May 13, 1958. p. 3. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- "The Red Skelton Show/Friends of Red Skelton Variety Show". CTVA-Classic TV Archive. May 13, 1958. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Lockhart, Lloyd (December 11, 1960). "Red Skelton, A Complicated Clown, Works Hard To Make People Laugh". Toledo Blade. p. 1. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "The Invincible Red". Life: 109–115. April 21, 1961. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Gehring, p. 271
- "Red Skelton's official work week lasts just two days". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 26, 1965. p. 13. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Hopper, Hedda (March 1, 1964). "One Classic Clown Befriends Another". The News and Courier.
- Adir, p. 215
- "Chaplin Studios Sold To Skelton". The Victoria Advocate. April 20, 1960. p. 6. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- Humphrey, Hal (July 14, 1962). "Red Will Outlast Amateur Analysts". Toledo Blade. p. 1. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- RCA Color TV goes on location. Sponsor. March 13, 1961. p. 28. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Trade ad for Desilu Productions". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 15. October 6, 1956. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Arthur Marx, pp. 243–252
- "Truly Enjoyable". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. November 19, 1962. p. 23. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Red Skelton". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Huisking, Charlie (January 8, 1978). "Red Skelton Gets Warm Welcome During Visit". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 2B. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Gehring, pp. 247–248
- Agnew, Bruce (September 28, 1960). "Red Skelton Laughs Way Thru Iron Curtain at Opening Show". Prescott Evening Courier. p. 4. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Uses Pantomime To Entertain U.N. Delegates". Beaver County Times. September 28, 1960. p. 3. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Lowry, Cynthia (February 3, 1965). "Red Skelton in Special TV Treat". The Evening News. p. 6b. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "'Concert in Pantomime' Tonight". The Evening Independent. February 2, 1965. p. 3B. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Hyatt, pp. 112–113
- Hyatt, p. 115
- Gehring, preface, xv
- DuBrow, Rick (February 20, 1970). "TV in Review". The News-Dispatch. p. 6. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Christon, Lawrence (September 22, 1986). "TV Academy Honors The Genius Of Red Skelton". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Hyatt, p. 139
- "Red Skelton Kicked Off His Career With Circus". Beaver County Times. July 30, 1974. p. B5. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- O'Brien, Jim (April 14, 1977). "Red Skelton Returns To Regular Television". The Evening Independent. p. 10B. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "The Red Skelton Hour". CTVA-Classic TV Archive. April 18, 1967. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Bronson, Fred (March 4, 2000). "Trivia". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 16. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- "Grammy Award Winners". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. 1967. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- "The Red Skelton Show". CVTA-Classic TV Archive. September 14, 1970. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Files For Divorce". The Press-Courier. November 12, 1971. p. 8. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Is Married In 'Double-Ring' Rite". Toledo Blade. October 9, 1972. p. 2. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Married To Photographer". Schenectady Gazette. October 8, 1973. p. 13. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Hyatt, p. 144
- "Skelton Butts Scenery, Sprains Neck". Rome News-Tribune. August 18, 1954. p. 12. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "Johnny Carson-Professional Cutup". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. July 4, 1965. p. 23. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "Red Skelton's ex-wife dead". The Telegraph-Herald. May 12, 1976. p. 24. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton's Wife Hurt". St. Petersburg Times. July 20, 1966. p. 13A. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Red Skelton's Wife Seriously Wounded". Sarasota Journal. July 20, 1966. p. 20. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Gehring, pp. 300–301
- "Georgia Skelton obituary". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. May 12, 1976. p. 7B. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Skelton's ex-wife is suicide". The Daily Sentinel. May 11, 1976. p. 2. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Writers Suing Red Skelton Over Tapes". Ocala Star-Banner. July 11, 1980. p. 6A. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Red Skelton to Preserve Old TV Shows". Eugene Register-Guard. September 5, 1980. p. 6A. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Gardner, Marilyn and Hy (March 13, 1983). "Red Skelton To Return via Reruns". The Victoria Advocate. p. 16. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Clowns Turn Out For Red Skelton Museum". The Victoria Advocate. June 11, 2006. p. C. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Macy, Robert (July 18, 1987). "Red Skelton Will Keep His Comedy Routine Clean". Gainesville Sun. p. 11A. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Bark, Ed (January 31, 1984). "Red Skelton Doesn't Care For Blue". The Spokesman-Review. p. A1. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Hopper, Hedda (January 21, 1951). "Dane Clark Heading For England Again For Another Picture". Toledo Blade. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "Skelton Performs As Plane Engines Quit Over Alps". Lodi News-Sentinel. June 29, 1961. p. 5. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Gehring, p. 226
- Arnold, Maxine (May 1957). Command Performance. TV-Radio Mirror. pp. 10–12. Retrieved February 12, 2012. (PDF)
- Graham, Sheilah (September 4, 1951). "Skelton Going Abroad Again". The Spokesman-Review. p. 5. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Reeher, Ellen Holt (September 4, 1987). "Owensboro interpreter for hearing impaired working with Red Skelton". Daily News. p. 5A. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Hyatt, p. 156
