University of Missouri
|University of Missouri|
|Latin: Universitas Missouriensis|
|Motto||Salus populi suprema lex esto (Latin)|
|Motto in English||Let the Welfare of the People be the Supreme Law|
|Established||February 11, 1839|
|Type||Flagship state university|
|Endowment||$693 mil. (June 2013) $1.172 billion (system-wide, 2012)|
|Budget||$2.1 bil. (FY 2014)|
|Chancellor||R. Bowen Loftin |
|Provost||Brian L. Foster|
|Academic staff||4,605 (Fall 2012)|
|Admin. staff||12,026 (Fall 2012)|
|Students||34,616 (Fall 2013)|
|Undergraduates||26,965 (Fall 2013)|
|Postgraduates||7,693(Fall 2013) (graduate 6,439 + professional 1,254)|
|Location||Columbia, Missouri, United States
|Campus||Urban, College town
1,262 acres (511 ha),
Total: 19,437 acres (7,866 ha)
|Colors||Black and MU Gold|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I, SEC
MAC (wrestling only)
|Mascot||Truman the Tiger|
|Affiliations||AAU, ORAU, APLU|
The University of Missouri (Mizzou, MU, University of Missouri–Columbia or simply Missouri) is a public research university located in the state of Missouri. In 1839 the university was founded in Columbia, Missouri, as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River. The largest university in Missouri, MU enrolls 34,616 students in 20 academic colleges in the 2013–14 year. The university is the flagship of the University of Missouri System which maintains campuses in Rolla, Kansas City and St. Louis. MU is one of the nation's top-tier R1 institutions, and one of 34 public universities to be members of the Association of American Universities and the only one in Missouri. There are more than 270,000 MU alumni living worldwide, with almost one half continuing to reside in Missouri. The University of Missouri was ranked 97th in the 2014 U.S. News & World Report among the national universities, steady from the previous year.
The campus of the University of Missouri is 1,262 acres (511 ha) just south of Downtown Columbia and is maintained as a botanical garden. The historical campus is centered on Francis Quadrangle, a historic district that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and a number of buildings on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1908, the world's first school of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism.
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the world's most powerful university research reactor. It is one of only six public universities in the United States with a school of medicine, veterinary medicine, engineering, agriculture, and law all on one campus. The university also owns the University of Missouri Health Care system, which operates four hospitals in Mid-Missouri.
Missouri's only Division I-A athletic team is known as the Missouri Tigers and competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference. The school's mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian and former U.S. president Harry S. Truman. According to the NCAA, the American tradition of homecoming was established at the University in 1911; the tradition has since been adopted nationwide.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Academics
- 4 Organization and administration
- 5 Student life
- 6 Athletics
- 7 Traditions
- 8 Undergraduate tuition
- 9 Notable faculty and alumni
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early years (1830–1890)
In 1839, the Missouri Legislature passed the Geyer Act to establish funds for a state university. It would be the first public university west of the Mississippi River. To secure the university, the citizens of Columbia and Boone County pledged $117,921 in cash and land to beat out five other central Missouri counties for the location of the state university. The land on which the university was eventually constructed was just south of Columbia's downtown and owned by James S. Rollins. He was later called the "Father of the University." As the first public university in the Louisiana Purchase, the school was shaped by Thomas Jefferson's ideas about public education.
In 1862 the American Civil War forced the university to close for much of the year. Residents of Columbia formed a "home guard" militia that became known as the "Fighting Tigers of Columbia". They were given the name for their readiness to protect the city and university. In 1890, the University's newly formed football team took the name the "Tigers" after the Civil War militia.
In 1870 the institution was granted land-grant college status under the Morrill Act of 1862. The act led to the founding of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy as an off shoot of the main campus in Columbia. It developed as the present-day Missouri University of Science and Technology. In 1888 the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station opened. This grew to encompass ten centers and research farms around Missouri. By 1890 the university encompassed a normal college (for training of teachers of students through high school), engineering college, arts and science college, school of agriculture and mechanical arts. school of medicine, and school of law.
