||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (July 2014)|
|City of regional significance|
|• Total||105.8 km2 (40.8 sq mi)|
Torez (Ukrainian: Торез; before 1964: Chistyakovo, Russian: Чистяково, Chystyakove, Ukrainian: Чистякове) is a city of oblast significance in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. Most of the city's residents work in the mining industry, although the proportion employed in mining is declining. In 2012 the city had 81,761 residents, down from a peak of about 120,000 in 1970. Population: 57,998 (2013 population estimate).
The original settlement was established in 1778 at the confluence of the Sevostyanivka and Orlova Rivers (of Mius catchment) by runaway serfs from provinces of southern Russia and Ukraine. By 1800 it had 225 residents and was called Sloboda Alekseevka after a son of Lieutenant-General S. Leonov, the founder and landowner.
In the 1860s it became known as Chystyakove, a coal-mining hub, named after the owner of a local manor, a Taganrog merchant named Chistyakov. In 1875 there were two mining companies started: 1) Chistyakovs'ke, operating two coal mines ("Slanted" and "Gallery") and 2) Oleksiivs'ke (renamed "Nadiya" in 1907). In 1909 the Chistyakove mines produced 4.7 million pounds of coal, and in 1916, 76.8 million pounds.
In 1924 the Chistyakove mining agglomeration had 142 settlements, with 44,679 residents. In 1932 the settlements became a town, and in 1933 the town's 10 coal mines quarry were incorporated into the "Chistyakovugol" industrial trust.
In the 1940's the town had 3 administrative districts (now defunct):
- Chervona Zirka (Red Star)
- Pivdenna Grupa (Southern Group)
- Chistyakove Station (railway)
During World War II, Torez — known as Chistyakovo — was occupied by the German Army from October 31, 1941 to September 2, 1943. In 1964 the town was renamed Torez in honour of the late Maurice Thorez, the longtime leader of the French Communist Party, who was also a coal miner.
Today Torez is a major center of the coal industry in Ukraine. Its population is close to 70,000, with an average density of 822 persons per square kilometer.
Torez has a well-developed transportation system of internal and external communications. There are 31 public transport routes served by buses and taxis, and strong transport links with the cities of Snizhne and Shakhtarsk. The highway Luhansk - Donetsk runs through the centre of the city (length of 9 km in the city). From the bus station (vulytsia Popovycha) buses run to Donetsk, Kharkiv and other major cities of the eastern regions of Ukraine.
Railways are served by three stations:
- Torez railway station (at vulytsia Vokzalna)
- Rozsypne railway station (town of Rozsypne)
- Pelahiyivka railway station (town of Pelahiyivka)
Railways are also served by two stations through which electric commuter routes pass:
- Dronove railway station (town of Pelahiyivka)
- Voskresenska railway station (Central Village, Torez)
- 33 km railway halt
The major company of the city is the State Company "Torez Anthracite" which specializes in mining of coal. The company controls number of productions associations (primarily mines): "Progress Mine", "Lutugin Mine Administration", "Volhynian Mine Administration", "Central Enriching Factory "Torezka", Maintenance Factory
Other companies include, but not limited to:
- Torez Electrical Factory
- Mine "Terra" (Vuhleresurs Company)
- Torez factory of cladded hard alloys
- Torez Penal Colony No.28 (State Penal Department)
- Torez Foodtasting Factory
Areas of Torez
- Center (streets: Pionerska, Nikolaeva, Engels, Syzrantsev, 50 years of the USSR, Gagarin Ave and Boulevard Illich)
- Neighbourhoods number 1, 2, 3, 4 (Engels street)
- Neighbourhood "30th Anniversary of Victory" (urban village Pelahiyivka)
- Neighbourhood "G" (urban village Pelahiyivka)
- Chervona Zirka - Red Star (urban village Pelahiyivka)
- Southern Group (streets: Lenin, Kirov, wide Shanghai, Central Village, village mines no. 25-27)
- Lutuhine (sel. mine them. Lutuguino, Zavodska, pp. Konovalivka with. Krups'ka, HABstroy st. Profspilkova)
- Railway (west part of town, the railway station, pp. mine number 9)
- urban village Rozsypne
- P. Pyatykhatky
(Ukrainian: Cелище центральне Conversation - «TSePe») - the historic part of Torez, located in its south-east. One of the first centralized entities in Chistyakova. By 1932 (when Torez received city status) central role of infrastructure carried out village center Chistyakova and surrounding mining towns.
Today the central village completely connects with the city center and other areas in Torez. In the central village there are the Shodni acting school, and two kindergartens.
Shanghai is a small residential area in the south-east of Torez built in 1946 by Hungarian prisoners from World War II. The area consisted of seven-story apartment buildings. Shanghai streets include Kirova, Mins'ka, Fadeeva and Shyroka. From the centre of Torez and connected streets Lenina and Robocha.
In recent years, Shanghai has also referred to the housing estates in the neighbourhood (i.e., the areas of private buildings along the streets Shyroka, Smolensk, Novocherkassk, Minsk, Kirov.)
- "Чисельність наявного населення України" (in Ukrainian). State Service of Statistics. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
Media related to Torez at Wikimedia Commons