List of energy storage projects

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The Ffestiniog Pumped Storage dam in Wales, UK, an early example of a major energy storage facility built in 1963.
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store captured solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity when the sun isn't shining.[1]

This is a list of energy storage projects worldwide. Many individual energy storage projects augment electrical grids by capturing excess electrical energy during periods of low demand and storing it in other forms until needed on an electrical grid. The energy is later converted back to its electrical form and returned to the grid as needed.

Another energy storage method is the consumption of surplus or low-cost energy (typically during night time) for conversion into resources such as hot water, cool water or ice, which is then used for heating or cooling at other times when electricity is in higher demand and at greater cost per kilowatt hour (kWh). Such thermal energy storage is often employed at end-user sites such as large buildings, and also as part of district heating, thus 'shifting' energy consumption to other times for better balancing of supply and demand.

Some notable energy storage projects include Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations, Bear Swamp Hydroelectric Power Station, Seneca Pumped Storage Generating Station, Salina Pumped Storage Project, Carters Dam, Smith Mountain Dam, and Matanoagawa Dam.

System types[edit]

Forms of energy storage[edit]

See also: Energy storage and Grid energy storage for more complete lists of all forms of energy storage, including biological and non-commercial types.

Mechanical:

Thermal:

Chemical:

Electromagnetic:

Projects and sites[edit]

Listing[edit]

Note: This table is sortable by clicking once or twice on the triangle symbols ( Δ ) at the top of each column.
Energy Storage Projects and Sites