On January 9, 1892, Academic Hall, the institution's main building, burned in a fire that completely gutted the building, leaving little more standing than six stone Ionic columns. Under the administration of Missouri Governor David R. Francis, the university was rebuilt, with additions that shaped the modern institution.
After the fire, some state residents tried to have the university moved further west to Sedalia; but Columbia rallied support to keep it. The columns were retained as a symbol of the historic campus. Today they are surrounded by the Francis Quadrangle, the oldest part of campus. At the southern end of the quad is Academic Hall's replacement, Jesse Hall, named for Richard Jesse (the president of the university at the time of the fire). Built in 1895, Jesse Hall holds many administrative offices and Jesse Auditorium. The buildings surrounding the quad were constructed of red brick, leading to this area becoming known as Red Campus. The area was tied together in planned landscaping and walks in 1910 by George Kessler in a City Beautiful design of the grounds. Jesse Hall is scheduled for a $9.8 mil. makeover to include a fire sprinkler system, work on its elevators, and a new heating and cooling system as part of a $92 mil. total renovation package approved by the Board of Curators in June 2013. This upgrade is expected to be completed in March 2015.
To the east of the quadrangle, later buildings constructed of white limestone in 1913 and 1914 to accommodate the new academic programs became known as the White Campus. In 1908 the world's first journalism school opened at MU. It became notable for its "Missouri Method" of hands-on, experience-based instruction. It later established an award for "Distinguished Journalism".
After World War II, the enrollment at universities around the country grew at an extraordinary pace, and MU was no exception. This was due in part to the G.I. Bill, which allowed veterans to attend college with the assistance of the federal government.
In April 1923, a black janitor was accused of the rape of the daughter of a University of Missouri professor. James T. Scott was abducted from the Boone County jail by a mob of townsfolk and students, and was lynched to death from a bridge near the campus before his trial took place. In the winter of 1935, four graduates of Lincoln University—a traditionally black school about 30 miles (48 km) away in Jefferson City—were denied admission to MU's graduate school. One of the students, Lloyd L. Gaines, brought his case to the United States Supreme Court. On December 12, 1938, in a landmark 6–2 decision, the court ordered the State of Missouri to admit Gaines to MU's law school or provide a facility of equal stature. Gaines disappeared in Chicago on March 19, 1939, under suspicious circumstances. The University granted Gaines a posthumous honorary law degree in May 2006. Undergraduate divisions were integrated by court order in 1950, when the University was compelled to admit African Americans to courses that were not offered at Lincoln University.
The grounds of the campus are designated a botanical garden by the state of Missouri. As noted above, the academic buildings are classified as two main groups: Red Campus and White Campus. Red Campus is the historical core of mostly brick academic buildings around the landmark columns of the Francis Quadrangle; it includes Jesse Hall and Switzler Hall. In the early 20th century, the College of Agriculture began a period of rapid expansion in which several buildings were constructed to accommodate the growing program and student body. The new buildings, constructed in Neo-Gothic style from native Missouri limestone, form the White Campus. Its most notable building is Memorial Union.
During the 1990s, Red Campus was extended to the south with the creation of the Carnahan Quadrangle. Hulston Hall of the University of Missouri School of Law, completed in 1988, formed the eastern border of the future quad. The Reynolds Alumni Center was completed in 1992 on the west side of the new quad. It was completed in 2002 with Cornell Hall of the Trulaske College of Business and Tiger Plaza.
While the original MU intercollegiate athletic facilities, such as Rollins Field and Rothwell Gymnasium, were located just south of the academic buildings, later expanded facilities were constructed across Stadium Boulevard, where Memorial Stadium opened in 1926. The Hearnes Center was built to the east of the stadium in 1972. In 1994, the university developed the first draft of a master plan for the campus to tie together all of Tiger athletic facilities to the south of Stadium Boulevard and add to its design. Today, the MU Sports Park includes the Mizzou Arena, Taylor Stadium, Walton Stadium, Mizzou Athletics Training Complex, University Field and Devine Pavilion. Student athletic facilities remain in the core area of campus. Rothwell Gymnasium and Brewer Fieldhouse are part of the 283,579-square-foot (26,345.4 m2) Student Recreation Center, which was ranked number one in the nation in 2005 by Sports Illustrated.
