Aleksandr Dugin

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Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin
Дугин. А.Л.jpg
Born (1962-01-07) 7 January 1962 (age 52)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Era Contemporary
Region Russia
Institutions Moscow State University (2008–2014)
Main interests Sociology, geopolitics, philosophy
Notable ideas Neo-Eurasianism, the fourth political theory
Influences
Website
www.arcto.ru

Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ге́льевич Ду́гин, born 7 January 1962) is a Russian political scientist and an ideologist of the creation of a Eurasian empire that would be against the "North Atlantic interests". He is known for his fascist views,[1][2][3][4] and had close ties to the Kremlin and Russian military.[5] Dugin serves as an adviser to State Duma speaker (and key member of the ruling United Russia party) Sergei Naryshkin.[6]

Dugin was the head of the Department of Sociology of International Relations of Moscow State University. Although he claimed to have been fired from this post in early July of 2014, the university claimed the offer of a department chairmanship resulted from a technical error and that he would remain a professor under contract until September 2014.[7]

He was the Director of the Center for Conservative Studies at the MSU sociology faculty.

Dugin was the leading organizer of the National Bolshevik Party, National Bolshevik Front, and Eurasia Party. His political activities are directed toward restoration of the Russian Empire through partitioning of the former Soviet republics, such as Georgia and Ukraine, and unification with Russian-speaking territories, especially Eastern Ukraine and Crimea.[8][9] He is known for the books Foundations of Geopolitics and The Fourth Political Theory.

In the Kremlin, Dugin represents the "war party", a division within the leadership over Ukraine.[10]

Early life and education[edit]

Dugin was born in Moscow, into a family of a colonel-general of the Soviet military intelligence and candidate of law Gelij Alexandrovich Dugin and his wife Galina, a doctor and candidate of medicine.[11] In 1979 he entered the Moscow Aviation Institute.

Early career and political views[edit]

Dugin worked as a journalist before becoming involved in politics just before the fall of communism. In 1988 he and his friend Geydar Dzhemal joined the nationalist group Pamyat. He helped to write the political program for the newly refounded Communist Party of the Russian Federation under the leadership of Gennady Zyuganov.[5]

In his 1997 article “Fascism – Borderless and Red”, Dugin exclaimed the arrival of a “genuine, true, radically revolutionary and consistent, fascist fascism” in Russia. He believes that it was "by no means the racist and chauvinist aspects of National Socialism that determined the nature of its ideology. The excesses of this ideology in Germany are a matter exclusively of the Germans, ...while Russian fascism is a combination of natural national conservatism with a passionate desire for true changes."[12] "Waffen-SS and especially the scientific sector of this organization, Ahnenerbe," was "an intellectual oasis in the framework of the National Socialist regime", according to him.[12]

Dugin soon began publishing his own journal entitled Elementy which initially began by praising Franco-Belgian Jean-François Thiriart, supporter of a Europe "from Dublin to Vladivostok." Consistently glorifying both Tsarist and Stalinist Russia, Elementy also revealed Dugin's admiration for Julius Evola. Dugin also collaborated with the weekly journal Den (The Day), a bastion of Russian anti-Cosmopolitanism previously directed by Alexander Prokhanov.[5]

Dugin was amongst the earliest members of the National Bolshevik Party (NBP) and convinced Eduard Limonov to enter the political arena in 1994. A part of hard-line nationalist NBP members, supported by Dugin, split off to form the more right-wing, anti-liberal, anti-left, anti-Kasparov aggressive nationalist organization, National Bolshevik Front. After breaking with Limonov, he became close to Yevgeny Primakov and later to Vladimir Putin's circle.[13]

Later Dugin expressed his admiration for Putin and Putin's policy by saying, "There are no longer opponents of Putin's policy, and if there are, they are mentally ill and should be sent to prophylactic health examination."[14][15] Dugin's typical hatred for the fifth column in Russia and Europe and his perception of the fifth column as agents of the United States was voiced in many publications, for instance, in his 2014 interview to Komsomolskaya Pravda, "A huge struggle is being conducted. And, of course, Europe has its own fifth column, its own Bolotnaya Square-minded people. And if we have them sitting idly and doing nasty things on Dozhd, Europe is dominated and ruled by the fifth column in full swing. This is the same American riffraff…"[16]

