Jefferson City, Missouri

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"Jefferson City" redirects here. For other uses, see Jefferson City (disambiguation).
Jefferson City, Missouri
City
City of Jefferson
Jefferson City.jpg
Flag of Jefferson City, Missouri
Flag
Official seal of Jefferson City, Missouri
Seal
Nickname(s): Jeff City, JC, or Jeff
Cole County Missouri Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Jefferson City Highlighted.svg
U.S. Census Map
U.S. Census Map
Coordinates: 38°34′36″N 92°10′25″W / 38.57667°N 92.17361°W / 38.57667; -92.17361Coordinates: 38°34′36″N 92°10′25″W / 38.57667°N 92.17361°W / 38.57667; -92.17361
Country United States
State Missouri
Counties Callaway, Cole
Founded 1821
Incorporated 1825
Named for Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor Eric J. Struemph[1]
 • Administrator Steve Crowell
 • City Clerk Phyllis Powell
Area[2]
 • City 37.58 sq mi (97.33 km2)
 • Land 35.95 sq mi (93.11 km2)
 • Water 1.63 sq mi (4.22 km2)
Elevation 630 ft (192 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City 43,079
 • Estimate (2012[4]) 43,183
 • Density 1,198.3/sq mi (462.7/km2)
 • Metro 149,807
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 65101-65109
Area code(s) 573
FIPS code 29-37000[5]
GNIS feature ID 0758233[6]
Website http://www.jeffcitymo.org

Jefferson City is the capital of the U.S. state of Missouri As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,079 which makes it the 15th largest city in Missouri [7] It is the county seat of Cole County, even though a small portion of the city extends into Callaway County. It is the principal city of the Jefferson City metropolitan area, with a population of 149,807, which encompasses the entirety of both counties. Jefferson City was named after Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States.

Jefferson City is on the northern edge of the Ozark Plateau on the southern side of the Missouri River near the geographic centre of the state, in a region known as Mid-Missouri. It is also at the western edge of one of the major wine-producing regions of the Midwest — the Missouri Rhineland. The city is dominated by the domed Capitol, which rises from a bluff overlooking the Missouri River to the north; Lewis and Clark passed beneath that bluff on their historic expedition upriver before Europeans established any settlement there.

Jefferson City is Home to Lincoln University, a historically black university, founded in 1866 and later designated as a land-grant university.

In 2013, Jefferson City was named America's "Most Beautiful" Small Town by Rand McNally.[8]

Jefferson City is commonly referred to as "JCMO."

History[edit]

Sketch of Jefferson City from the 1860s
Missouri State Penitentiary

In pre-Columbian times, this region was home of an ancient people known only as the Mound Builders. By the time European settlers began arriving, the Mound Builders had vanished. The contemporary indigenous peoples were called the Osage Indians. When the Missouri Territory was organized in 1812, St. Louis was the seat of government. St. Charles next served as the capital.

In the middle of the state, Jefferson City was chosen as the new capital in 1821 while Thomas Jefferson was still alive. The village was first called Lohman's Landing. When the legislature decided to relocate there, they proposed the name "Missouriopolis" but later settled on Jefferson City.[9] For years, the village was little more than a trading post located in the wilderness about midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. In 1825 the settlement was incorporated as a city and the next year the Missouri legislature first met there.

Jefferson City was selected as the site for a state prison and the Missouri State Penitentiary was opened in 1836. This prison was home to a number of infamous Americans, including former heavyweight champion Sonny Liston, assassin James Earl Ray, and bank robber Charles "Pretty Boy" Floyd. During the American Civil War, Jefferson City was occupied by Union troops and the elected state legislature was driven from Jefferson City by Union General Nathaniel Lyon. Some of the legislators later reconvened in Neosho, MO and passed an ordinance of secession. Missouri was claimed by both the Confederacy and the Union, just like the neighboring state of Kentucky. Missourians were strongly divided and many people in the state, especially in St. Louis, supported the Union, while other areas (such as Missouri's Little Dixie) were strongly pro-Confederate along the Missouri river between Jefferson City and Kansas City.

German immigrants created vineyards in small towns on either side of the Missouri River, especially on the north from Jefferson City east to Marthasville, outside St. Louis. Known as the Missouri Rhineland for its vineyards and first established by German immigrants in the mid-19th century, this area has become a part of the agricultural and tourist economy.