The main campus of the University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics is north of the sports complex. It includes the University of Missouri Hospital and Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital. Two of the hospitals, Columbia Regional Hospital and Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, are located northeast of the main campus near I-70.
To the south of the MU Sports Park is the MU Research Park. It includes the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, International Institute for Nano and Molecular Medicine, MU Life Science Business Incubator at Monsanto Place, and Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center. In 2005, the University of Missouri Board of Curators approved legislation to designate the South Farm of the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources (CAFNR) as a research park. The 114-acre (46.1 ha) park, located three miles (4.8 km) southeast of the main campus on US63, is now known as Discovery Ridge Research Park. Tenants at Discovery Ridge include ABC Laboratories and the MU Research Animal Diagnostic Laboratory.
The main campus is flanked to the east and west by Greek Life housing. The University of Missouri has nearly 50 national social fraternities and sororities, many of which occupy historical residences now valued in the millions of dollars. Beta Sigma Psi, Kappa Alpha Order, Sigma Chi, Beta Theta Pi, Alpha Gamma Rho, and Sigma Nu form a Greek Row (also called Frat Row) along College Avenue in the East Campus area. Kappa Sigma, Lambda Chi Alpha, and Sigma Alpha Epsilon are located in the West Campus area along Stewart Street, which leads directly into the Francis Quadrangle. Most of the Greek-letter organizations are located in a Greek Town, with approximately 30 Greek residences, to the north of Memorial Stadium.
|U.S. News & World Report||97|
MU is one of six public universities that houses a law school, medical school, and a veterinary medicine school on the same campus. In Missouri, MU is the designated land-grant university (along with Lincoln University), the largest public research institution. It is the only Missouri university that is both a member of the Association of American Universities and designated as a "Doctoral/Research Extensive" university by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Only 35 universities in the nation have both such designations. As of March 2012, the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the highest power university reactor in the U.S. at 10 megawatt (10 million watts) thermal output.
In 1908, the Missouri School of Journalism (known colloquially as the "J-school"), was founded in Columbia, claiming to be the first of its kind internationally. The French established their Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris in 1899.
The UM System owns and operates KOMU-TV, the NBC/CW affiliate for Columbia and nearby Jefferson City. It is a full-fledged commercial station and a working lab for journalism students. The MU School of Journalism publishes the Columbia Missourian and Vox Magazine, where students learn reporting, editing and design in a newsroom managed by professional editors. It operates the local National Public Radio Station KBIA and produces Radio Adelante, a Spanish-language radio program.
Founded in 1978 after 23 years as a unit of the School of Medicine, the School of Health Professions became an autonomous division in December 2000. The school's five departments and eight accredited academic programs have a long history, some dating to the early 20th century. It is Missouri's only state-supported school of health professions on a campus with an academic health center, and the only allied health school in the UM system.
The university maintains the largest library collection in the State of Missouri. As of the 2011–2012 academic year, the collection held 3.1 million volumes, 8.1 million microforms, 678,596 e-books, almost 1.7 million government documents, more than 284,000 print maps, and more than 53,000 journal subscriptions. The collection is housed in Ellis Library, the University Archives, and seven other specialized academic libraries across campus. Most of the original collection, housed in Academic Hall, was lost in the 1892 fire.
During the American Civil War, Union troops used the Library as a guard room. The Union troops caused significant damage, including taking 467 volumes to build fires. The Board of Curators later sued the US Army for the destruction on campus. Settled in 1915, the suit's award was used to build the Memorial Gateway on the northern edge of Red Campus.
In 1913, construction began on a new main library, completed in 1915. It was expanded in 1935, 1958, and 1985. It was dedicated as Elmer Ellis Library on October 10, 1972, in honor of the thirteenth president of the University of Missouri. Today, the MU libraries are home to the 47th largest research collection in North America.
The Jeffrey E. Smith Institute of Real Estate was founded in 2005 by a donation from alumnus Jeffrey Smith to meet the growing interest of students in the College of Business, seeking to learn more about the real estate industry.
