Wind power in the Republic of Ireland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

As of 20 August 2013 Ireland has an installed capacity of 2,232 megawatts.[1]

Previous milestones[edit]

As of 24 March 2012 Ireland had an installed capacity of 2,000 megawatts. Depending on weather conditions this is enough to supply 1.3 million homes.[2]

On July 19, 2010 the Irish Wind Energy Association reported an installed capacity of 1746 megawatts, enough to power 753,000 households. 2012 capacity is more than four times the total of 495.2 megawatts in 2005. In 2008 alone, the rate of growth was 54.6%, amongst the highest in the world.[3]

On December 18, 2012, the output from the country's turbines peaked reaching 1506 megawatts.[4] and a new record was again set on 31/03/2013 when output peaked at 1540 megawatts.[5]

Average 2013 output to 21/09/2013 is 486 Megawatts and Median 2013 Output is 393 Megawatts. Output can be as low as 3 Megawatts on a still day such as 12 July 2013 when a low of 3 Megawatts was reached at 9:30 am [5] which is 0.012% of the Rated Installed Capacity of over 2,200 Megawatts.

As of July 2012, up to 14.8% of Irish electricity has been generated from renewable sources, up from 5% in 1990. Wind is the main source of renewable energy production, increasing from less than 1pc of total renewable production in 1995 to over 40pc today.[6]

On December 5, 2013, the output from the country's turbines peaked reaching 1588 megawatts, a new record.

New wind output record generated of 1769 MW on 17 December 2013.

The Arklow Bank Wind Park, located 10 km off the coast of Arklow on the Arklow Bank in the Irish Sea, was Ireland's first offshore wind farm. The National Offshore Wind Association of Ireland (NOW Ireland) announced in April 2010 that 60,000 potential jobs could be created in the Irish marine, construction, engineering and service industries through the development of offshore wind energy in Irish and European waters.

Background[edit]

Wind turbines on Inishmaan

In the Directive[7] 2001/77/EC, otherwise known as the RES-E Directive, the European Union stated a goal to have 22% of the total energy consumed by member states to be produced from renewable energy resources by 2010. As a result, Ireland, in a report titled "Policy Consideration for Renewable Electricity to 2010", made the commitment to have 4% of its total energy consumption come from renewable energy resources by 2002 and 13.2% by 2010. The Department of Communications Marine and Natural Resources (DCMNR) founded the Renewable Energy Group (REG) which established the short term analysis group (STAG) to investigate a means of accomplishing this goal. To meet the 2010 target of 13.2%, 1,432 MW of electricity will need to be generated from renewable resources with 1,100 MW being generated from wind resources both onshore and offshore.

Offshore wind power[edit]

Main article: Offshore wind power

The Arklow Bank Wind Park, located 10 km off the coast of Arklow on the Arklow Bank in the Irish Sea, was Ireland's first offshore wind farm. The wind farm is owned and built by GE Energy and was co-developed by Airtricity and GE Energy. The site has 7 GE Energy 3.6 MW turbines that generate a total of 25 MW. The development of the site was originally divided into two phases with the first phase being the current installation of 7 turbines. The second phase was a partnership between Airtricity and Acciona Energy. Acciona Energy had an option to buy the project after the facility is completed. The wind farm was planned to expand to 520 MW of power. However, in 2007, Phase 2 was cancelled.[8]

Although the waters off the Atlantic coastline of Ireland are a better site for wind farms because of the available wind resources, sites along the eastern coastline such as Arklow were chosen because of the shallower waters, which are 20 m deep or less.