- "Skelton Rejects Role He Craved". The Miami News. June 12, 1974. p. 5B. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Haber, Joyce (May 22, 1974). "Skelton, Benny Set For Film "Sunshine Boys"". Sarasota Journal. p. 6B. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Haber, Joyce (August 23, 1974). "Skelton Says 'Sunshine Boys' Pay Insufficient". Sarasota Journal. p. 5B. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Thomas, Bob (April 13, 1984). "Red Skelton keeps 'em laughing". The Telegraph. p. 26. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Beck, Marilyn (January 7, 1975). "Hollywood Closeup". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 5. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Seven Rolls Royces Remain in Driveway and Skelton's Happy". Eugene Register-Guard. March 1, 1977. p. 9C. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Make 'Em Laugh". Schenectady Gazette. December 12, 1981. p. 12. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Looking At Pay TV". The Milwaukee Journal. August 16, 1981. p. 9. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Back On TV Next Month". Ottawa Citizen. January 25, 1961. p. 40. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Is Honored". Schenectady Gazette. March 24, 1984. p. 2. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Thomas, Bob (April 15, 1984). "Skelton replays old comedy skits for royal crowd". Lakeland ledger. p. 46. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Pierce, Scott D. (July 16, 2005). "PBS will showcase 'Pioneers of Primetime'". The Deseret News. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Horn, John (September 18, 1997). "Comedian, actor Red Skelton dies at age 84". Daily News Bowling Green, Kentucky. p. 6B. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- Seff, Marsha Kay (April 30, 1978). "Cemeteries Provide Recollections From Past". Toledo Blade. p. 4. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Bacon, James (May 14, 1958). "Torrents Of Tears Well In Red's Twinkling Eyes". St. Petersburg Times. p. 15A. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Gehring, pp. 280–282
- Gavin, Mike (June 21, 1964). "Red Skelton's Paintings Exhibited At Las Vegas". Park City Daily News. p. 14. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Castro, Peter. "Good Night and God Bless". People. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Wilson, Earl (June 30, 1973). "No Wisequacks! Skelton Paints Ducks". The Milwaukee Sentinel. p. 23. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "Red Skelton, Beloved Clown, Dies At 84". Eugene Register-Guard. September 18, 1997. p. 4A. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- "Red Skelton complex but happy". The Leader-Post. April 27, 1967. p. 6. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Red Skelton Debunks Impression All Clowns Just Like a Pagliacci". Reading Eagle. November 11, 1962. p. 57. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Hopper, Hedda (March 19, 1964). "Stars In Exodus From Hollywood". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 2B. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Thomas, Bob (March 9, 1965). "Red Skelton Insulates Self Against Misfortune". The Free Lance-Star. p. 2. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Red Skelton". Ararat Shrine Temple. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Red Skelton wins top Scottish Rite honor". The Northern Light. 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Sawyer, Tommy E. (Fall 1998). "An Afternoon With Red Skelton". The Texas Mason. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Famous Phi Sigs". Phi Sigma Kappa at Purdue University. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- "College Honors Comic With Honorary Degree". The Windsor Star. November 6, 1961. p. 20. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Triple Honors for Red Skelton". Warsaw Times. November 8, 1961. p. 5. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Prominent Members of Kappa Kappa Psi Fraternity". Kappa Kappa Psi fraternity. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Red is honored". The Nevada Daily Mail. September 19, 1986. p. 15. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Wilson, Earl (September 12, 1963). "Earl Wilson". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 11. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Skelton Honored at Emmys, Recalls Pain of Cancellation". The Dispatch. September 22, 1986. p. 18. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Emmy Awards Database-Red Skelton". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- "Red Skelton for 'The Big Slide', Playhouse 90". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. 1957. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "Clown College Again Honors Red Skelton". St. Petersburg Times. October 24, 1969. p. 4B. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Skelton will receive highest academy honor". The Deseret News. July 25, 1986. p. A3. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "People-Red Skelton". Gettysburg Times. December 3, 1987. p. 7A. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- "Television Hall of Fame Archives". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- Danilov, p. 169
- Heim, p. 200
- "Performance by Red Skelton to aid Circus World Museum". The Milwaukee Journal. May 2, 1989. p. 5B. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- "Red Skelton-Hollywood Walk of Fame". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Groucho Marx, pp. 136–137.
- "You Can Go Back to Allen's Alley Sunday Night". Utica Observer-Dispatch. November 12, 1965. p. 11. Retrieved October 30, 2013. (PDF)
- Benbow, Charles (March 16, 1982). "Red Skelton, America's consummate clown, is always in character". St. Petersburg Times. p. 1D. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Hyatt, p. 157
- "Red Skelton Performing Arts Center". Vincennes University. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Town Honors Red Skelton With Theater". Los Angeles Times. June 11, 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Foundation". Red Skelton Foundation. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Grand Opening of the Red Skelton Museum of American Comedy". official Red Skelton website. July 18, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Performing Arts Center". Vincennes University. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- "Zany comedy of a classic clown still brings laughter". Daily News Bowling Green, Kentucky. April 12, 1984. p. 15C. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Museum Foundation, Indiana Historical Society Form Partnership". Indiana Historical Society. September 9, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Shane, Katie (November 22, 2010). "Red Skelton Museum Gets One Million Dollar Donation". My Wabash Valley. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Hitchcock, Allie (July 16, 2012). "Lilly Endowment will aid Vincennes University in completing Red Skelton museum". Evansville Courier and Press. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Birthplace". Historic Vincennes-Knox County. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Pantheon Theatre". Pantheon Theatre. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Tribute Festival". Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Red Skelton Tribute Artist Brian Hoffman Attending Fifth Annual Red Skelton Festival, Vincennes Ind". release-news.com. 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Bing Crosby America's Screen Favourite.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 24 March 1945. p. 8 Supplement: The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Filmdom Ranks Its Money-Spinning Stars Best At Box-Office.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 30 March 1950. p. 12. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "BOX OFFICE DRAW.". Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954) (Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia). 29 December 1952. p. 3. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Skelton, Red (1986). "The Great Lazarus". Skelton Publications. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Red Skelton.|
- Red Skelton at the Internet Movie Database
- Red Skelton official site
- Red Skelton biography at Red-Skelton
- Red-Eo-Tape (Red Tape) Color Television
- List of Red Skelton TV Episodes 1951–1971
- Literature on Red Skelton