Geography[edit]

Jefferson City is located at 38°38′58″N 92°12′52″W / 38.64944°N 92.21444°W / 38.64944; -92.21444 (38.572954, -92.189283).[10] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.58 square miles (97.33 km2), of which, 35.95 square miles (93.11 km2) is land and 1.63 square miles (4.22 km2) is water.[2]

Climate[edit]

Jefferson City has a transitional climate between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate with hot, rainy summers and cold winters. Thunderstorms are common in both the spring and summer. Light snow is common during the winter, although about half of wintertime precipitation falls as rain.[11]

Climate data for Jefferson City, Missouri, 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 39.9
(4.4)
45.4
(7.4)
55.5
(13.1)
66.7
(19.3)
75.1
(23.9)
83.5
(28.6)
88.3
(31.3)
87.8
(31)
79.8
(26.6)
68.5
(20.3)
55.8
(13.2)
42.5
(5.8)
65.7
(18.7)
Average low °F (°C) 19.9
(−6.7)
23.6
(−4.7)
32.2
(0.1)
43.1
(6.2)
53.1
(11.7)
62.8
(17.1)
67.2
(19.6)
65.4
(18.6)
56.0
(13.3)
44.0
(6.7)
33.9
(1.1)
23.0
(−5)
43.7
(6.5)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.93
(49)
2.29
(58.2)
3.00
(76.2)
4.16
(105.7)
5.18
(131.6)
4.39
(111.5)
4.31
(109.5)
3.99
(101.3)
4.15
(105.4)
3.35
(85.1)
3.61
(91.7)
2.67
(67.8)
43.03
(1,093)
Snowfall inches (cm) 4.8
(12.2)
3.4
(8.6)
1.4
(3.6)
.1
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.3
(0.8)
3.8
(9.7)
13.8
(35.2)
Source: NOAA

[12][13]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 3,082
1870 4,420 43.4%
1880 5,271 19.3%
1890 6,742 27.9%
1900 9,664 43.3%
1910 11,850 22.6%
1920 14,490 22.3%
1930 21,596 49.0%
1940 24,268 12.4%
1950 25,099 3.4%
1960 28,228 12.5%
1970 32,407 14.8%
1980 33,619 3.7%
1990 35,481 5.5%
2000 39,636 11.7%
2010 43,079 8.7%
Est. 2013 43,330 0.6%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 43,079 people, 17,278 households, and 9,969 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,198.3 inhabitants per square mile (462.7/km2). There were 18,852 housing units at an average density of 524.4 per square mile (202.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.0% White, 16.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population.

There were 17,278 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.3% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.9% of residents under the age of 18, 10.3% between the ages of 18 and 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 37.5 years. The gender makeup of the city was 51.2% male and 48.8% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 39,636 people, 15,794 households, and 9,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,454.4 people per square mile (561.6/km²). There were 16,987 housing units at an average density of 623.3 per square mile (240.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.50% White, 14.70% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, and 1.52% from two or more races. 1.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 15,794 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 105.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,628, and the median income for a family was $52,627. Males had a median income of $35,050 versus $25,521 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,268. About 7.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

City Government[edit]

The city uses a mayor-council system. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has ten members. Two are elected from each of the city's five wards.

State Government[edit]

The State Capitol is located in Jefferson City. In addition, state agencies are headquartered in Jefferson City. The Missouri State Archives is located in Jefferson City.

The Missouri Department of Corrections (MDOC) operates the Jefferson City Correctional Center in Jefferson City.[14][15]

MDOC operated the Missouri State Penitentiary (later named the Jefferson City Correctional Center) in Jefferson City.[16] Before its closure, it was the oldest operating penal facility west of the Mississippi River. It served as the State of Missouri's primary maximum security institution[17] and housed male death row prisoners until April 1989, when they were moved to the Potosi Correctional Center.[18] The current JCCC was opened on September 15, 2004, replacing the Missouri State Penitentiary.[14]

Federal Government[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates several postal facilities, including the Jefferson City Main Post Office.[19]