The National Offshore Wind Association of Ireland (NOW Ireland) announced in April 2010 that 60,000 potential jobs could be created in the Irish marine, construction, engineering and service industries through the development of offshore wind energy in Irish and European waters. NOW Ireland also announced in the same month that over €50bn was due to be invested in the Irish Sea and Celtic Sea in the next two decades.[9]

In Belfast, the harbour industry is being redeveloped as a hub for offshore windfarm construction, at a cost of about £50m. The work will create 150 jobs in construction, as well as requiring about 1m tonnes of stone from local quarries, which will create hundreds more jobs. "It is the first dedicated harbour upgrade for offshore wind".[10]

Current trends[edit]

On July 31, 2009, the output from the country's turbines peaked at 999 megawatts. At that time, 39% of Ireland’s demand for electricity was met from wind.[11] On October 24, 2009, the output exceeded 1000 megawatts for the first time with a peak of 1064 MW. Once in April 2010, 50% of electricity demand was met from wind power.[12] However, the wind generation capacity factor for 2010 was approx. 23.5%, giving an annual average wind energy penetration of approx. 11% of total KWh consumed.[13][14] A new record in the output of Ireland’s wind farms was recorded at 6pm on Wednesday evening November 2, 2011, it reached 1,412 megawatts.[4]

Grid connection is currently awarded on a 'first come, first connect' basis through Gate 3 procedures. On examination of the Gate 3 queue, there are a number of large onshore and offshore wind projects that are down the list and will, therefore, be offered grid connection towards the end of the anticipated 18-month processing period commencing in December 2009.[15]

Wind farms currently are given a planning permission that expires after five years. Legislation now exists to receive a 10 year planning grant, though it is rarely granted. But, the application process for securing a connection to the grid is on average 11 years for a distribution connection (less than 20 MW) and 8 years for a transmission connection (more than 20 MW). Extensions to the planning permissions may be granted if a significant amount of work has been completed on the wind farm. However, there is no standard or minimum of accepted amount of work that needs to be completed to be granted an extension of the planning permission. This causes some developers to not begin work on a wind farm until a grid connection is guaranteed, which slows the process of fulfilling necessary development to meet the 2010 and future energy goals.

The fourth issue regarding the generation of wind power is the Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff, or REFIT. The purpose of REFIT is to encourage development of renewable energy resources. For wind power production, the current limit to the tariff is 1,450 MW. However, applications currently being processed for grid connections exceed the limit by almost 1,500 MW for a total for nearly 3,000 MW. Since the limit is 1,450 MW, many of the applications for grid connections may not eligible for the tariff.[16]

Completed onshore wind farms[edit]

