Solar power in Denmark

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Solar panels on Hjelm island
Solar radiation map of Denmark

Solar power in Denmark contributes to a goal to use 100% renewable energy by 2050.[1] The goal of 200 MW of photovoltaics by 2020 was reached eight years early, in 2012, and 36 MW is being installed each month. A total of 3,400 MW is expected to be installed by 2030.[2] Many solar-thermal district heating plants exist and are planned in Denmark.[3]

A large solar-thermal district heating plant on the island of Aeroe provides a third of Marstal's energy,[4] and is being expanded. The plant uses seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) in the form of a large lined pit that is filled with gravel and water, and insulated on top. This enables solar heat collected primarily in summer to be used year-round.[5][6] Similarly ice has historically been stored for summer use in many countries.[7][8]

In Braedstrup, the community's solar district heating system stores heat in a borehole STES (BTES) facility that uses 19,000 cubic metres of underground strata as a heat battery. It can hold 500 mwh of heat at a temperature of 65 oC. Two water tanks provide additional heat storage. When extracting heat, a 1.5 MW heat pump boosts the temperature to 80 oC, for circulation in the district heating loop. The present system is the first expansion of an original smaller system, and now provides 20% of the community's heat on an annual basis, from a solar collector area of 10,600 square metres. A second expansion is planned, to provide 50% of the heat demand from a total solar collector area of 50,000 square metres and using an enlarged BTES store. The remainder of the demand is provided by electric and gas-fired boilers.[9]

The Braedstrup system is designed to integrate with the national electric grid. The heat pump and electric boiler are used when there is surplus wind power available on the grid, contributing to the stability of the system and maximal use of the wind power. The natural gas boiler is used when this renewable electricity is not available.[9]

Solar heat plants are widespread in Denmark.[10]

Photovoltaic growth[edit]

In 2012, new photovoltaic installations had surged to unprecedented levels in Denmark. This twentyfold increase in photovoltaic capacity in only one year urged the Danish government to cut back its net-metering scheme. In December 2012, Danish parliament reduced the compensation period of net-metering from a yearly to an hourly bases and increased in turn the granted feed-in tariffs. This change in policy intended to reduced the overall attractiveness of further PV deployment while keeping up some incentives for small developments. It also reduced the loss of tax revenues for the government by shifting the costs directly to the electricity consumers.[11]

In 2013 PV deployment remained strong with 216 MW of new installation, despite the fact that it was 32 percent less than in the previous record year.

Cumulated PV capacity in megawatt peak (MWp) in Denmark since 1992
100
200
300
400
500
600
1992
1996
2000
2004
2008
2012
 
Year Total in MWp Installed in MWp Δ% References
1996 <1 0.1 100%
1997 <1 0.2 100%
1998 <1 0.1 25%
1999 1 0.6 120%
2000 >1 0.4 36%
2001 >1 0 0%
2002 >1 0.1 7%
2003 >1 0.3 19%
2004 2 0.4 21%
2005 >2 0.4 17%
2006 >2 0.2 7%
2007 3 0.2 7%
2008 >3 0.19 6% [12]
2009 <5 1.3 39% [13]
2010 7 2.5 54% [14]
2011 16 9 130% [15][16]
2012 332 316 2075% [16]
2013 548 216 65% [16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Are Denmark's renewable energy goals wishful thinking?
  2. ^ Denmark reaches 2020 goal
  3. ^ Slides 10-11 in: Holm L. (2011). Long Therm Experience with Solar District Heating (Marstal). International SDH Workshop, Ferrara, IT, 29–30 September 2011.
  4. ^ Aeroe - A historical museum island with the worlds largest solar panel plant
  5. ^ SunStor-4 Project, Marstal, Denmark. The solar district heating system, which has an interseasonal pit storage, is being expanded.
  6. ^ Holm L. (2011). Long Therm Experience with Solar District Heating (Marstal). International SDH Workshop, Ferrara, IT, 29–30 September 2011.
  7. ^ Ice Harvesting
  8. ^ Are ice blocks better than air conditioning?
  9. ^ a b Solar District Heating (SDH). 2012. Braedstrup Solar Park in Denmark Is Now a Reality! Newsletter. 25 Oct. 2012. SDH is a European Union-wide program.
  10. ^ Holm (2012), slides 10 & 11. Long Therm Experience With Solar District Heating (presentation).
  11. ^ Kitzing, Lena (20 June 2013). "Can the Danish government agree on how to handle solar power?". http://blogs.exeter.ac.uk/. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  12. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2008 and 2009" (PDF). http://www.energies-renouvelables.org. p. 4. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  13. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2009 and 2010" (PDF). http://www.energies-renouvelables.org. p. 4. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  14. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2010 and 2011" (PDF). http://www.energies-renouvelables.org. p. 6. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  15. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2011 and 2012" (PDF). http://www.energies-renouvelables.org. p. 7. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). www.epia.org. EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. p. 24. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 

External links[edit]