The U.S. District Court was located in the same building as the U.S. Post Office which was dedicated in November 1934. The Post Office continues to occupy the building, but in 2011, the court moved to the Christopher S. Bond U.S. Court House. The Christopher S. Bond U.S. Courthouse was dedicated on Sept. 27, 2011. The 118,000-square-foot facility overlooking the Missouri River is named for the former U.S. Senator from Missouri and houses the Central Division of the U.S. District and Bankruptcy Courts for the Western District of Missouri. The building was designed to achieve the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold rating. Sustainable design features include reducing water use by 44 percent, using 13 percent recycled content, diverting 80 percent of construction waste materials from landfills, and it is 36 percent more efficient than current energy standards.[20]

Economy[edit]

The Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City
Photograph of Jefferson City from the International Space Station

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[21] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 State of Missouri 14,466
2 Scholastic 2,182
3 Capital Region Medical Center 1,430
4 Jefferson City Public School District 1,337
5 St. Mary's Health Center 1,022
6 Wal-Mart 955
7 Central Bank 862
8 ABB Inc. 680
9 Jefferson City Medical Group 583
10 Lincoln University 500

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Jefferson City News-Tribune. There are also several magazines published monthly that cover Jefferson City and/or the surrounding areas: Jefferson City Magazine, Her Magazine, Capital Lifestyles, and Professional Daym

Education[edit]

Jefferson City is served by the Jefferson City Public School District, which operates Jefferson City High School, Simonsen 9th Grade Center, Lewis and Clark Middle School, and Thomas Jefferson Middle School, and eleven elementary schools. The district is currently considering to build a second public high school. There are 4 private elementary schools — St. Joseph's, St. Peter, Immaculate Conception, and Trinity Lutheran. Calvary Lutheran, Helias Catholic, and Lighthouse Preparatory Academy are the city's private high schools.

Lincoln University is a public historically black university with open enrollment and certificate, associate, bachelor, and graduate programs. Columbia College, State Technical College of Missouri, William Woods University, Metro Business College, and Merrell University also have locations in the city with varying degree levels and options.

Transportation[edit]

Jefftran (short for Jefferson City Transit Authority) operates a public bus system year-round.[22] Although Jefferson City is one of the four state capitals that is not served by an Interstate highway,[23] Interstate 70 passes by the city 30 miles (48 km) to the north in Columbia. U.S. highways in the city include U.S. Routes 50, 54, and 63. Missouri Routes 179 and 94 also run through the city, giving it four highways that intersect with I-70.

Jefferson City is home to an Amtrak station.

Jefferson City is also home the Jefferson City Memorial Airport.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

  • Jefferson City is sister city to the German city of Münchberg. The historically German section of Jefferson City is called "Old Munichburg".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Contact the Mayor." at the Wayback Machine (archived May 7, 2006) City of Jefferson. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  5. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2011/tables/SUB-EST2011-03-29.csv
  8. ^ http://www.bestoftheroad.com/
  9. ^ McMillen, Margot Ford & Murphy, Dennis. A to Z: The Dictionary of Missouri Place Names. Columbia, MO. Pebble Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-9646625-4-X.
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  11. ^ http://weatherspark.com/averages/30636/Jefferson-City-Missouri-United-States
  12. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  13. ^ "Kansas City Daily Climate Records/Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Jefferson City Correctional Center." at the Wayback Machine (archived May 7, 2006) Missouri Department of Corrections. May 7, 2006. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  15. ^ "MidMoGIS Mapping Website." City of Jefferson. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  16. ^ "Jefferson City Correctional Center." at the Wayback Machine (archived August 14, 2003) Missouri Department of Corrections. August 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  17. ^ Lombardi, George, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates: Issues, Realities, and Innovative Strategies." Missouri Department of Corrections. 8. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  18. ^ Lombardi, George, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates: Issues, Realities, and Innovative Strategies." Missouri Department of Corrections. 9. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  19. ^ "Post Office Location - JEFFERSON CITY." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  20. ^ http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/102678
  21. ^ City of Jefferson CAFR
  22. ^ http://www.jeffcitymo.org/cd/transit/documents/routescheduleweb.pdf,
  23. ^ Staff. "Interstate Highway Fact Sheet" (PDF). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2012. 
  24. ^ "James T. Blair, Jr.". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  25. ^ "Lorenzo Greene". The University of Houston,. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]