Name Type Energy (MWh) (MW x hours) Description Country & location Refs
Smarter Network Storage Battery, Lithium-Ion 10
(6 x 1.65)
The project is developing control and optimization systems for energy storage. Trials include providing service to distribution network operators and transmission system operators. United Kingdom, England, Bedfordshire, Leighton Buzzard [2][3]
Cowesses First Nation Wind and Storage Demonstration Project Battery, Lithium-Ion 0.6
(0.4 x 1.5)
The project combines a single 800 kW Enercon wind turbine with an energy storage system provided by the Saft Groupe S.A., with the goal of increasing the wind energy's dispatchability. A power purchase agreement has been created with SaskPower in conjunction with the Cowessess First Nation, Saskatchewan Research Council, Canada's Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and the Province of Saskatchewan's Clean Energy Fund and Go Green program, at a total cost of C$5.5M. Canada, Saskatchewan, Cowesses First Nation [4][5][6]
AES Kilroot Power Storage Battery unknown
(100 x ?)
In April 2014 the AES Corporation announced plans to build a 100 MW energy storage facility to compliment its existing North Ireland power station near Belfast. Contingent on permitting and other approvals, the storage facility could be operational as early as the second quarter of 2015. United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, Kilroot [7][8][9]
Orkney Storage Park Project Battery, Lithium-Ion 0.5
(2 x 0.25)
In 2013 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. with Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution (SHEPD) created a demonstration project using the UK's Orkney Islands distribution grid. Funding was provided by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OFGEM) under its Tier 1 Low Carbon Network Fund. The system capacity is 800 kWh nominal, 500 kWh normal usage using two 12 m containers for its batteries and one for its power conditioning system. United Kingdom, Scotland, Orkney Islands, Kirkwall [10][11]
Andasol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, Molten Salt 1,030.5
(134.7 x 7.5)
A thermal storage system absorbs part of the daytime heat absorbed by the solar field, heating a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. The heat is used to drive a turbine-generator when direct sunlight is not available, nearly doubling the available hours of operation. A full thermal reservoir holds 1,010 MWh of heat capability, enough to run the turbine for over seven hours at full load. Spain, Granada, Guadix [1][12][13]
Hokkaido Battery Storage Project (provisional name) Battery 60 Kyodo News Service reported the authorization by Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for the installation of the world's largest storage battery, at a substation near several solar energy projects in Hokkaido Island, Japan, due to be online in March 2015. Japan, Hokkaido [14]
Yerba Buena Battery Energy Storage System Pilot Project Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 24
(4 x 6)
The project uses sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS) to determine whether such batteries can improve power quality and reliability on the electrical grid. United States, California, East San Jose [15][16][17]
Falkenhagen power-to-gas pilot plant Power to gas unknown
(2 x ?)
On 28 August 2013, E.ON Hanse, solvicore and Swissgas inaugurated the commercial Power to Gas unit in Falkenhagen Germany. The two-megawatt unit can produce 360 cubic meters of hydrogen per hour. The plant uses wind power to extract hydrogen from water; the gas is then injected into the existing regional natural gas transmission system. Swissgas, which represents over 100 local natural gas utilities, is a partner in the project with a 20% capital stake and an agreement to purchase a portion of the gas produced. Germany, Brandenburg, Falkenhagen [18][19]
Clear Creek Flywheel Wind Farm Project Flywheel 0.5
(5 x 0.1)
Temporal Power’s flywheel energy storage (FES) technology is being deployed by Ontario's Hydro One Networks Inc. The 10-flywheel 5 MW installation will provide local power quality support, by balancing real and reactive power flows from a 20 MW wind farm Canada, Ontario, Norfolk County [20]
Tamahara Pumped Storage Power Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop unknown
(1,200 x ?)
Tamahara Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam on a Tone River tributary. It creates the upper reservoir for the 1,200 MW Tamahara Pumped Storage Power Station. The dam was constructed from 1973–81; the power station was commissioned in 1986. The dam is 116 m (381 ft) high and impounds a reservoir with a useful storage capacity of 13,000,000 m3 (10,539 acre·ft). The lower reservoir for the pumped-storage power station is created by the Fujiwara Dam, located 4 km (2 mi) to the northwest on another Tone River tributary. The power station contains four 300 MW reversible Francis turbine pump-generators which serve to both pump water and generate electricity. [see separate article for further info] Japan, Gunma Prefecture, Numata [21][22]
Bath County Pumped Storage Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 30,931
(3,003 x 10.3)
This project consists of a 3 GW storage plant that pumps water to an elevated reservoir at night and uses its reverse flow to generate daytime electricity. [see separate article for further info] United States, Virginia, Warm Springs, George Washington National Forest [10]
BC Hydro Battery Energy Storage Project Battery, Sodium-Sulphur 6.5
(1 x 6.5)
A 1 MW battery is installed by BC Hydro on a 25 kV feeder near the community of Field, B.C. is able to operate islanded from the grid in order to provide back-up power to Field in the event of a feeder outage; it also discharges during peak hours from 4–8 pm daily. The C$13M facility was commissioned in September 2013, funded by BC Hydro and Canada's Department of Natural Resources after two years of construction and testing. Canada, British Columbia, Field, Yoho National Park [20][23][24]
Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 1,044
(174 x 6)
Sir Adam Beck Pump Generating Station and its 300-hectare reservoir adjacent to Niagara Falls were constructed alongside of the Sir Adam Beck II Generating Station. Water diverted from above the Falls to the generating complex is pumped into the reservoir nightly and used to generate electricity during subsequent periods of high electricity demand. Six mixed-flow variable-pitch reversible pump-turbines are capable of filling the reservoir in eight hours. [see article for further information] Canada, Ontario, Niagara-on-the-Lake [20]
eCamion Toronto Hydro Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium-Ion 1.5
(0.5 x 3)
eCAMION established a consortium including University of Toronto, Toronto Hydro, and Dow Kokam with Sustainable Development Technology Canada to commercialize energy storage. eCAMION provides power utilities with 500 kW/250kWh Community Energy Storage [CES] to alleviate aging infrastructure and grid problems. Canada, Ontario, Toronto [20]
Electrochemical Energy Storage Project Battery, Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt 1
(1 x 1)
The project was initially created in response to the university’s need for emergency back-up power at the University of British Columbia Bioenergy Research and Demonstration Facility (BDRF), the energy storage system will advance research on integrating renewable-energy sources. Canada, British Columbia, Vancouver [20]
NRStor Minto Flywheel Energy Storage Project Flywheel 0.5
(2 x 0.25)
NRStor was selected by Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to deliver 2 MW of frequency regulation services to the Ontario electricity grid. Temporal Power Ltd. is the flywheel manufacturer and supplies the 10-flywheel 2 MW facility. Canada, Ontario, Minto, Harriston [20]
WEICAN Durathon Battery Project Battery, Sodium-Nickel Chloride 20
(10 x 2)
The Wind Energy Institute of Canada contracted with S&C Electric Canada Ltd. to provide a Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery at their site on Prince Edward Island. The BESS will be operational by the fall of 2013. GE Energy Storage will provide the Durathon Battery Energy Storage System that will integrate into Prince Edward Island's pre-existing system. Canada, Prince Edward Island, North Cape [20][25]
Turlough Hill Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 1,752
(292 x 6)
Turlough Hill, Ireland's only pumped storage power station, is located 60 km south of Dublin in the Wicklow Mountains. Construction commenced in 1968, and the station became fully operational in 1974. The station generates up to 292 MW during peak demand periods by releasing water from its upper reservoir and allowing it to flow through its four turbines into a lower reservoir. During periods of lower demand the water is pumped to the upper reservoir. In 2004 Turlough Hill became the Hydro Control Centre (HCC) for the entire ESB hydro fleet, controlling 19 generators. [see separate article for further info] Ireland, County Wicklow, Glendalough, Bray [10]
Eagle Mountain Project Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 24,050
(1,300 x 18.5)
Kaiser Steel Co. operated the Eagle Mountain Mine from 1948 to 1982, mining and concentrating iron ore. After the mine closed, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authorized the Eagle Crest Energy to assess the site's feasibility as a hydroelectric project. Using open mine pits as reservoirs, water will be stored in the upper levels or allowed to flow to the lower pits to generate electricity as needed. The project will utilize four 325 MW reversible hydroelectric turbines United States, California, Desert Center [10][26]
Dinorwig Power Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 10,368
(1,728 x 6)
1,728 MW project near Dinorwig, Llanberis in Snowdonia National Park in Gwynedd, North Wales. It can switch from 0 to near full power output in 12 seconds. Once running, the station can provide power for up to 6 hours before running out of water. Mostly contained within a mountain, it comprises 16 km of tunnels. [see separate article for further info] United Kingdom, Wales, Dinorwig [20][27]
Ffestiniog Power Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 2,160
(360 x 6)
The project includes four water turbines of 360 mW combined capacity. The station, commissioned in 1963, was the first major pumped storage system in the UK. The upper reservoir discharges 27 m³ (953 ft³) of water per second to the generators at the power station on the bank of Tan-y-Grisiau reservoir. [see separate article for further info] United Kingdom, Wales, Ffestiniog [20][28][29]
Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 14,976
(1,872 x 8)
Located on Lake Michigan, the plant was built between 1969–73, owned by Consumers Energy and Detroit Edison, and operated by Consumers Energy. Its upper reservoir, of 27 billion-gallon capacity, feeds six turbine-generators. The turbines function as water pumps at night to refill the reservoir with Lake Michigan water, raising the water some 360 feet. Consumers Energy and Detroit Edison announced an $800 million upgrade on 7 February 2011, to begin in 2013, to extend the plant's life by at least forty years and upgrade the generating capacity from 1,872 MW to 2,172 MW. [see separate article for further info] United States, Michigan, Ludington [20][30][31][32][33]
Silver Creek Pumped Storage Project Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed-Loop 2,400
(300 x 8)
A project created from reclamation of coal-mining pits. The lower reservoir is formed from an existing coal-mining excavation; the upper reservoir's dam is constructed from excavated material of surface mining (overburden). Recovery of over 4 million tons of anthracite coal will help subsidize project costs. United States, Pennsylvania, Blythe Township [10]
Advanced Underground CAES Project With Saline Porous Rock Formation Compressed Air Storage, In-ground 3,000
(300 x 10)