Wind Farm Completed Capacity (MW) Turbines Turbine Vendor Model Size (MW) County Coordinates Operator
Altagowlan 2005 7.6 9 Gamesa G52/850 0.85 Roscommon 54°6′35.40″N 8°9′5.75″W / 54.1098333°N 8.1515972°W / 54.1098333; -8.1515972 B9[17]
Anarget 2004 1.2 2 ENERCON E-40 0.6 Donegal 54°35′27″N 8°04′11″W / 54.5907°N 8.0697°W / 54.5907; -8.0697
Anarget Extension 2007 0.9 1 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Donegal
Astellas 2011 0.8 1 ENERCON E-53 0.8 Kerry
Ballincollig Hill 2009 13.3 16 ENERCON E-44 and E-48 0.9 and 0.8 Kerry 52°18′38″N 9°35′09″W / 52.31044°N 9.585775°W / 52.31044; -9.585775
Ballinlough/Ikerrin 2006 2.55 3 Vestas V52/850 0.85 Tipperary 52°49′48″N 8°00′41″W / 52.830021°N 8.011333°W / 52.830021; -8.011333
Ballinveny 2006 2.55 3 Vestas V52/850 0.85 Tipperary 52°49′31.4″N 7°56′18.5″W / 52.825389°N 7.938472°W / 52.825389; -7.938472
Ballybane 2008 29.9 13 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Cork Windprospect[18]
Ballymartin 2010 6.9 3 ENERCON E-82 2.3 Kilkenny Bord Gais Energy[19]
Ballywater 2006 42 21 ENERCON E-70 2 Wexford
Bawnmore 1 2011 11.5 5 ENERCON E-82 2.3 Cork
Bawnmore 2 (Carriganima) 2011 13.8 6 ENERCON E-82 2.3 Cork
Barnesmore 1997 15 21 Vestas V42/600 0.60 Donegal B9[17]
Beal Hill/1 2000 1.65 1 Vestas V66 1.65 Kerry
Beal Hill/2 2003 2.55 3 Vestas V52/850 0.85 Kerry
Beallough 2008 1.7 2 Vestas V52/850 0.85 Waterford
Beam Hill 2008 14 8 Vestas V66 1.75 Donegal
Beenageeha 2000 3.96 6 Vestas V47/660 0.66 Kerry B9[17]
Bellacorick 1992 6.45 21 Nordtank NTK300 0.3 Mayo 54°06′45″N 9°35′14″W / 54.112553°N 9.587288°W / 54.112553; -9.587288 (Bellacorick)
Bindoo[20] 2007 48 32 GE 1.5s 1.5 Cavan
Blackbanks/1 2001 3.4 4 Vestas V52 0.85 Leitrim ESBI[21]
Blackbanks/2 2005 6.8 8 Vestas V52 0.85 Leitrim ESBI[21]
Boggeragh 2009 57 19 Vestas V90 3 Cork
Booltiagh[22] 2005 19.5 13 GE 1.5s 1.5 Clare SWS[23]
Brett Martin 2010 2.3 1 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Belfast
Burtonport 2003 0.66 1 Vestas V47 0.66 Donegal
Caherdowney 2012 9.2 4 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Cork
Caranne Hill 2008 3.4 4 Gamesa G52 0.85 Sligo ESBI[21]
Cark 1997 15 25 NEG Micon NM43 0.6 Donegal B9[17]
Carnsore[24] 2002 11.9 14 Vestas V52/850 0.85 Wexford ESBI[21]
Carrigcannon 2010 23 10 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Cork
Carrigh 2006 2.55 3 Vestas V52 0.85 Tipperary
Carrons 2010 4.6 2 ENERCON E-82 2.3 Limerick
Castledockrell 2011 41.4 18 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Wexford Castledockrell Wind Group Limited
Clydaghroe 2012 4.6 2 ENERCON E70 2 Cork
Coomacheo[25] 2008 41.4 18 Siemens 2.3VS 2.3 Cork SSE Renewables[26]
Coomatallin[27] 2005 6 4 GE 1.5SE 1.5 Cork SSE Renewables[26]
Cornacahan 2007 2.7 3 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Donegal
Corneen[28] 2001 3 2 GE 1.5S 1.5 Cavan SSE Renewables[26]
Corrie Mt. 1997 4.8 8 Vestas V42 0.6 Leitrim Eco Wind Power[29]
Crocane 2010 1.6 2 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Cork
Crockahenny[30] 1998 5.0 10 ENERCON E-40 0.5 Donegal ESBI[21]
Cronalaght 1&2 1997 4.8 8 Vestas V39 0.6 Donegal
Cronelea 2007 6.9 3 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Wexford
Cronelea Upper 1.8 2 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Wicklow
Cronelea Upper[31] 2005 2.55 3 Vestas V52 0.85 Wicklow
Cuillalea 2004 3.4 4 Vestas V52 0.85 Mayo 53°50′55″N 9°04′16″W / 53.848557°N 9.071226°W / 53.848557; -9.071226 (Cuillalea)
Culliagh[32] 2000 12 18 Vestas V47/660 0.66 Donegal
Curragh[33] 2009 18 8 Siemens 2.3VS 2.3 Cork SSE Renewables[26]
Curraghgraigue 2004 2.55 3 Vestas V52 0.85 Tipperary
Derrybrien[34] 2006 60 70 Vestas V52 0.85 Galway ESBI[21]
Derrynadivva 2009 8 10 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Mayo 53°54′37″N 9°20′27″W / 53.910412°N 9.340825°W / 53.910412; -9.340825 (Derrynadivva)
Dromada[35] 2009 28.5 19 GE 1.5s 1.5 Limerick SSE Renewables[26]
Drumlough 1997 4.8 8 Windmaster 0.6 Donegal B9[17]
Drybridge/Dunmore 2006 1.7 2 Vestas V52 0.85 Louth
Dundalk IT 2005 0.85 1 Vestas V52 0.85 Louth DIT
Dunmore 2009 1.8 2 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Louth
Flughland[36] 2009 9.2 4 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Donegal SWS[23]
Gartnaneane[37] 2004 15 10 GE 1.5S 1.5 Cavan SSE Renewables[26]
Geevagh 2006 5 6 Gamesa G52 0.85 Sligo B9[17]
Glackmore 2008 2.3 1 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Donegal