Formation of the Eurasia Movement[edit]

The Eurasia Party, later Eurasia Movement, was officially recognized by the Ministry of Justice on May 31, 2001.[5] The Eurasia Party claims support by some military circles and by leaders of the Orthodox Christian faith in Russia, and the party hopes to play a key role in attempts to resolve the Chechen problem, with the objective of setting the stage for Dugin's dream of a Russian strategic alliance with European and Middle Eastern states, primarily Iran. Dugin's ideas, particularly those on "a Turkic-Slavic alliance in the Eurasian sphere" have recently become popular among certain nationalistic circles in Turkey, most notably among alleged members of the Ergenekon network, which is the subject of a high-profile trial (on charges of conspiracy). Dugin's Eurasianist ideology has also been linked to his adherence to the doctrines of the Traditionalist_School. (Dugin's Traditionalist beliefs are the subject of a book length study by J. Heiser, The American Empire Should Be Destroyed—Aleksandr Dugin and the Perils of Immanentized Eschatology.[17]) Dugin also advocates for a Russo-Arab alliance.[18]

He has criticized the "Euro-Atlantic" involvement in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election as a scheme to create a "cordon sanitaire" around Russia, much like the French and British attempt post-World War I.

Dugin has criticized Putin for the "loss" of Ukraine, and accused his Eurasianism of being "empty." In 2005 he announced the creation of an anti-Orange youth front to fight similar threats to Russia. The Eurasian Youth Union created and sponsored by Dugin was accused of vandalism and extremist activities. The organization was banned in Ukraine by the courts and Alexander Dugin was declared persona non grata due to his anti-Ukrainian activities.[19][20] He was deported back to Russia when he arrived at Simferopol International Airport in June 2007.[21]

Before war broke out between Russia and Georgia in 2008, Dugin visited South Ossetia and predicted, "Our troops will occupy the Georgian capital Tbilisi, the entire country, and perhaps even Ukraine and the Crimean Peninsula, which is historically part of Russia, anyway."[22] Afterwards he said Russia should "not stop at liberating South Ossetia but should move further," and "we have to do something similar in Ukraine."[23]

During the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine Dugin was in regular contact pro-Russian separatists insurgents.[7] He stated he was disappointed in Russian President Vladimir Putin when he did not aid the pro-Russian insurgents in Ukraine after the Ukrainian Army's early July 2014 offensive.[7] During this period Dugin also lost his post as Head of the Department of Sociology of International Relations of Moscow State University.[7] In 2014, the petition titled "We demand dismissing a MSU sociology faculty professor A.G. Dugin!" was signed by over 10 thousand people and sent to the MSU rector Viktor Sadovnichiy.[24] The petition was started after Dugin in an interview expressed his opinion how to deal with Ukrainians, "To kill, kill, kill. There should be no more conversations. As a professor, I think so."[25] Dugin claimed to been fired from this post, the university claimed the offer of a department chairmanship resulted from a technical error and that he would remain a professor under contract until September 2014.[7]

In fiction[edit]

He is a character of Yevraziyskoye (Something Eurasian), a poem by Dmitry Bykov.[26]

Dugin's works[edit]