A 300 MW A-CAES demonstration plant will use an underground storage container (depleted gas reservoir) and turbine generators. The project has 3 phases: Phase 1 - preliminary engineering, geologic reservoir engineering, econmoic analyses, and regulatory permitting; Phase 2 - Construction and plant commissioning; Phase 3: Plant operation and plant performance monitoring. Phase 2 of the project will go ahead if the Phase 1 results show PG&E and California regulatory management that the project is cost effective. United States, California, Kern County [10]
Huntorf CAES Plant Compressed Air Storage, In-ground Natural Gas Combustion 870
(290 x 3)
First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline. Germany, Huntorf, Elsfleth [10][34]
Solana Generating Station Thermal Storage, Molten Salt 1,680
(280 x 6)
Completed in 2013, the parabolic trough solar plant, with 6 hours storage by molten salt, is located near Gila Bend, Arizona. At the time it was the world's largest parabolic trough plant, and the first U.S. solar plant with thermal storage. [see separate article for further info] United States, Arizona, Gila Bend [35][36][37][38]
McIntosh CAES Plant Compressed Air Storage, In-ground Natural Gas Combustion 2,860
(110 x 26)
The 2nd commercial CAES plant, in operation since 1991, stores compressed air in a salt cavern of 220 ft diameter, with ten million cubic foot total volume. The cavern is pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds per second of air flow out of the cavern. The cavern can discharge for 26 hours. The plant also utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 110-MW gas-fired combustion turbine. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%. The system is fully operational within 15 minutes, uses a third of the fuel required for a fuel-only generating system, and can operate efficiently at low loads. The project is used for peak shaving. United States, Alabama, McIntosh [10][34][39][40]
Olivenhain-Hodges Storage Project Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 320
(40 x 8)
The Lake Hodges Projects are part of the San Diego County Water Authority's Emergency Storage Project, a system of reservoirs, interconnected pipelines and pumping stations designed to make water available to the San Diego region in the event of an interruption in imported water deliveries. The Lake Hodges Projects will connect Hodges Reservoir (also called Lake Hodges) to the Water Authority’s Olivenhain Reservoir via a 2-km pipeline rising 235m vertically. The connection provides the ability to store 25 million cubic meters of water in Hodges Reservoir for emergency use. When water is transferred downhill from Olivenhain Reservoir into Hodges Reservoir, it will generate 40 MW of peak hydroelectric energy. [see separate article for further info] United States, California, Escondido [10]
Notrees Wind Energy Storage Project Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 9
(36 x 0.25)
A wind energy storage demonstration project at the Notrees Wind power project in western Texas created in 2013. The project provides 36 MW energy storage and a power management system. United States, Texas, Notrees [10][11][41]
Laurel Mountain Battery, Lithium Ion 8
(32 x 0.25)
The wind generation project includes 98 MW of wind generation and 32 MW of integrated battery-based energy storage. The project supplies the PJM Interconnection, the world's largest power market. [see separate article for further info] United States, West Virginia, Elkins [10][42]
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) Battery, Nickel Cadmium 6.7
(27 x 0.25)
(46 x 0.08)
Completed in December 2003, the BESS is a Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) initiative to improve the reliability of service to GVEA members. When grid power fails, BESS provides up to 27 MW of power for 15 minutes. United States, Alaska, Fairbanks [10]
Primus Power Modesto Wind Firming Energy Farm Battery, Zinc Chlorine Redox Flow 75
(25 x 3)
The project was initiated in the Modesto Irrigation District in California’s Central Valley, in place of a proposed $78M / 50 MW fossil fuel plant; it will provide flexible capacity for the region and compensate for the variable nature of wind and solar energy. United States, California, Modesto [10]
Angamos Battery, Lithium Ion 6.6
(20 x 0.33)
A123 lithium-ion batteries supply reserve capacity to electrical grid in Northern Chile. The system continuously monitors the grid power, and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the energy storage system can provide up to 20 MW of power nearly instantaneously, for up to 15 minutes. Chile, Mejillones, Antofagasta [10]
Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant Flywheel 5
(20 x 0.25)
A 20 MW flywheel plant used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area, the world's largest flywheel installation. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. [see separate article for further info] United States, New York, Stephentown [10][43][44][45]
Kahuku Wind Farm Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 3.7
(15 x 0.25)
A 15 MW fully integrated energy storage and power management system designed to provide load firming for a 30 MW wind farm in Hawaii.[see separate article for further info] United States, Hawaii, Oahu [10][44][46]
Los Andes Battery, Lithium Ion 4
(12 x 0.33)
Provides reserve power to the electric grid in Northern Chile. The project continuously monitors the condition of the power system and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the system provides up to 12 MW of power for up to 20 minutes. Chile, Atacama, Copiapó [10]
Next Gen CAES using Steel Piping Compressed Air Storage, Modular 40.5
(9 x 4.5)
9 MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of subterranean caverns. Groundbreaking slated for 2013 to 2014 time frame. United States, New York, Queens [10]
Johnson City Battery, Lithium Ion 2
(8 x 0.25)
A bank of 800,000 A123 Lithium-ion batteries performs frequency regulation for the New York ISO. The system was the largest Lithium-ion battery in commercial service on the US power grid when completed. United States, New York, Johnson City [10]
Tehachapi Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium Ion 32
(8 x 4)
A demonstration project evaluating the performance of an 8 MW, 4-hour (32 MWh) lithium-ion battery system to improve grid performance and integration of large-scale variable energy resourced generation. Southern California Edison installed the system at its Monolith substation on the Antelope-Bailey transmission system. Performance is measured for 13 operational parameters. United States, California, Tehachapi [10][47][48][49]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (I) Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 36
(6 x 6)
The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage with an overall investment of 12 billion RMB (1.89 billion USD). The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery: (I) 6 MW–36 MWh Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (BYD Auto) (II) 4 MW–16 MWh Lithium-ion batteries (Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)) (III) 3 MW–9 MWh Lithium-ion batteries. (IV) 1 MW, 2 MWh Lithium-ion batteries (Wanxiang Group) (V) 2 MW–8 MWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Original plans to include 4 MW of sodium-sulfur batteries have been delayed over safety concerns. Energy storage applications include wind solar and other renewable energy integration, frequency regulation and voltage support. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China, Hebei, Zhangbei [10]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Phase 2 Thermal Storage, Ice 12
(6 x 2)
Ice Energy and REU will collaborate on the second phase. The program to install Ice Bear units within the northern California territory aims to reduce peak electricity load demand by up to 6 MW over five years. REU expects to have the thermal energy storage program completed in 2017. Skyway Machine, a local Redding manufacturing company, will provide final assembly of the new Ice Bear units. United States, California, Redding [10]
Guodian Supply-Side Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium Ion 10
(5 x 2)
This project is State Power's first supply-side energy storage project, incorporating 49.5 MW installed wind capacity and a 5 MW lithium-ion battery system. The energy storage system provides power during low-wind conditions. China, Liaoning, Jinzhou [10]
PGE Salem Smart Power Center (Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration) Battery, Lithium Ion 1.2
(5 x 0.25)
Now under construction, the project will test a 5 MW, 1.25 MWh storage resource designed to increase distribution system reliability, aid renewable resource integration and decrease peak-price risk. United States, Oregon, Salem [10]
JC Penney Headquarters Thermal Storage, Ice 53.1
(4.425 x 12)
The system offsets the peak demands of electrical use by making ice each night to cool the building the following day. United States, Texas, Plano [10]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (II) Battery, Lithium Ion 16
(4 x 4)
The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. [see separate article for further info] China, Hebei, Zhangbei [10]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (III) Battery, Lithium Ion 9
(3 x 3)
The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China, Hebei, Zhangbei [10]
University of Central Florida Thermal Storage, Chilled Water 24
(3 x 8)
Chilled water thermal energy storage system that is integrated into the existing district cooling system for the university. [see separate article for further info] United States, Florida, Orlando [10]
PJM Regulation Services Project Battery, Ultra 2.16
(3 x 0.72)
The PJM (Pennsylvania-Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) Regulation Services project in Lyon Station, PA, was selected and partly funded by the DOE to demonstrate the ability of the Ecoult and Deka UltraBattery energy storage system to enhance the reliability and efficiency of the grid. It will provide 3 MW of continuous frequency regulation services to the grid of PJM Interconnection, the largest Regional Transmission Organization/Independent System Operator in the US. The new system will also be used for peak demand management services to the local utility, Met-Ed (a First Energy Company). The PJM demonstration project has been implemented in both a building and a containerized format to demonstrate the modularity and mobility of the storage solutions. United States, Pennsylvania, Lyon Station [10]
University of Arizona Thermal Storage, Ice 18
(3 x 6)
The university placed three separate orders for energy storage tanks and they were added to two of their three existing central plants in 2004, 2006 and 2007. There are 205 tanks in total at the two plants. [see separate article for further info] United States, Arizona, Tucson [10]
Pillar Mountain Wind Project Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 0.7
(3.0 x 0.25)
A battery storage system on the Kodiak Island grid to supplement electricity generated by wind farms. The energy storage will allow Kodiak Electric to increase reliable wind generation from 4.5 MW to 9 MW. United States, Alaska, Kodiak [10]
State Government of North Carolina Thermal Storage, Chilled Water 20.8
(2.6 x 8)
2.68 million gallon, chilled water, Thermal Energy Storage tank. Built partially buried and serving the district cooling system for 25 state government buildings. United States, North Carolina, Raleigh [10]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (V) Battery, Vanadium Redox Flow 8
(2 x 4)
The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China, Hebei, Zhangbei [10]
LIRR Malverne WESS Battery, Ultra Capacitor, Double-layer 0.04
(2 x 0.02)
The project, on Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) property near the Malverne station, performs regenerative braking, charging and discharging in 20-second time periods. United States, New York, Malverne [10]
Santa Rita Jail Smart Grid – Advanced Energy Storage System Battery, Lithium Ferrous Phosphate 4
(2 x 2)
Alameda County’s Santa Rita Jail smart grid demonstration project in Dublin, California, is the country’s largest CERTS-based microgrid with renewable generation and large-scale energy storage. United States, California, Dublin [10][50]
Isothermal CAES to Support RE Production Compressed Air Storage, Modular Isothermal 1.5