Gneeves[38] 2005 9.35 11 Vestas V52 0.85 Cork SWS[23]
Greenoge[39] 2005 5.2 4 Nordex N60 1.3 Carlow Greenoge Windfarm Ltd
Inverin 1&2 1999 3.96 4 Vestas V47 0.66 Galway
Kealkill 2006 8.5 10 Gamesa V52 0.85 Cork
Kilgarvan[40] 2006 45 15 Vestas V90 3 Kerry 51°56′4.69″N 9°19′33.67″W / 51.9346361°N 9.3260194°W / 51.9346361; -9.3260194 SWS[23]
Kilgarvan Ext[40] 2009 30 13 Nordex N90 2.3 Kerry SWS[23]
Killybegs 2008 13.8 6 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Donegal
Kilronan[41] 1998 5 10 Vestas V39 0.5 Roscommon 54°25′50″N 8°50′34″W / 54.43066°N 8.8427°W / 54.43066; -8.8427 (Kilronan Wind Farm)
Kilvinane 2006 4.5 3 Gamesa G850 0.85 Cork
Kingsmountain[42] 2003 25 10 Nordex N80 2.5 Sligo SSE Renewables[26]
Knockastanna[43] 2009 6 4 GE 1.5 1.5 Limerick SSE Renewables[26]
Knockawarriga[44] 2008 22.5 9 Nordex N90 2.5 Limerick SWS[23]
Lacka Cross 2009 4.6 2 ENERCON E-82 2.3 Kerry
Lackan 2006 6.9 3 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Sligo
Lahanaght Hill 2006 4.25 5 Vestas V52 0.85 Cork
Largan Hill 2000 5.9 9 Vestas V47 0.66 Roscommon 53°33′52″N 8°19′59″W / 53.564576°N 8.333123°W / 53.564576; -8.333123 (Largan Hill Wind Farm) B9[17]
Lenanavea 2010 4.5 5 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Mayo 53°55′27″N 9°21′02″W / 53.924083°N 9.350513°W / 53.924083; -9.350513 (Lenanavea)
Lisheen[45] 2009 54 18 Vestas V90 3 Tipperary SWS[23]
Loughderryduff 2008 7.65 9 Vestas V52 0.85 Donegal
Lurganboy 2008 5.4 6 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Donegal
Mace Upper 2009 2.4 3 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Mayo 53°46′15″N 8°58′11″W / 53.770843°N 8.969715°W / 53.770843; -8.969715 (Mace Upper)
Meenachullalan 2008 13.8 6 ENERCON E70 2.3 Donegal
Meenadreen 2003 3.4 4 Vestas V52 0.85 Donegal B9[17]
Meenanilta 2004 2.55 3 Vestas V52 0.85 Donegal
Meenanilta 3 2004 3.2 4 ENERCON E-48 0.80 Donegal
Meentycat[46] 2005 72 38 Siemens 2.3 Donegal SSE Renewables[26]
Meentycat Extension[47] 2009 14 7 Donegal SSE Renewables[26]
Midas[48] 2007 32.24 23 Vestas V90 and V52 3 and 0.85 Kerry SSE Renewables[26]
Mienvee(I and II) 2004 1.7 1 Vestas V52 0.85 Tipperary SWS[23]
Milane Hill 2000 5.94 9 Vestas V47 0.66 Cork B9[17]
Moanmore 2006 14 7 ENERCON E-70 E4 2 Clare
Moneenatieve 2005 4.25 2 Gamesa G52 0.85 Leitrim B9[17]
Mount Eagle 2 2008 1.7 2 Vestas V52 0.85 Kerry
Mount Lucas 2014 84 28 Siemens SWT-3-0-101 3 Offaly
Mountain Lodge 2008 34.5 23 GE 1.5s 1.5 Cavan ESBI[21]
Mountain Lodge II 2009 3 2 GE 1.5s 1.5 Cavan ESBI[21]
Mullananalt[49] 2008 7.5 5 GE 1.5s 1.5 Monaghan SSE Renewables[26]
Muingnaminnane 2008 14.8 18 ENERCON E-44 and E-48 0.9 and 0.8 Kerry Saorgus[50]
Pallas 2008 40 20 ENERCON E-70 2.0 Kerry Pallas Wind Farms Ltd
Raheen Barr 2003 18.7 22 Vestas V52 0.85 Mayo 53°53′58″N 9°21′16″W / 53.899359°N 9.354435°W / 53.899359; -9.354435 (Raheen Barr)
Rahora 2008 4 5 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Cork
Rathmooney[51] 2009 0.8 1 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Dublin 53°33′00″N 6°10′32″W / 53.549924°N 6.175515°W / 53.549924; -6.175515 (Rathmooney)
Reenascreena 2009 4.0 5 ENERCON E-48 0.8 Cork
Richfield[52] 2006 27 18 GE 1.5s 1.5 Wexford SSE Renewables[26]
Seltannaveeny 2010 4.6 2 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Leitrim
Shannagh 2009 2.7 3 ENERCON E-44 0.9 Donegal
Sheeragh 2008 4.6 2 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Donegal
Skehanagh 2006 4.25 5 Vestas V52 0.85 Tipperary
Skrine 2011 4.6 2 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Roscommon
Snugborough 2003 13.5 9 GE 1.5s 1.5 Louth
Sonnagh Old 2004 7.65 9 Vestas V52 0.85 Galway
Sorne Hill 2006 38 19 ENERCON E-70 2 Donegal Bord Gais
Spion Kop 1997 1.2 2 Vestas V42 0.6 Leitrim
Slievereagh 2009 2.3 1 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Limerick
Taurbeg 2006 25.3 11 Siemens SWT-2.3 2.3 Cork B9[17]
Tournafulla[53] 2007 27 18 GE 1.5s 1.5 Limerick SSE Renewables[26]
Tullynamoyle 2011 9.2 4 ENERCON E-70 2.3 Leitrim Tullynamoyle Wind Farm Limited
Tursillagh/1 2000 15.8 23 Vestas V47 0.66 Kerry Saorgus[50]
Tursillagh/2 2004 6.8 23 Vestas V52 0.85 Kerry Saorgus[50]
Glenough 2011 32.5 13 NORDEX N80/N90 2.5 Tipperary ABO Wind
Gortahaile 2011 20 8 NORDEX N90 2.5 Laois ABO Wind
Grouselodge 2011 20 8 NORDEX N90 2.5 Limerick ESBI
Garracummer 2012 42.5 17 NORDEX N90 2.5 County Tipperary Bord Gais