  • Noomahia: voiny uma. Tri Logosa: Apollon, Dionis, Kibela, Akademicheskii proekt (2014)
  • V poiskah tiomnogo Logosa, Akademicheskii proekt (2013)
  • The United States and the New World Order (debate with Olavo de Carvalho), VIDE Editorial (2012)
  • Pop-kultura i znaki vremeni, Amphora (2005)
  • Filosofiya voiny, Yauza (2004)
  • Absoliutnaia rodina, Arktogeia-tsentr (1999)
  • Tampliery proletariata: natsional-bol'shevizm i initsiatsiia, Arktogeia (1997)
  • Osnovy geopolitiki: geopoliticheskoe budushchee Rossii, Arktogeia (1997)
  • Metafizika blagoi vesti: Pravoslavnyi ezoterizm, Arktogeia (1996)
  • Misterii Evrazii, Arktogeia (1996)
  • Konservativnaia revoliutsiia, Arktogeia (1994)
  • Conspirology (Russian)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shekhovtsov, Anton (2008), "The Palingenetic Thrust of Russian Neo-Eurasianism: Ideas of Rebirth in Aleksandr Dugin's Worldview", Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 9 (4): 491–506 .
  2. ^ Shekhovtsov, Anton (2009), "Aleksandr Dugin’s Neo-Eurasianism: The New Right à la Russe", Religion Compass: Political Religions 3 (4): 697–716 .
  3. ^ Ingram, Alan (2001), "Alexander Dugin: Geopolitics and Neo-Fascism in Post-Soviet Russia", Political Geography 20 (8): 1029–51 .
  4. ^ Shenfield, Stephen (2001), Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements, Armonk: ME Sharpe, p. 195 .
  5. ^ a b c d Dunlop, John B, Aleksandr Dugin's Foundations of Geopolitics (PDF), Russia, Princeton .
  6. ^ Shaun Walker, "Ukraine and Crimea: what is Putin thinking?," The Guardian (23 March 2014).
  7. ^ a b c d e http://online.wsj.com/articles/russian-nationalists-feel-let-down-by-kremlin-again-1404510139
    http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/putin-accused-of-betraying-and-abandoning-ukraine-separatists/story-fnb64oi6-1226976223365?nk=dfe5d0d304736dbdf32e0e0b99996e69
    http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/rebel-leaders-in-ukraine-feel-abandoned-by-putin/story-fnb64oi6-1226976988427?nk=dfe5d0d304736dbdf32e0e0b99996e69
    http://news.yahoo.com/ukraine-rebels-ropes-russians-ask-where-putin-161344423.html
  8. ^ Horvath, Robert (August 21, 2008), "Beware the rise of Russia's new imperialism", The Age (opinion) (AU) .
  9. ^ "Interview", Echo of Moscow (in Russian) 
  10. ^ Donald N. Jensen (1 October 2014). "Are the Kremlin Hardliners Winning?". Institute of Modern Russia. 
  11. ^ "Доктор Дугин" (in Russian). Литературная Россия. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Umland, Andreas (April 15, 2008), Will United Russia become a fascist party?, Turkish Daily News .
  13. ^ Mankoff, Jeffrey (2009), Russian Foreign Policy: The Return of Great Power Politics, Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 66–67 .
  14. ^ Максим Соколов (5 October 2007). "Путин абсолютен" [Putin is absolute]. Izvestia (in Russian). 
  15. ^ Григорий Пасько (2007). "Шизофрения, или Будьте здоровы!" [Schizophrenia, or To your health!]. Index on Censorship (in Russian) (27). 
  16. ^ "Политолог, философ Александр Дугин: Это великая война континентов". Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). 20 February 2014. 
  17. ^ [1] The American Empire Should Be Destroyed.
  18. ^ "Russian nationalist advocates Eurasian alliance against the U.S.". Los Angeles Times. 2008-09-04. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  19. ^ SBU singled out people responsible for Hoveral attack, "Politics", Novynar (in Ukrainian) (Ukraine), 20 October 2007 .
  20. ^ Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst, 3 September 2008 .
  21. ^ Umland, Andreas (June 14, 2007). "Vitrenko's flirtation with Russian "Neo-Eurasianism"". Kyiv Post (op-ed). Kiev, UA. 
  22. ^ "Road to War in Georgia: The Chronicle of a Caucasian Tragedy", Spiegel, August 25, 2008 .
  23. ^ Dugin, Alexander (August 8, 2008), "Interview", Ekho Moskvy (Moscow, RU) .
  24. ^ "Требуем увольнения профессора факультета социологии МГУ А. Г. Дугина!". Change.org. 2014. 
  25. ^ "В России собирают подписи за увольнение профессора МГУ, призвавшего убивать украинцев". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 15 July 2014. 
  26. ^ Дмитрий Быков (22 April 2013). "Евразийское". Novaya Gazeta (in Russian) (44). 

External links[edit]