(1.5 x 1)
A 1.5 MW pilot system, to demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage system, was slated for 2013 completion, and production commencing in 2015. United States, New Hampshire, Seabrook [10][34][39]
Xcel and SolarTAC Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 0.37
(1.5 x 0.25)
The project will collect operational data on the integration of energy storage and solar energy systems at the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC). United States, Colorado, Aurora [10]
Kauaʻi Island Utility Cooperative Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 0.37
(1.5 x 0.25)
The KIUC DPR is designed to mitigate the variability of the island grid, monitoring the power supply and correcting for frequency and voltage deviations. [see separate article for further info] United States, Hawaii, Koloa [10]
Glendale Water and Power - Peak Capacity Project Thermal Storage, Ice 9
(1.5 x 6)
This project installed a total of 180 Ice Thermal Energy storage units at 28 Glendale city buildings and 58 local small, medium sized, and large commercial businesses during a one-year installation process. United States, California, Glendale [10]
Kaheawa I Wind Project Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 3.7
(1.5 x 0.25)
A demonstration project to perform Ramp Control for 3 MW of the 30 MW Kaheawa Wind Farm in Hawaii, using a patented energy storage and power management system. United States, Hawaii, Maui [10]
Nissan Technical Center North America Inc. Thermal Storage, Ice 22.8
(1.425 x 16)
The Ice Thermal Storage System provides load shifting to the building. On most days, the building can be cooled solely by the ice system, but a chiller is included, which covers peak cooling demand. United States, Michigan, Farmington Hills [10]
Lanai Sustainability Research Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 0.28
(1.125 x 0.25)
A battery reservoir provides supplementary power at the Lanai Sustainability Research's 1.5 MW DC–1.2 MW AC solar farm in order to double the output of the solar and control the ramp rate to +/- 360 kW/min. United States, Hawaii, Lanai [10]
Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Battery, Vanadium Redox Flow 8.8
(1.1 x 8)
This system is designed to demonstrate a 1.08 MW vanadium redox battery (VRB) storage system at the 32 MW municipal coal-fired power plant. The system will provide operating data and experience to help the plant maintain its daily power output requirement more efficiently while reducing its carbon footprint. United States, Ohio, Painesville [10]
Giheung Samsung SDI Project Battery, Lithium Ion 1
(1 x 1)
Li-ion battery based energy storage system for industrial energy management with peak-shifting. The system is located at the Samsung SDI Headquarters in Yongin-Si, South Korea. South Korea, Gyeonggi-do, Yongin-si [10]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (IV) Battery, Lithium Ion 2
(1 x 2)
The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China, Hebei, Zhangbei [10]
Metlakatla BESS Battery, Lead Acid 1.4
(1 x 1.4)
Metlakatla Power and Light (MP&L) has a BESS installation consisting of Exide (GNB Industrial Power) VRLA cells, providing rapid spinning reserve, frequency control, and better power quality. Beginning operation in 1997, the MP&L BESS has a 1 MW peak power output, and 1.4 MWh energy capacity. It is capable of supporting continuous loads of 800 kilovolt amperes (KVA), pulse loads up to 1200 KVA, and consists of 378 Absolyte VRLA 100A75 modules. Nearly 5 MW of hydroelectric generation capacity provides almost all of MP&L’s power, with a 3.3 MW diesel generation system relegated to reserve duty. MP&L’s two hydroelectric plants, Purple Lake and Chester Lake, have reservoir storage capacity, though the hydro generators were too slow to respond to sudden load fluctuations. At the time of the BESS’s initial operations, the MP&L peak load was approximately 4 MW. MP&L is now replacing the batteries after 12 years of service. United States, Alaska, Metlakatla [10]
Wind-to-Battery MinnWind Project Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 7
(1 x 7)
In October 2008, this project began testing a one-megawatt battery-storage technology to store wind energy. The battery installation is connected to a nearby 11 MW wind farm. United States, Minnesota, Luverne [10]
Detroit Edison Community Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium Ion 2
(1 x 2)
This project is designed to demonstrate a proof of concept for aggregated Community Energy Storage Devices in a utility territory. The project installed 20 Community Energy Storage (CES) devices across a utility territory. United States, Michigan, Detroit [10]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Thermal Storage, Ice 6
(1 x 6)
Ice storage system assists building cooling during daylight hours. United States, California, Redding [10]
Southern California Edison HVAC Optimization Program with energy storage Thermal Storage, Ice 4.5
(0.750 x 6)
Southern California Edison partnered with Ice Energy to create a rebate program of $1800/kW for businesses to install the Ice Bear system at their commercial locations. The systems reduce peak HVAC energy demand significantly. United States, California, Rosemead [10]
Xtreme Power Ford Manufacturing Assembly Plant Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 2
(0.750 x 2.67)
A battery storage system supplements electrical power produced by a solar plant at a Ford automobile manufacturing plant. [see separate article for further info] United States, Michigan, Dearborn [10][51]
Duquesne University Thermal Storage, Ice 3.6
(0.6 x 6)
An ice-based cooling resource. The existing cooling tower was re-used, to make ice at night; an ice-making chiller and 6,000 tn hours of energy storage were installed to the existing cooling plant. United States, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh [10]
Prudent Energy VRB-ESS - Gills Onions, California Battery, Vanadium Redox Flow 3.6
(0.6 x 6)
A bio waste-based energy recovery system that produces methane and biogas from onion production waste. The energy storage system provides peak-shaving and demand charge avoidance services to reduce the monthly electric utility bill. United States, California, Oxnard [10]
Mission City Office Complex Thermal Storage, Ice 3.5
(0.5 x 7)
Energy storage tanks in the basement of the parking structure meet the peak cooling loads of 3 office towers from 6 am to 6 pm during the work week in the summer, charging from 10 pm to 6 am (off-peak) 5 days per week. In the winter, the cooling loads are lower so the energy storage tanks meet the cooling requirements often for up to a week without recharging. United States, California, San Diego [10]
PNM Prosperity Energy Storage Project Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 2.8
(0.5 x 5.6)
The 2.8 MWh battery and a sophisticated control system augments a 500 KW solar PV installation. United States, New Mexico, Albuquerque [10]
Bethel Park High School Thermal Storage, Ice 2.2
(0.375 x 6)
Ice-based cooling system charges during the night to augment the daytime cooling system. United States, Pennsylvania, Bethel Park [10]
Highview Pilot Plant Compressed Air Storage, Cryogenic Liquid Air 2.4
(0.350 x 7)
Air is liquefied during the night-time and held in a tank until electricity is required. The liquid air is then returned to gaseous form to drive a turbine. Extreme cold is recovered and stored to assist with subsequent liquefaction, improving the overall efficiency of the system. United Kingdom, England, Berkshire, Slough [10]
Burlington 1 MWh Battery, Pb VRLA, Flat plate (Lead acid) 1
(0.250 x 4)
A battery installation supplements and provides backup for grid power. United States, Vermont, South Burlington [10]
Fujian Electric Power Research Institute Mobile Energy Storage Station I Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.5
(0.250 x 2)
The Fujian Electric Power Research Institute developed a mobile energy storage prototype project consisting of (I) two sets of 125 KW/250KWh battery systems and (II) one 125 KW/375KWh hour battery system. The unit provides peak electricity for 10 to 15 commercial electricity consumers in the tea production industry. When Anxi is not producing tea, the system is moved to Fuan to meet peak electricity demands for the processing of white tea. China, Fujian, Anxi [10]
EnerVault Redox Flow Battery Demonstration Project Battery, Iron Chromium Redox Flow 1
(0.250 x 4)
This project will demonstrate a redox flow battery system in combination with an intermittent, renewable energy source. United States, California, Denair [10]
Owens-Illinois World Headquarters Ice Thermal Storage Thermal Storage, Ice 3
(0.250 x 12)
Ice-based supplemental system, which is charged at night, assists the daytime cooling load. United States, Ohio, Perrysburg [10]
Illinois Institute of Technology Battery, Zinc Bromine Redox Flow 0.5
(0.250 x 2)
A 500 KWH energy storage system for use in a micro-grid application for the Galvin Institute's "Perfect Power" system at the Illinois Institute of Technology campus United States, Illinois, Chicago [10]
Fossil Ridge High School, Colorado Thermal Storage Thermal Storage, Ice 1.6
(0.2 x 8)
Ice-based supplemental system, which is charged at night, assists the daytime cooling load. [see separate article for further info] United States, Colorado, Fort Collins [10]
Smart Grid, Smart City (40 systems) Battery, Zinc Bromine Redox Flow 0.4
(0.2 x 2)
RedFlow has supplied 40 energy storage systems for the SGSC Project, that have been grid-feeding since early 2012. Each system contains a RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide battery, resulting in a total 200 kW and 400 kWh of storage. The Smart Grid, Smart City program is an Australian Federal Government Initiative. This project is testing smart grid technology in an urban setting. Smart Grid, Smart City creates a testing ground for new energy supply technologies. At least 30,000 households will participate in the project over three years. The demonstration project gathers information about the benefits and costs of different smart grid technologies in an Australian setting. Australia, New South Wales, Newcastle [10]
El Capitan Thermal Storage, Ice 0.9
(0.150 x 6)
El Capitan was named LA BOMA Building of the Year in 1999. It is across from the Kodak Theatre on Hollywood's "Walk of Fame". A chiller and series of energy storage tanks are on the roof of the building and meet all of the cooling load during the peak times of the utility. The installation was part of a major retrofit project in 1997 and 1998. It yielded a 25 percent reduction in annual energy costs, saving the building management approximately $23,000 in utility costs each year. Additionally, building management has incrementally increased the number of hours the building relies on for energy storage, stabilizing energy costs as new tenants move into the building. United States, California, Los Angeles [10]
Fujian Electric Power Research Institute Mobile Energy Storage Station II Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.37
(0.125 x 3)
In October 2011, the Fujian Electric Power Research Institute began plans to develop a mobile energy storage prototype project consisting of (I) two sets of 125 kW, 250 kWh battery systems and (II) one 125 kW, 375 kWh hour battery system. This energy storage unit will provide peak electricity for 10 to 15 commercial electricity consumers in the tea production industry. When Anxi is not producing tea, the system is moved to Fuan to meet peak electricity demands for the processing of white tea. China, Fujian, Anxi [10]
Green Charge Networks Lithium Ion Distributed Energy Storage System at Avis Battery, Lithium Ion 0.17
(0.1 x 1.67)
Green Charge Networks' GreenStation demonstration consists of a Lithium Ion storage unit, a system controller, twenty-one Level 2 electric vehicle chargers, and a rooftop PV array. The GreenStation ensures that Avis has enough capacity to charge 21 EVs simultaneously, performs peak mitigation in the main building, and avoids utility service upgrades. The system is tied to a network operations center where loads are monitored and controlled in real time. The project is supported by a DOE Smart Grid Demonstration Grant. United States, New York, Queens [10]