Proposed or under construction[edit]

Wind Farm Scheduled Capacity (MW) Turbines Type Operator Location Type
Codling[54] Unknown 1100 220 Unknown Codling Wind Farm County Wicklow Offshore
Carrowleagh 2012 36.8 16 ENERCON E-70 2.3 County Cork
Dublin Array[55] 2015 364 145 unknown Saorgus[56] County Dublin Offshore
Glenmore 2009 Summer 30 10 VESTAS V90 Clare Winds Ltd County Clare Onshore
Glenough[57] 2010 Winter 32.5 13 NORDEX N80/N90 ABO Wind County Tipperary Onshore
Gortahile[57] 2010 Autumn 20 8 NORDEX N90 ABO Wind County Laois Onshore
Grouse Lodge[57] 2011 Summer 20 8 NORDEX N90 ESBI County Tipperary Onshore
Moneypoint[58] Unknown 22.5 9 Unknown Hibernian Windpower County Clare Onshore
Mount Callan[59] Unknown 90 30 3MW West Clare Renewable Energy County Clare Onshore
Oriel[60] 2017 330 55 Unknown Oriel Windfarm Ltd County Louth Offshore
Skerd Rocks[61] Unknown 100 20 5MW FST[62] County Galway Offshore
Shragh[63] planning submitted Oct 2011 135 45 ENERCON E82 3.0 MW Clare Coastal Wind Power Ltd. County Clare Onshore
Garracummer 2012 42.5 17 NORDEX N90 2.5MW Bord Gais Energy County Tipperary Onshore
Knockacummer 2013 87.5 35 NORDEX N90 2.5MW Bord Gais Energy County Cork Onshore
Monaincha 2013 36 15 NORDEX N117 2.4MW Element Power County Tipperary Onshore
Gibbet Hill 2013 15 6 NORDEX N90 2.5MW ABO Wind County Wexford Onshore
Glenough Extension 2013 2.5 1 NORDEX N90 2.5MW ABO Wind County Tipperary Onshore

