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This article is about the year 1731.
|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1700s 1710s 1720s – 1730s – 1740s 1750s 1760s|
|Years:||1728 1729 1730 – 1731 – 1732 1733 1734|
|1731 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2484|
|British Regnal year||4 Geo. 2 – 5 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4427 or 4367
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4428 or 4368
|- Vikram Samvat||1787–1788|
|- Shaka Samvat||1653–1654|
|- Kali Yuga||4832–4833|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōhō 16
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||181 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2273–2274|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1731.|
- March 16 – The Treaty of Vienna is signed between the Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic and Spain.
- April 2 – The town of Raynham, Massachusetts in Bristol County is entered as a new town by the governor and court of Massachusetts, New England, America.
- Royal Colony of North Carolina Governor George Burrington asks the North Carolina General Assembly to pass an act establishing a town on the Cape Fear River, in what is seen as a political move to shift the power away from the powerful Cape Fear plantation class. The town is laid out in 1733 and incorporated as Wilmington in 1740.
- English Captain Charles Gough rediscovers Gough Island in the South Atlantic.
- Laura Bassi becomes the first official female university teacher on being appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna at the age of 21.
- John Bevis observes the Crab Nebula for the first time in the modern era.
- The Royal Theatre of Mantua (Italy) is built by Ferdinando Galli Bibiena.
- February – Charles Churchill, English poet (d. 1764)
- April 8 – William Williams, Signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1811)
- May 8 – Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London and abolitionist (d. 1809)
- June 2 – Martha Washington, First Lady of the United States (d. 1802)
- August – Henry Constantine Jennings, English gambler and collector (d. 1819)
- October 10 – Henry Cavendish, English scientist (d. 1810)
- November 9 – Benjamin Banneker, African-American astronomer and surveyor of the District of Columbia (d. 1806)
- November 15 – William Cowper, English poet (d. 1800)
- December 8 – František Xaver Dušek, Czech composer (d. 1799)
- December 12 – Erasmus Darwin, English scientist and grandfather of Charles Darwin (d. 1802)
- December 28 – José de Viera y Clavijo, Spanish writer
- Nikephoros Theotokis, Greek scholar and theologian (d. 1800)
- Mikiel'Ang Grima – Maltese surgeon (d. 1798)
- January 6 – Étienne François Geoffroy, French chemist (b. 1672)
- January 27 – Bartolomeo Cristofori, Italian maker of musical instruments (b. 1655)
- February 22 – Frederik Ruysch, Dutch physician and anatomist (b. 1638)
- March 5 - Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi, Sufi academic (b. 1641
- March 8 – Ferdinand Brokoff, Czech sculptor (b. 1688)
- c. April 24 – Daniel Defoe, English writer (b. 1660)
- May 1 – Johann Ludwig Bach, German composer (b. 1677)
- August 27 – Eudoxia Lopukhina, divorced wife of Peter the Great of Russia (b. 1669)
- December 17 – George Lockhart, writer, spy and politician (duel)
- December 26 – Antoine Houdar de la Motte, French writer (b. 1672)
- December 29 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (b. 1685)
- "The 18th Century Women Scientists of Bologna". ScienceWeek. 2004. Retrieved 2011-04-26.