Smart Grid, Smart City (20 systems) Battery, Zinc Bromine Redox Flow 0.2
(0.1 x 2)
RedFlow supplied 20 systems to the SGSC project in Scone. Each system contains a RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide battery, resulting in a total 100 kW and 200 kWh of storage. The Smart Grid, Smart City program is an Australian Federal Government initiative. This project is testing smart grid technology in a rural setting. Smart Grid, Smart City creates a testing ground for new energy supply technologies. At least 30,000 households will participate in the project over three years. The demonstration project gathers information about the benefits and costs of different smart grid technologies in an Australian setting. Australia, New South Wales, Scone [10]
St. Kilian Parish and School Thermal Storage, Ice 0.6
(0.1 x 6)
Ice Storage is charged at night using low cost electricity with a smaller right-sized air cooled chiller. The stored cooling can then be discharged when cooling loads are high, electric demand is high, or in response to a demand response event. United States, Pennsylvania, Butler County, Cranberry Township [10]
Tres Amigas SuperStation Battery, Advanced Lead Acid 0.2
(0.1 x 2)
The Tres Amigas Interconnection will connect the three major power grids in the US, allowing energy to be sold across the US for the first time. An energy storage system (TBD) will provide regulation services for this complex facility. [see separate article for further info] United States, New Mexico, Clovis [10][52][53]
University of Queensland M90 Battery, Zinc Bromine Redox Flow 0.18
(0.09 x 2)
RedFlow's M90 energy storage system has been fully operational since 2 July 2012, installed at the University of Queensland and connected to one of the University's 340 kW solar arrays. The M90 is rated at 90 kW, 240 kWh and houses 24 of RedFlow's ZBMs in a 6.1 metres (20 ft) shipping container. [see separate article for further info] Australia, Queensland, Brisbane [10]
Landing Mall DR Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.04
(0.075 x 0.53)
A nominal 50-kWh bank of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries packaged with a 75-kW inverter and open DR dispatch protocol is installed at a mall in downtown Port Angeles, WA. The storage bank can be charged or discharged via a remote signal by the local utility as a means for load shaping and Rapid Demand Response. The mall can also use the storage bank to peak shave when the storage is not used by the utility. United States, Washington, Port Angeles [10]
Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 8,480
(1,060 x 8)
Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station is a pumped-storage power station in the Thüringer Mountains at the upper run of the river Schwarza in Goldisthal, Germany. It was constructed between 1997 and 2004. It has an installed capacity of 1,060 MW, the largest hydroelectric power plant in Germany and one of largest in Europe. [see separate article for further info] Germany, Sonneberg, Thuringia, Goldisthal [54][55]
Green Charge Networks Lithium Ion Distributed Energy Storage System at 7-Eleven Battery, Lithium Ion 0.15
(0.05 x 3)
Green Charge Networks' GreenStation demonstration consists of a Lithium Ion storage unit, a system controller, two Level 2 electric vehicle chargers, and a rooftop PV array. Primary benefits include peak shaving and demand charge avoidance. The system is tied to a network operations center where loads are monitored and controlled in real-time. The project is supported by a U.S. Department of Energy Smart Grid Demonstration Grant. United States, New York, Queens [10]
Greensmith-International Battery Li-ion Energy Storage System Demonstration Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.08
(0.05 x 1.67)
The battery unit is one of several that are being tested by EPRI at its Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU) Lab in Knoxville, TN. The system, along with the other Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS's), was installed in early/mid-2011 and has since been operating under various stages of testing against EPRI’s DESS test protocol. United States, Tennessee, Knoxville [10]
BYD Li-ion Energy Storage System Demonstration Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.046
(0.05 x 0.92)
The battery unit is one of several that are being tested by EPRI at its Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU) Lab in Knoxville, TN. The system, along with the other Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS's), ws installed in early/mid-2011 and has since been operating under various stages of testing against EPRI’s DESS test protocol. United States, Tennessee, Knoxville [10]
SDG&E-Greensmith Li-ion Energy Storage System Demonstration Battery, Lithium Ion 0.08
(0.05 x 1.67)
As part of an EPRI collaborative research and development (R&D) project to evaluate the performance and reliability of a variety of grid-connected Li-ion battery technologies, San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) installed a 50 kW / 82 kWh Greensmith lithium-iron-phosphate distributed energy storage system (DESS) at the utility’s test facility. For this overarching collaborative demonstration, EPRI’s Energy Storage Program (P94) and Distributed Renewables Program (P174) are working in partnership with select utility members to investigate PV-battery integration capabilities. Serving as a “host” utility to EPRI’s supplemental demonstration initiative, SDG&E installed a Greensmith DESS in a grid-connected configuration in June 2011 and has been conducting operating evaluations of the unit over the past 6 months. Testing and operating evaluation conducted by SDG&E encompasses exercising the DESS’s various modes of operation, which include: - Constant power charge/discharge schedule; - Peak shaving; and - PV smoothing. United States, California, San Diego [10]
Greensmith-Boston Power Li-ion Energy Storage System Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.012
(0.025 x 0.5)
The battery unit is one of several that are being tested by EPRI at its Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU) Lab in Knoxville, TN. The system, along with the other Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS's), was installed in early/mid-2011 and has since been operating under various stages of testing against EPRI’s DESS test protocol. United States, Tennessee, Knoxville [10]
Beckett Energy Systems Li-ion Energy Storage System Demonstration Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.012
(0.025 x 0.5)
The battery unit is one of several that are being tested by EPRI at its Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU) Lab in Knoxville, TN. The system, along with the other Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS's), was installed in early-mid-2011 and has since been operating under various stages of testing against EPRI’s DESS test protocol. United States, Tennessee, Knoxville [10]
NEC Li-ion Energy Storage System Demonstration Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.048
(0.025 x 1.92)
The battery unit is one of several that are being tested by EPRI at its Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU) Lab in Knoxville, TN. The system, along with the other Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS's), was installed in early/mid-2011 and has since been operating under various stages of testing against EPRI’s DESS test protocol. United States, Tennessee, Knoxville [10]
Iron Edison - 400Ah 48V Nickel Iron w/ Trace Battery, Nickel Iron (NiFe) 0.2
(0.02 x 10)
This system had been installed around 1997. When the grid went down a few years ago across the northeastern US, the system owner found out that his battery no longer held any charge. He left the system disconnected until 2012 when he contacted Iron Edison to get a new battery for an old Trace inverter. This system features a 400 Ah 48V Nickel Iron battery sitting atop a custom-fit battery rack. It is an off-grid system supplementing on-site renewable generation. United States, Connecticut, Danbury [10]
Iron Edison - 700Ah 24V Nickel Iron PWP Battery, Nickel Iron (NiFe) 0.17
(0.017 x 10)
This 700Ah 24V Nickel Iron battery is powered by 2.8 kW of solar panels. This system utilizes the Apollo Solar Pre-wired Panel (PWP) with a 3,200 Watt pure sine wave inverter, and dual 80 amp Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controllers United States, Utah, Montezuma Canyon [10]
Sodium-Ion Battery for Grid-level Applications Demonstration Battery, Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) 0.56
(0.014 x 4)
In June 2012, Aquion Energy completed the testing and demonstration requirements for the Department of Energy grant program with its low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) energy storage device. The chemistry in this device uses an electrochemical couple that combines a high capacity carbon anode with a sodium intercalation cathode capable of thousands of deep discharge cycles over extended periods of time. Aquion's AHI technology uses thicker electrodes, less expensive separator and current collector materials, and benign materials for electrodes and the electrolyte. The testing successfully demonstrated a grid-connected, high voltage, 13.5 kWh system with a 4-hour discharge. Advanced system modeling will demonstrate application-level testing and the functionality of the unit with respect to its ability to respond to external control signals and properly interact with electric grid in carrying out relevant sequences. United States, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh [10]
Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed-Loop 10,000
(1,000 x 10)
The scheme provides for up to 27.6 GWh of electricity storage in the form of 27,000,000 cubic metres (950,000,000 cu ft) of water. The water is pumped to Driekloof during times of low national power consumption and released back into Kilburn through four 250 MW turbine generators in times of high electricity demand. [see separate article for further info] South Africa, Free State & KwaZulu-Natal, Drakensberg, Jagersrust [20][56]
Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration Flywheel 0.1
(0.01 x 1)
Amber Kinetics is developing a flywheel system from sub-scale research prototype to full-scale mechanical flywheel battery and will conduct both a commercial-scale and a utility-scale demonstration. The goal is to deliver a cost-effective prototype flywheel system that can be grid connected and electrically charged and discharged.
The system will have built-in sensing components that can determine frequency and voltage characteristics of the grid and can override the grid signal to manage the amount of electricity discharged. The flywheel stores energy in a spinning rotor that is connected to an electric motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. To recover the energy the motor is electrically reversed and used as a generator to slow down the flywheel converting the mechanical energy back into electrical energy.
Amber Kinetics will improve the traditional flywheel system by engineering breakthroughs in three areas, resulting in higher efficiency and radically reduced cost: magnetic bearings, low-cost rotor, and high-efficiency motor generator. This technology can also be used to optimize existing infrastructure/pdfs
United States, California, Fremont [10]
Thabakgolo Battery, Manganese Cobalt 0.48
(0.02 x 24)
This is a cluster of free standing microgrids, with solar, wind, and diesel inputs - the villages of the Drakensberg Escarpment South Africa, Limpopo, Steelpoort [20]
Charleston Energy Storage Project Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 6
(1 x 6)
This was the first MW-Scale NAS application outside Japan, installed by American Electric Power to provide peak-shaving and transmission upgrade deferral benefits. This kind of system is particularly well-suited to transmission upgrade deferral because it can be moved to where it is needed most at any given time, unlike conventional transmission upgrade solutions. DOE/Sandia provided partial sponsorship, covering non-repeat expenses. Over the short term, the purpose of the Charleston Energy Storage Project is to mitigate current local capacity constraints and service reliability issues. The long term objective is to bring AEP one step closer to its vision of a storage-buffered grid of the future. United States, West Virginia, Charleston [20]