MU merged two of its departments, the Center for Distance and Independent Study and MU Direct: Continuing and Distance Education, forming Mizzou Online in 2011. Mizzou Online offers online courses for 18 of the university's colleges and operates the University of Missouri High School, a distance learning K-12 high school.
SECU: SEC Academic Initiative
The University of Missouri is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement amongst the member universities in the Southeastern conference. The SECU formed its mission to serve as a means to bolster collaborative academic endeavors of Southeastern Conference universities. Its goals include highlighting the endeavors and achievements of SEC faculty, students and its universities and advancing the academic reputation of SEC universities.
In 2013, the University of Missouri participated in the SEC Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. The topic of the Symposium was titled, the "Impact of the Southeast in the World's Renewable Energy Future."
Organization and administration
|College of Arts and Science||1841|
|College of Education||1868|
|College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources||1870|
|School of Law||1872|
|School of Medicine||1872|
|College of Engineering||1877|
|School of Journalism||1908|
|Trulaske College of Business||1914|
|Sinclair School of Nursing||1920|
|College of Veterinary Medicine||1946|
|School of Social Work||1948|
|School of Music||????|
|School of Health Professions||????|
|School of Accountancy||1975|
|School of Natural Resources||1989|
|College of Human Environmental Sciences||1960|
|School of Information Science & Learning Technologies||1997|
|Harry S. Truman School of Public Affairs||2001|
Presidents and chancellors
Each campus of the University of Missouri System is led by a chancellor, who reports to the president of the UM System. Prior to the formation of the system in 1963, the Columbia campus and its offshoot in Rolla were led directly by the president and the position of chancellor did not exist. See University of Missouri System#Presidents for a list of presidents from 1963–present. This list does not include interim presidents or chancellors. John Lathrop is the only president or chancellor to have served nonconsecutive terms.
Presidents, 1841–1963 and Chancellors, 1963–present
- John Hiram Lathrop (1841–1849)
- James Shannon (1850–1856)
- William Wilson Hudson (1856–1859)
- Benjamin Blake Minor (1860–1862)
- John Hiram Lathrop (1865–1866)
- Daniel Read (1866–1876)
- Samuel Spahr Laws (1876–1889)
- Richard Henry Jesse (1891–1908)
- Albert Ross Hill (1908–1921)
- John Carleton Jones (1922–1923)
- Stratton Brooks (1923–1930)
- Walter Williams (1931–1935)
- Frederick Middlebush (1935–1954)
- Elmer Ellis† (1955–1963)
- John W. Schwada (1964–1970)
- Herbert W. Schooling (1971–1978)
- Barbara Uehling (1978–1987)
- Haskell Monroe (1987–1993)
- Charles Kiesler (1993–1996)
- Richard L. Wallace (1997–2004)
- Brady J. Deaton (2004–2013)
- R. Bowen Loftin (2014– )
† Elmer Ellis became president of the University of Missouri System upon its creation, serving until 1966.
From its inception in 1839 until the creation of the University of Missouri System in 1963, the university in Columbia was known simply as the University of Missouri. Upon creation of the system, each university was renamed with its host city; thus, the university in Columbia became the University of Missouri–Columbia. In the proceeding decades, colloquial and verbal usage of the generic name in reference to MU continued. There were various attempts to drop Columbia from its name by students, faculty, alumni, and administrators who felt it might cause the university to be perceived as a regional institution. This change was long resisted by the UM System and the other universities on the basis of uniformity and fairness. However, after a renewed effort for "name restoration", the Board of Curators voted unanimously on November 29, 2007 to allow MU to drop Columbia from its name for effectively all public purposes. Continued use of the name University of Missouri–Columbia is not incorrect but is being phased out by MU, except as required on official internal documents within the UM System. Its use also continues to be advocated by some faculty, administration, and alumni of UMKC, UMSL, and Missouri S&T.
The University of Missouri operates 23 on-campus residence halls and least two other off-campus sites. The two off-campus locations include: Tiger Diggs at Campus View Apartments and True Scholars House. Many residence halls on campus offer learning communities and freshman interest groups. Both programs seek to ensure that students succeed academically while living in the residence halls.