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ireland 42% wind powered tonight". reNews. 2013-08-20. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Wind has capacity to power up to 1.3 million homes". The Irish Times. 24 March 2012. 
  3. ^ World Wind Energy Report 2008
  4. ^ a b [1]
  5. ^ a b Eirgrid Wind Generation Statistics
  6. ^ "Airtricity market gain continues with new 16-turbine €50m plant". Irish Independent. 
  7. ^ EU Directive 2001/77/EC - http://ec.europa.eu/
  8. ^ http://www.airtricity.com/assets/Uploads2/Press-Releases/Offshore-support-press-release1.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.insideireland.ie/index.cfm/section/news/ext/windfarms001/category/896
  10. ^ Fiona Harvey (6 February 2012). "Offshore wind turbines set to benefit British industries". The Guardian (London). 
  11. ^ Green Inc Blog on the New York Times Website
  12. ^ "Eirgrid discusses wind power targets". RTÉ News. 15 September 2010. 
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ [3]
  15. ^ Developing the Green Economy in Ireland 2-12-2009 Page 41 http://www.forfas.ie/media/dete091202_green_economy.pdf
  16. ^ [4] IWEA current issues
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k B9 Homepage
  18. ^ Windprospect
  19. ^ "Minister launches new Bord Gáis Energy Wind Farm in Kilkenny". Bord Gais Energy. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  20. ^ SSE Renewables page on Bindoo
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h ESBI Wind Energy Homepage
  22. ^ IWEA page on Booltiagh
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h SWS Homepage
  24. ^ Hibernian Windpower page on Carnsore
  25. ^ SSE Renewables page on Coomacheo
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n SSE Renewables Homepage
  27. ^ SSE Renewables page on Coomatallin
  28. ^ SSE Renewables page on Corneen
  29. ^ Eco Wind Power Homepage
  30. ^ Hibernian Windpower page on Crockahenny
  31. ^ SEI list of Irish wind farms
  32. ^ SSE Renewables page on Culliagh
  33. ^ SSE page on Curragh
  34. ^ Hibernian Windpower page on Derrybrien
  35. ^ SSE Renewables page on Dromada
  36. ^ SWS page on Flughland
  37. ^ SSE Renewables page on Gartnaneane
  38. ^ SWS page on Gneeves
  39. ^ Windpower.net page on Greenoge
  40. ^ a b SWS page on Kilgarvan
  41. ^ Kilronan website
  42. ^ SSE Renewables page on Kingsmountain
  43. ^ SSE Renewables page on Knockastanna
  44. ^ SWS page on Knockawarriga
  45. ^ SWS page on Lisheen
  46. ^ SSE Renewables page on Meentycat
  47. ^ SSE Renewables page on Meentycat
  48. ^ SSE Renewables page on Midas
  49. ^ SSE Renewables page on Mullananalt
  50. ^ a b c Saorgus Homepage
  51. ^ Country Crest wind Farms Civils. Retrieved: 2013-02-26.
  52. ^ SSE Renewables page on Richfield
  53. ^ SSE Renewables page on Tournafulla
  54. ^ [5]
  55. ^ Dublin Array Details
  56. ^ company site
  57. ^ a b c ABO Wind page
  58. ^ Hibernian page on Moneypoint
  59. ^ "€200m wind farm planned for Co Clare". RTÉ News. 28 May 2009. 
  60. ^ Oriel website
  61. ^ Technical Details
  62. ^ company site
  63. ^ website

External links[edit]