John W. Keys III Pump-Generating Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 24,000
(300 x 80)
The John W. Keys III Pump-Generating Plant pumps water uphill 85 metres from Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake to Banks Lake. The pump-generating plant began operation in 1951. From 1951 to 1953, six pumping units, each rated at 48.5 MW (65,000 H.P.) with a capacity to pump 45.3 m3 per second, were installed the plant. In the early 1960s reversible pumps were installed to allow water from Banks Lake to flow back through the units to generate power, with three generating pumps online in 1973, two in 1983 and a final pump 1984, with a total capacity now 314,000 kW. United States, Washington, Grand Coulee [10]
Rankin Substation Energy Storage Project Battery, Sodium Nickel Chloride 0.28
(0.402 x 0.7)
Duke has arranged 12 batteries manufactured by the Italian company FIAMM for use in series in hybrid electric buses to make a 402-kilowatt battery. It is used to smooth out large minute-by-minute spikes and troughs in production from the 1.2-megawatt rooftop solar project Duke operates about a mile away. United States, North Carolina, Mount Holly [20]
Castaic Pumped-Storage Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 12,470
(1,247 x 10)
The pumping forebay, separated from the main reservoir by a dam located downstream from the Castaic Power Plant, assures the availability of at least 12,000,000 m3 of water that can be pumped back to Pyramid Lake by the use of off-peak energy. The pumping function at Castaic hydroelectric plant provides additional water for power generation beyond the supply of water available from the flow of the State Aqueduct. The water which normally flows through the West Branch of the State Aqueduct during off peak periods, is stored in the higher level Pyramid Lake. United States, California, Pyramid Lake [20]
EnStorage Technology Demonstrator Battery, Hydrogen Bromine Redox Flow 0.1
(0.05 x 2)
EnStorage developed a cost effective flow battery based on proprietary hydrogen bromine technology. EnStorage connected its first technology demonstrator to the grid with a net-metering agreement and are further commercializing its system. The commercial system will have power rating of 150 KW with 6 hours of storage (900 kW/h) within a standard 40 feet (12 m) shipping container. Israel, Negev, Dimona [20]
UC San Diego ZBB / Sunpower Energy Storage CSI 2 Battery, Lithium Ion 0.3
(0.1 x 3)
The University of California, San Diego, will host the installation and testing of a six ZBB Enerstore systems installed as single energy storage system to demonstrate the benefits of demand reduction utilizing power from a nearby PV array. This project is being funded by the California Solar Initiative (CSI) by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). United States, California, San Diego [20]
PG&E Vaca Battery Energy Storage Pilot Project Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 14
(2 x 7)
This project will be located at a substation near the Vaca Dixon Solar Plant of Vacaville, CA It's a 2-MW–14 MWh installation that will address load shaping, renewables integration, and ancillary services. United States, California, Vacaville [20]
Altairnano Hawaii Solar Integration Project Battery, Lithium-ion Titanate 1
(1 x 1)
Altairnano (ALTI) was awarded a firm contract with the Hawai'i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa to supply a 1 MW ALTI-ESS energy storage system for a test of solar energy integration. The contract requires Altairnano to build, ship, install and commission its ALTI-ESS advanced energy storage system, and provide technical support and system monitoring and reporting over a period of three years. The research project, funded through a grant from the Office of Naval Research, is designed to test the battery system for the technology to enable integration of solar energy into an electric grid. Hawaiian Electric Company plans to install the energy storage system at one of its utility sites on the island of Oahu in early 2014 due to a rapid increase in solar installations. United States, Hawaii, Oahu [20]
San Luis (William R. Gianelli) Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Powerplant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 126,352
(424 x 298)
The San Luis Pump-Generating Plant pumps Central Valley Project water for offstream storage. This joint Federal-State facility, located at San Luis Dam, lifts water by pump turbines from the O`Neill forebay into the San Luis Reservoir. During the irrigation season, water is released from San Luis Reservoir back through the pump-turbines to the forebay and energy is reclaimed. Each of the eight pumping-generating Francis Turbines has a capacity of 63,000 horsepower (47,000 kW) as a motor and 53,000 kilowatts as a generator. As a pumping station to fill San Luis Reservoir, each unit lifts 1,375 cubic feet per second at 290 feet total head. As a generating plant, each unit passes 1,640 cubic feet per second at the same head. United States, California, Merced County [20]
Big Creek (John S. Eastwood) Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 3,540
(200 x 17.7)
The Eastwood Pumped Storage facility is part of the Big Creek Hydroelectric Project, which consists of 9 powerplants generating at a combined 1,000 MW. The Eastwood plant operates as a reservoir storage facility with the benefit of pumpback. The Balsam Meadows Hydroelectric Project includes a 5,900-foot diversion tunnel connecting the existing Huntington-Pitman-Shaver Conduit, a 4,320-foot power tunnel, and a 7,500-foot tailrace tunnel with a 16-foot horseshoe section leading to Shaver Lake. [see separate article for further info] United States, California, Shaver Lake [20]
Marshall Steam Station Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium Ion 0.75
(0.25 x 3)
The purpose of the Marshall Energy Storage System is to utilize energy generated from an adjacent 1.0 MW solar PV system to perform diurnal peak shaving for the upstream distribution substation. System Components include: -800 kWh, 250 kW Superior Lithium Polymer battery (Exergonix) -1.0 MVA Inverter/Storage Management System (S&C). -Interconnection to 12.47 kV medium voltage circuit -Located adjacent to a 1.0 MW solar facility. A key research goal of that project is to quantify efficiency impacts associated with storing the electricity for shorter or longer periods. United States, North Carolina, Sherrills Ford [20]
Lake Elsinore Advanced Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Closed Loop 6,000
(500 x 12)
The Lake Elsinore Advanced Pumped Storage (LEAPS) project is a 500 MW generation with a 600 MW load advanced pumped storage facility. The LEAPS project was licensed by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in Docket P–11858, and is now under limited additional review in FERC Docket P–14227. [see separate article for further info] United States, California, Lake Elsinore [20]
Beacon Power Tehachapi Flywheel Project Flywheel 0.025
(0.1 x 0.25)
A Smart Energy 25 (Gen 4) flywheel energy storage system was installed at Tehachapi in March 2010 by Beacon Power. The system is part of a wind power–flywheel demonstration project being carried out for the California Energy Commission. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced control technology with energy storage can help expand the delivery of wind energy by effectively increasing the capacity of constrained transmission facilities in the area. United States, California, Tehachapi [20]
Kansas City Power & Light Green Impact Zone Smart Grid Demonstration Battery, Lithium Ion 1
(1 x 1)
Kansas City Power and Light Company (KCP&L) and its partners are demonstrating an end-to-end SmartGrid built around a major SmartSubstation with a local distributed control system based on IEC 61850 protocols and control processors. KCP&L is implementing a 1 MW by 1 MWh Li-ion battery system from Dow Kokam as part of this initiative. United States, Missouri, Kansas City [20]
Saft Enel Substation Energy Storage Project Battery, Lithium Ion 0.5
(1 x 0.5)
Saft's substation is located in the Puglia region of Italy, an area with a high level of variable and intermittent power from renewable energy sources that can cause reverse power flows on the high/medium voltage transformers. The role of Saft’s batteries in the energy storage system is to reduce the variability of power flow as well as allowing for more controllable energy exchange between the substation and the Italian national grid. Italy, Apulia, Foggia [20]
Edward Hyatt (Oroville) Power Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(819 x ?)
Located in rock in the left abutment near the axis of Oroville Dam, Edward Hyatt Powerplant is an underground, hydroelectric, pumping-generating facility. Construction of the plant began in 1964 and was completed in 1969. [see separate article for further info] United States, California, Oroville [20]
Thermalito Pumping - Generating Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(120 x ?)
Water released for power in excess of local and downstream requirements is conserved by pumpback operation during off-peak hours through both power plants into Lake Oroville to be subsequently released for power generation during periods of peak power demand. Construction on the plant began in 1964 and was completed in 1969, with operations starting in 1968. United States, California, Oroville [20]
Mount Elbert Power Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 2,400
(200 x 12)
Mt. Elbert began operations in 1981. The Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant is an all-concrete structure equivalent to a 14-story building. Most of the structure is below ground. Water from the Forebay above drops through two penstocks 445 feet to the powerplant where two turbine-generators develop 200,000 kilowatts of electrical power. Mt. Elbert's two units are also designed to operate as a 170,000-horsepower electric motor to drive the turbines in reverse and pump the same water back up to the forebay. United States, Colorado, Lake County [20]
Horse Mesa Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(97 x ?)
In 1969, SRP initiated its Hydroelectric Expansion and Frequency Unification (HEFU) program to increase hydroelectric generating capacity at facilities on the Salt River. The Horse Mesa dam has three conventional hydroelectric generating units rated at a total of 32,000 kW, and a pumped storage unit rated at 97,000 kW added in 1972. United States, Arizona, Tonto National Forest [20]
Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 36,344
(1,652 x 22)
Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant is now Tennessee Valley Authority's largest hydro facility, with a rated output of more than 1,600 MW. The 528-acre reservoir at the top of Raccoon Mountain holds about 60 million cubic yards of water behind a dam that is 8,500 feet long and 230 feet high. [see separate article for further info] United States, Tennessee, Cumberland Plateau [20]
Lewiston Pump-Generating Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(240 x ?)
The Niagara project, located about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) miles downstream from Niagara Falls, consists of two main facilities: the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant, with 13 turbines, and the Lewiston Pump-Generating Plant, with 12 pump-turbines. In between the two plants is a forebay capable of holding about 740 million gallons of water; behind the Lewiston plant, a 1,900 acres (770 ha) reservoir holds additional supplies of water. Water is diverted from the Niagara River—up to 375,000 U.S. gallons a second. On average, more than 200,000 cubic feet per second (cfs), or 1.5 million gallons of water a second, flow from Lake Erie into the Niagara River. [see separate article for further info] United States, New York, Lewiston [20]
Northfield Mountain Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(1080 x ?)