Three of the older halls: Jones, Lathrop, and Laws are scheduled to be torn down and replaced as the largest and first part ($71 mil.) of a $92 mil. campus improvement project approved by the Board of Curators on June 13, 2013. The plan also includes replacing the dining hall north of Faurot Field. The three halls presently can house up to 1,010 students. The new halls will expand the capacity to 1,242 by the time the first part is completed in May 2017. The renovation of Swallow Hall (1893) is also part of the plan, costing $11.5 mil. of the total.
Groups and activities
Tap Day is an annual spring ceremony in which the identities of the members of the six secret honor societies are revealed. The participating societies are QEBH, Mystical Seven, LSV, Omicron Delta Kappa, Mortar Board, and the Rollins Society. The ceremony, first held in 1927, takes place at the columns on Francis Quadrangle.
The Associated Students of the University of Missouri (ASUM) is a student-run lobbying organization that represents the students' interests in the state and national capitals. ASUM's platform has included issues such as equalizing the "Access Missouri" grant, expanding "Bright Flight" funding, and giving students a vote on the Board of Curators.
The Trulaske Consulting Association was started in 2009. It is a relatively new student organization and is open to students of all departments. However most members are MBA and undergrad business students. The association aims to increase awareness, provide exposure, and facilitate networking between students and professionals in the consulting industry. The growing popularity of the association has been attributed to the resources available to student members. Workshops by management consultants and case studies on strategy form an integral part of the activities organised by TCA.
The Muslim Student Organisation (MSO) provides an inclusive, inviting educational and social environment for the Muslims at the University of Missouri-Columbia; and works to create bridges between Muslims and other groups in the Columbia community. The Muslim Student Organisation engages in religious, educational, and social activities that aim to increase unity on campus and awareness of Islam among Muslims and people of other faiths. The Organization aspires to promote a healthy understanding of Islam in the context of social and cultural settings. MSO membership is open to all students at MU.
MU is home to one of the oldest and largest Greek systems in the nation. Founded in 1869, the Greek Community represents 22% of the student population at Mizzou. The Greek Community was founded on the principles of Scholarship, Leadership, Service, Brotherhood and Sisterhood. The University is home to the first chapter of an existing national fraternity founded at a public institution west of the Mississippi. Currently, more than 70 Greek-letter organizations remain active at MU.
The Missouri Tigers are a member of the Southeastern Conference. Mizzou is the only school in the state with all of its sports in the NCAA Division I and a football team that competes in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). These are the highest levels of college sports in the United States. The colors are black and gold.
Athletic sports include men's and women's basketball, baseball, cross country, football, golf, gymnastics, swimming & diving, softball, track, tennis, volleyball, women's soccer, and wrestling. Historic sports included a shooting club, in which the ladies' team in 1934 won a national championship. Current football coach Gary Pinkel holds the record at the university for most wins on the gridiron. Additionally, former basketball coach and alum Norm Stewart maintains the record for most wins on the hardcourt.
MU football games are played on Faurot Field. Built in 1926, the stadium has an official capacity of 71,004, and features a nearly 100 ft (30 m). wide "M" behind the north end zone. Men's and women's basketball games are played at the Mizzou Arena, located just south of the football stadium. The Hearnes Center hosted men's and women's basketball from 1972 to 2004 and is still used for other athletic (wrestling) and school events.
The Missouri Tiger men's basketball team has had 22 NCAA tournament appearances, the second-most NCAA Tournament appearances without a final four. The Tigers have appeared in the regional finals (Elite Eight) of the NCAA tournament six times, two under legendary coach Norm Stewart. The Tigers have won 15 conference championships in total: first with the Missouri Valley conference, to the Big 6, and the big 8 conference. In 1994 the Tigers went undefeated in the Big 8 to take the regular season title. In 2009 Missouri won its first Big 12 Championship, over Baylor. Missouri went on to win its second Big 12 Championship in its final season in the Big 12 in 2012, once again defeating Baylor. Standout players from the Mizzou's basketball team include, Anthony Peeler, John Brown, Jon Sundvold, Steve Stipanovich, Kareem Rush, Keyon Dooling Doug Smith, Willie Smith, Norm Stewart, Linas Kleiza, Derrick Chievous, DeMarre Carroll, Kim English and Marcus Denmon.