The 1,080 MW plant is entirely underground and does not depend upon the natural flow of the river for operation. The man-made 300-acre upper reservoir, 800 feet above the river, can store 5.6 billion gallons of water. The underground powerhouse includes four large reversible turbines, each capable of pumping 27,000 gallons of water per second and generating 270,000 kilowatts of electricity. The powerhouse is accessible through a 2,500-foot-long tunnel. Seven hundred feet below the surface, the cavern is longer than a football field and higher than a ten-story building. [see separate article for further info] United States, Massachusetts, Northfield [20]
Muddy Run Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(1070 x ?)
The 8-unit power station provides 1,070 megawatts (MW) of electricity by damming the Muddy Run ravine from its mouth. Muddy Run has provided electric power to the regional transmission system since commercial operation began in 1966. At the time, it was the largest pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the world. United States, Pennsylvania, West Holtwood [20]
Bad Creek Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(1065 x ?)
1,065-megawatt pumped-storage facility located in Oconee County, eight miles north of Salem, S.C. The four-unit station began generating electricity in 1991, and is the largest hydroelectric station on the Duke Energy system. The Bad Creek facility utilizes two reservoirs (or lakes) to generate electricity: an upper reservoir and a lower reservoir United States, South Carolina, Oconee County [20]
Jocassee Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(710 x ?)
The four-unit Jocassee Hydroelectric Station is a 710-megawatt pumped-storage generating facility located in Pickens County, S.C. United States, South Carolina, Pickens County [20]
Bear Swamp Hydroelectric Power Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 3,600
(600 x 6)
[see article]. [see separate article for further info] United States, Massachusetts, Rowe [20] "
Fairfield Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 3,577
(511 x 7)
The Fairfield Pumped Storage Facility utilizes four earthen dams and four penstocks that lead from the intake structure on the Monticello Reservoir to the powerhouse. It is primarily used for peaking, reserve generation, and off-peak power usage. United States, South Carolina, Jenkinsville [20]
Yards Creek Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 2,400
(400 x 6)
The Yards Creek Pumped Storage Facility is located in Blairstown Township, New Jersey. Water is conveyed between the plant & the Upper Reservoir via an 18’ diameter 1,800’ long exposed steel pipe. At full station load, approx. 4 million gpm (9,000 cfs) of water are released . The storage facility provides energy regulation and spinning reserve during on-peak hours, and it provides an energy sink off-peak to allow fossil and nuclear plants to remain more fully loaded. United States, New Jersey, Blairstown [20]
Seneca Pumped Storage Generating Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(440 x ?)
[see article] United States, Pennsylvania, Mead Township [20]
Taum Sauk Hydroelectric Power Station Pumped Hydro Storage 3,520
(440 x 8)
Operated by the AmerenUE electric company from a reservoir on top of Proffit Mountain into a lower reservoir on the East Fork of the Black River [see separate article for further info] . United States, Missouri, Lesterville [20]
Richard B. Russell Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(300 x ?)
[see separate article for further info] United States, Georgia, Richard B. Russell Lake [20]
Cabin Creek Generating Station Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 1,296
(324 x 4)
Cabin Creek is a pumped storage plant with a lower and upper reservoir. During periods of peak electricity demand on Xcel Energy’s Colorado system. United States, Colorado, Georgetown [20]
Salina Pumped Storage Project Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(260 x ?)
[see article] United States, Oklahoma, Salina [20]
Carters Dam Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(250 x ?)
[see article] United States, Georgia, Chatsworth [20]
Smith Mountain Pumped Storage Project Pumped Hydro Storage unknown
560 x ?)
[see article] United States, Virginia, Smith Mountain Lake [20]
Wallace Dam Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(208 x ?)
In 1979 Lake Oconee was created with the completion of Wallace Dam, which is a pumped-storage reservoir for Lake Sinclair. United States, Georgia, Milledgeville [20]
Clarence Cannon Dam Pumped Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(58 x ?)
[see article] United States, Missouri, Mark Twain Lake [20]
Mormon Flat Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(50 x ?)
The dam, built between 1923–25, is 224 feet high and 380 feet long. Two hydroelectric generating units are at the dam; one is a conventional unit rated at 10,000 kW; the other is a pumped storage unit built in 1971 and rated at 50,000 kW. The pumped storage unit permits recycling of water for hydroelectric production and keeps lake levels relatively constant. [see separate article for further info] United States, Arizona, Tonto National Forest [20]
New Wadell Dam Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(45 x ?)
[see article] United States, Arizona, Maricopa County [20]
DeGray Lake Pumped Hydro Storage Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(28 x ?)
The dam at DeGray Lake houses a 28 MW pump-turbine and is owned by the US Army Corps. of Engineers. Electrical power from this facility is sold to Southwest Power Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. United States, Arkansas, DeGray Lake [20]
Blenheim-Gilboa Pumped Storage Power Project Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(1,160 x ?)
[see article] United States, New York, North Blenheim [20]
CCET Technology Solutions for Wind Integration Battery, Lithium Ion 1
(1 x 1)
Samsung SDI, an affiliate of Samsung Group, and Xtreme Power announced that they have been selected by the Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) to install a 1 MW - 1 MWh Lithium Ion based Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) system at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, Texas as part of a Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The $27 million demonstration project will be connected to SPEC's distribution grid at the Reese Technology Center as part of an ongoing wind technology program managed by GroupNIRE and Texas Tech University. United States, Texas, Lubbock [20]
City of Fort Collins Utilities Four Cities Smart Grid Development Project Thermal Storage, Ice unknown
(0.227 x ?)
The project will address the research, development, and demonstration of a coordinated and integrated system of 3.5 MW of mixed distributed to achieve a 20-30 percent peak load reduction on two distribution feeders. Site 1: New Belgium: a 135-kW new thermal storage; and a 160-kW load shedding potentials. Site 2: a 92-kW thermal storage; Site 3: Colorado State University - deploys an 80-kW thermal storage. United States, Colorado, Fort Collins [20]
SDG&E Borrego Springs Microgrid Demonstration Project Battery, Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum 1.5
(0.5 x 3)
The SDG&E microgrid project involves integration of five technologies, including distributed energy resources (DER) and VAR management, feeder automation system technologies (FAST), advanced energy storage, an outage/distribution management system, and price-driven load management. SDG&E installed a 1.5 MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system at the Borrego Springs Substation in June 2012. United States, California, Borrego Springs [20]
Borrego Springs Microgrid Demonstration Project Battery, Lithium Polymer 0.14
(0.075 x 2)
The SDG&E microgrid project integrates a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) component - focused on utility-side applications, and a California Energy Commission (CEC) portion, which focuses on customer-side applications. Goals of the DOE portion include achieving a greater than 15 percent reduction in feeder peak load, exploring microgrid islanding, and improving system reliability. Borrego Substation, with a peak load of over 10 MW. SDG&E has installed two 25 kW/50 kWh Li-ion batteries and one 25 kW/25 kWh Li-ion battery on Circuit 170 at 12 kV. United States, California, Borrego Springs [20]
University of Hawaii Smart Grid Regional and Energy Storage Demonstration Project Battery, Lithium Ion 1
(1 x 10
An advanced energy storage system will be installed at the Maui Electric Company substation in Wailea as part of the Maui Smart Grid Project. The Grid Battery System is being provided by A123 Systems, designed to deliver one megawatt of power for a full hour, reducing the peak energy load on the substation’s transformers. United States, Hawaii, Wailea [20]
Allegheny Power RDSI Demonstration Project Battery, Lithium Ion 0.048
(0.024 x 2)
The Super Circuit microgrid installation — a 160-kilowatt natural gas generator, a 40-kilowatt solar array and three lithium-ion batteries that can put out a total of 24 kilowatts of power for two hours. United States, West Virginia, Morgantown [20]
O'Neill Powerplant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(25.2 x ?)
The O`Neill Pump-Generating Plant pumps Central Valley Project water for offstream storage. The O`Neill Pump-Generating Plant consists of an intake channel leading off the Delta-Mendota Canal and six pump-generating units. Normally these units operate as pumps to lift water from 45 to 53 feet into the O`Neill Forebay. Each unit can discharge 700 cubic feet per second and has a rating of 6,000 horse-power, with generating capacity of about 4,200 kilowatts. United States, California, Los Banos [20]
Flatiron Powerplant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(8.5 x ?)
The Flatiron Powerplant discharges into Flatiron Reservoir, which regulates the water for release to the foothills storage and distribution system. The afterbay storage in Flatiron Reservoir and the forebay storage in Pinewood Lake enable Flatiron Powerplant to meet daily power loads. The Flatiron reversible pump (Unit 3) lifts water from Flatiron Reservoir, a maximum of 297 feet (91 m), and delivers it through Carter Lake pressure conduit and tunnel to Carter Lake. United States, Colorado, Loveland [20]
McAlpine Circuit CES System Battery, Sodium Nickel Chloride 0.024
(0.024 x 1)
Duke Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration activities include work in the Envision Energy pilot in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Envision Energy project consists of two substation scale energy storage installations, a one MW solar installation, two community energy storage locations, communication nodes, distribution devices, metering, home energy management systems, residential PV, intelligent EVSE and plug-in vehicles. The Purpose of CES Systems is to perform transformer-level peak shaving by integrating with residential level distributed resources and loads United States, North Carolina, Charlotte [20]
Rocky River Pumped Storage Plant Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop unknown
(29 x ?)
First operated in 1929, the Rocky River Plant had two reversible pumps. With Candlewood Lake and the Housatonic River differing in elevation by 200 feet (61 m), the Rocky River plant uses a single penstock, 1,000 feet (300 m) long, to carry water downhill and lift it uphill. The Rocky River plant's pair of 8,100-horsepower pumps together are capable of lifting a million gallons every four minutes. For every kilowatt-hour used to pump water, the three plants together can generate 1.3 kilowatt-hours. [see separate article for further info] United States, Connecticut, New Milford [20]
Project Barbados Commercial Pilot Battery, Lithium Ion unknown
(2.0 x ?)
Project Barbados went online in November 2008 as the first Li-ion battery system connected to the power grid for commercial services. United States, Pennsylvania, Norristown [20]
UC San Diego Panasonic / Sanyo Energy System Battery, Lithium Ion 0.03
(0.03 x 1)
Since July 2011, UCSD has served as the site host to a 30 kW/30 kWh PV integrated storage system from Panasonic/Sanyo. United States, California, San Diego [20]
Ultralife SUNY Canton Wind Integration Demonstration Battery, Lithium Ion 2
(0.5 x 4)
Ultralife Corporation has been awarded a total of $3 million by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA), to support a wind turbine demonstration project planned for installation on the campus of the State University of New York at Canton (SUNY Canton) with an advanced 2 megawatt-hour Lithium Ion Battery energy storage at a rate of up to 500 kilowatts for up to four hours United States, New York, Canton [20]
Anchorage Area Battery Energy Storage System Battery, Lithium Ion 15
(25 x 0.6)
This project includes the installation of a 25 MW / 14 mWh Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the Anchorage area. This device will add stability to the system and provide a measure of “spin” to facilitate spooling-up alternative generation in the event of an outage, part of Alaska Railbelt Cooperative Transmission and Electric Company's (ARCTEC) Unconstrain Bradley Lake Hydroelectric Project. United States, Alaska, Anchorage [20]
Milton NaS Battery Energy Storage System Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 14.4
(2 x 7.2)
AEP’s 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. Source: ""Energy Storage and Project Demos"" Electric Power Energy Research (EPRI) United States, West Virginia, Milton [20]
Churubusco NaS Battery Energy Storage System Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 14.4
(2 x 7.2)
AEP’s 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. United States, Indiana, Churubusco [20]
Bluffton NaS Energy Storage System Battery, Sodium-Sulfur 14.4
(2 x 7.2)
American Electric Power in Ohio (AEP Ohio) has 2-MW units which were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from a substation occurs. United States, Ohio, Bluffton [20]
Public Service Company of New Mexico PV Plus Battery for Simultaneous Voltage Smoothing and Peak Shifting Battery, Lead Acid, Valve Regulated (VRLA) 1
(0.25 x 4)
Public Service Company of New Mexico and its partners will co-locate a 1.0 MWh advanced lead acid battery (that integrates an Advanced VRLA and UltraBattery technology) with a separately installed 500 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) plant to create a dispatchable distributed generation resource. The BESS operates at 250 kW with a duration of 4 hours when performing energy time shift, and 500 kW with a duration of 15 minutes when performing voltage smoothing. United States, New Mexico, Albuquerque [20]
Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration: Residential Energy Storage Units Battery 0.016
(0.004 x 4)
Southern California Edison (SCE) and its partners will deploy advanced Smart Grid SG) technologies. The demonstration will be conducted in Irvine, California and will include two 12kV distribution circuits fed by SCE’s MacArthur Substation, residential homes, and EV charging in a parking lot at the University of California, Irvine. United States, California, Irvine [20]
HECO–Greensmith Battery Energy Storage System Battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate 0.02
(0.005 x 4)
Greensmith has provided HECO with a Lithium Ion BESS to integrate a level 2 EV charging station with a nearby solar array. United States, Hawaii, Honolulu [20]
Alliant Techsystems (ATK) Launch Systems Demonstration Project Compressed Air Storage, Modular 0.06
(0.08 x 0.75)
Alliant Techsystems's project will integrate an ambitious and highly diverse set of distributed resources. These include four heat recovery systems for a total of 1,400 kW. For storage, the project includes up to 1,440 kW of pumped hydro capacity for two-to-four hours, and an above-ground compressed air energy storage (CAES) and generation system (80 kW capacity for 30–60 minutes). United States, Utah, Promontory [20]
Discovery at Spring Trails Residential Energy Storage Battery, Lithium Ion 0.42
(0.03 x 14)
This project is slated to include up to 30 home installations, each with a battery rated at 1 kW. United States, Texas, Spring [20]
UC San Diego BMW Energy Storage System Battery, Lithium Ion 1.16
(0.108 x 2)
The BMW project is fully sponsored by BMW, and will consist of utilizing used mini-E electric vehicle batteries, and will have about 108 kW of power capacity and 2–3 hours of energy storage. The system will be integrated with PV solar and possibly fast EV DC charging. United States, California, San Diego [20]
UC San Diego SGIP Energy Storage Project Battery 10
(5 x 2)
The University of California, San Diego has been approved for incentives from California’s Self-Generation Incentive Program for the installation of energy storage, to be integrated with PV renewable generation United States, California, San Diego [20]
Con Edison–Eos Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage Pilot Battery, Zinc Hybrid Cathode 6
(1 x 6)
Eos Energy Storage and Consolidated Edison stated that the pilot, targeted to begin in early 2014, is a milestone in the scale-up and commercialization of Eos’s core product, a 1 MW–6 MWh grid-scale battery called the Eos Aurora. The Aurora is backed by Eos’s novel, low-cost and proprietary zinc hybrid cathode technology, which has a 75% round-trip efficiency rate and a 10,000-cycle/30-year lifetime. United States, New York, New York [20]
Electrochemical Energy Storage Project Battery, Manganese Cobalt 1
(1 x 1)
The project integrates one megawatt hour of stored energy into a power grid that supports three major campus facilities. Canada, British Columbia, Vancouver [20]
Northern Powergrid Battery Storage Trial Battery 5.7
(0.76? x 7.5)
The trial is part of a larger project known as the Customer-Led Network Revolution (CLNR). Six energy-storage devices were installed across a mixture of rural and urban locations in Northern England, to help balance the supply and demand of electricity for thousands of residential and business properties and test the effectiveness of energy storage batteries as part of an overall smart grid solution. Three of the devices have a capacity of 100 kWh, two are 200 kWh and the largest one having a capacity of 5 MWh, making it one of the largest in Europe. Participating organizations include Northern Powergrid, British Gas, EA Technology, Durham and Newcastle universities, with funding by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OFGEM) under its Tier 1 Low Carbon Network Fund. United Kingdom, England, Darlington;
plus Northumberland;
and Maltby, South Yorkshire
[57][58]
Modular Energy Storage Architecture Project Battery, Lithium Ion 1
(1 x 1)
Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and 1Energy Systems will partner to develop a one-megawatt battery energy storage system, built on the Modular Energy Storage Architecture (MESA). United States, Washington, Everett [20]
South Austin Recreational Center Distributed Energy Storage Pilot Thermal Storage, Ice 0.07
(0.015 x 4.7)
An ice-storage project at the South Austin Recreational Center. United States, Texas, Austin [20]
Palmiet Pumped Storage Scheme Pumped Hydro Storage 4,000
(400 x 10)
Water is stored in an upper and lower reservoir. For power generating purposes, water flows from the upper reservoir to the lower reservoir via two reversible pump/turbines. During off peak periods the water collected in the lower reservoir is pumped back again. During winter rainfall months, excess water in the Palmiet River is pumped to the upper reservoir for transfer to the Steenbras Dam and the Cape Town water consumer. [see article for further information] South Africa, Western Cape, Grabouw [20]
Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme Pumped Hydro Storage 21,312
(1,332 x 16)
The Pumped Storage Scheme consists of an upper and a lower dam; both of approximately 22 million m3< capacity. The dams, 4.6 km apart, are connected by underground waterways, through an underground powerhouse which house, 4 x 333 MW pump turbines. [see article for further information] South Africa, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Van Reenen's Pass [20]
Steenbras Dam Pumped Storage Scheme Pumped Hydro Storage, Open Loop 2,790
(180 x 15.5)
Steenbras was the first hydroelectric pumped-storage scheme commissioned on the continent of Africa with an installed capacity of 180 MW. Apart from its economic advantages, the Steenbras pumped-storage scheme also affords an increased measure of security of supply to the city since, unlike thermal power stations, hydroelectric pumped-storage installations, can be brought into operation and up to full load within a matter of minutes. South Africa, Western Cape, False Bay [20]
Khi Solar One Power Plant Thermal Storage, Steam 100
(50 x 2)
Khi Solar One is a 50 MW concentrated solar power plant with a power tower that uses large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is pumped up to the tower mounted receiver and is converted to steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. The power station will include a facility to store steam, enabling it to generate electricity for two hours when the sun is not shining. [see article for further information] South Africa, Northern Cape Province, Upington [20][59]
KaXu Solar One Thermal Storage, Molten Salt 300
(100 x 3)
KaXu Solar One is a 100 MW parabolic trough plant. The power station will have a storage capacity of three hours and use molten salt to store heat energy. In the parabolic trough system, the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the focal line of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to convert water to steam and generate electricity in a conventional steam generator. [see article for further information] South Africa, Northern Cape Province, Pofadder [20]
Bokpoort Concentrated Solar Plant Thermal Storage, Molten Salt 450
(50 x 9)
The Bokpoort CSP Project, being contracted in 2014, comprises a solar field, a power block, a thermal energy storage system and related infrastructure such as grid interconnection and water abstraction and treatment systemd. The solar field comprises loops of parabolic trough solar collector assemblies which will collect the heat from the sun. The solar collectors will be capable of heating the heat transfer fluid up to 393 °C. The power block comprises a solar steam generator and a steam turbine delivering 50 MW (net). South Africa, Northern Cape Province, Globershoop [20]
Hybrid energy storage system Braderup Battery, Lithium-Ion, Vanadium Redox Flow 3
(2,33 x 1,3)
Since July 2014 the Energiespeicher Nord GmbH & Co. KG operates one of the biggest hybrid batteries in Europe. The hybrid system consists of a lithium-ion battery storage (2MW power, 2MWh storage capacity) and a vanadium redox flow battery storage (330 kW power, 1 MWh storage capacity). Sony delivers the lithium-ion modules, Vanadis Power GmbH the vanadium redox flow battery. The storage system is connected to the local community wind farm (18 MW installed capacity) to save a possible electricity surplus. Depending on wind strength and charge status of each battery the generated power of the wind turbines is distributed by a controlling system of the Robert Bosch GmbH to the suitable battery. Bosch furthermore stands responsible for the project implementation and system integration. Germany, Schleswig-Holstein, Braderup [60][20]
Solar storage system Muswellbrook Solar power battery storage 0,216
(unknown)
In November 2014 Photon Energy Australia Pty Ltd commissioned a solar energy storage system which supplies a broadcast antenna in Muswellbrook, Australia, as the primary energy source. The project was developed in cooperation with the German Energy Agency dena and uses mainly German technology. The 39 kWp solar array was installed at a higher higher angle, 40 degrees, to maximise yield in the winter months. The panels feed 216 kWh of solar batteries. Three inverters regulate the energy flow to the broadcast tower. In case of an emergency the system starts a back-up diesel generator. Australia, New South Wales, Muswellbrook [61][62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article contains text from the United States Department of Energy, DOE Energy Storage Database, a work in the public domain.
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External links[edit]