The official mascot for Missouri Tigers athletics is Truman the Tiger, created on September 16, 1986. Following a campus-wide contest, Truman was named in honor of Harry S. Truman, the only U.S. president from Missouri. Today, Truman the Tiger appears to cheer on the team, mingle with supporters at Mizzou athletic events as well as at pep-rallies, alumni association functions, and frequent visits to Columbia-area schools.
On November 24, 2007, the Mizzou football team played its biggest rival, Kansas, at Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri. At that time KU was ranked No. 2 and MU was ranked No. 3 nationally. At the end of the game, Mizzou defeated KU, 36–28. The following day MU was ranked No. 1 in the country for the second time in its history. On December 1, 2007, the Mizzou football team lost the Big 12 Championship game in San Antonio, Texas, to Oklahoma 38–17, falling out of national title and Bowl Championship Series contention. They played in the Cotton Bowl January 1, 2008 at Dallas, Texas and defeated the Arkansas Razorbacks 38–7. In the final Associated Press "Top 25 football poll" of the 2007 season, Mizzou was ranked No. 4 in the country, its highest finishing position in the team's history.
On November 6, 2011, the University of Missouri announced that it would be leaving the Big 12 Conference to join the Southeastern Conference effective July 1, 2012. In September 2012, the school's wrestling team became an associate member of the Mid-American Conference, as the SEC does not sponsor wrestling.
Tiger Walk and Prowl
The Tiger Walk is held annually before the fall semester in the Quad, as welcome and orientation for new students to the University. Students can meet and also learn about school organizations, which have stations around the Quad. After hearing of the four pillars of success, students walk in procession through the quad and the The Columns toward Jesse Hall, symbolizing their entrance into the University. Tiger Prowl is held for graduation seniors on the quad. They walk through the columns, away from Jesse Hall, to symbolize becoming alumni.
The university song is "Old Missouri". With lyrics written in 1895, it is sung to the tune of "Annie Lisle."
Old Missouri, fair Missouri
Dear old Varsity.
Ours are hearts that fondly love thee
Here's a health to thee.
Proud art thou in classic beauty
Of thy noble past
With thy watch words: honour, duty,
Thy high fame shall last!
Every student, man and maiden
Swells the glad refrain.
'Till the breezes, music laden
Waft it back again.
University of Missouri claims, along with Baylor University, to be the originator of "Homecoming" in the US, a tradition rapidly adopted by many other colleges and high schools across the country. In 1911, athletic director Chester Brewer invited alumni to "come home" for the big football game against the University of Kansas. A spirit rally and parade were planned as part of the celebration. The Council for Advancement and Support of Education has called MU's homecoming celebration the best in the nation and a model program. Missouri Homecoming also includes several service elements, and the homecoming blood drive has earned the Guinness Record as the nation's largest.
The annual tuition for in-state residents for 2013-14 is $9,415 and $23,764 for out-of-state residents, plus $9,286 for room and board on campus with that total not counting books or transportation expenses. Tuition was scheduled to rise an average of 3% in the Fall of 2012 at all four of the Missouri campuses, and another 1.7% undergraduate increase in tuition and fees was approved in the 2014 operating budget by the Board of Curators in June 2013, which also approved salary increases of 1.5% to 3% for the faculty.
Notable faculty and alumni
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- "Missouri Curators Approve More Modest Tuition Hike". KMOX.com. February 20, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Fiske, Edward B. (2004). Fiske Guide to Colleges 2005 (Twenty-first Edition). Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1-4022-0229-6.
- Viles, Jonas. (1939). The University Of Missouri, A Centennial History. University of Missouri.
- Stephens, Frank. (1962). A History of the University of Missouri. Columbia, Missouri: The University of Missouri Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Missouri.|
- Official website
- Official athletics website
- University of Missouri at DMOZ
- "Missouri, University of". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.