1660

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1660 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1660
MDCLX
Ab urbe condita2413
Armenian calendar1109
ԹՎ ՌՃԹ
Assyrian calendar6410
Balinese saka calendar1581–1582
Bengali calendar1067
Berber calendar2610
English Regnal year11 Cha. 2 – 12 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2204
Burmese calendar1022
Byzantine calendar7168–7169
Chinese calendar己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4356 or 4296
    — to —
庚子年 (Metal Rat)
4357 or 4297
Coptic calendar1376–1377
Discordian calendar2826
Ethiopian calendar1652–1653
Hebrew calendar5420–5421
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1716–1717
 - Shaka Samvat1581–1582
 - Kali Yuga4760–4761
Holocene calendar11660
Igbo calendar660–661
Iranian calendar1038–1039
Islamic calendar1070–1071
Japanese calendarManji 3
(万治3年)
Javanese calendar1582–1583
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3993
Minguo calendar252 before ROC
民前252年
Nanakshahi calendar192
Thai solar calendar2202–2203
Tibetan calendar阴土猪年
(female Earth-Pig)
1786 or 1405 or 633
    — to —
阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
1787 or 1406 or 634
The Stuart Restoration begins.

1660 (MDCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1660th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 660th year of the 2nd millennium, the 60th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1660, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events[edit]

January–March[edit]

  • January 1
    • At daybreak, English Army Colonel George Monck, with two brigades of troops from his Scottish occupational force, fords the River Tweed at Coldstream in Scotland to cross the border into England (at Northumberland, with a mission of advancing toward London to end military rule of England by General John Lambert and to accomplish the English Restoration, the return of the monarchy to England. By the end of the day, he and his soldiers have gone 15 miles through knee-deep snow to Wooler while the advance guard of cavalry had covered 50 miles to reach Morpeth.[1][2]
    • At the same time, rebels within the English Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Fairfax take control of York and await the arrival of Monck's troops.[3]
    • Samuel Pepys, a 36-year-old member of parliament, begins keeping a diary that later provides a detailed insight into daily life and events in 17th century England. He continues until May 31, 1669, when worsening eyesight leads him to quit. .[4] Pepys starts with a preliminary note, "Blessed be God, at the end of the last year I was in very good health, without any sense of my old pain but upon taking of cold. I lived in Axe-yard, having my wife and servant Jane, and no more in family than us three." For his first note on "January 1. 1659/60 Lords-day", he notes "This morning (we lying lately in the garret) I rose, put on my suit with great skirts, having not lately worn any other clothes but them," followed by recounting his attendance at the Exeter-house church in London.[5]
  • January 6 – The Rump Parliament passes a resolution requesting Colonel Monck to come to London "as speedily as he could", followed by a resolution of approval on January 12 and a vote of thanks and annual payment of 1,000 pounds sterling for his lifetime on January 16.[6]
  • January 11 – Colonel Monck and Colonel Fairfax rendezvous at York and then prepare to proceed southward toward London. gathering deserters from Lambert's army along the way.[3]
  • January 16 – With 4,000 infantry and 1,800 cavalry ("an army sufficient to overawe, without exciting suspicion"),[6] Colonel Monck marches southward toward Nottingham, with a final destination of London. Colonel Thomas Morgan is dispatched back to Scotland with two regiments of cavalry to reinforce troops there.
  • January 31 – The Rump Parliament confirms the promotion of Colonel George Monck to the rank of General and he receives the commission of rank while at St Albans.[1]
  • February 3 – General George Monck, at the head of his troops, enters London on horseback, accompanied by his principal officers and the commissioners of the Rump Parliament. Bells ring as they pass but the crowds in the streets are unenthusiastic and the troops are "astonished at meeting with so different a reception to that which they had received elsewhere during their march.".[6][7]
  • February 13Charles XI becomes king of Sweden at the age of five, upon the death of his father, Charles X Gustavus.
  • February 26 – The Rump Parliament, under pressure from General Monck, votes to call back all of the surviving members of the group of 231 MPs who had been removed from the House of Commons in 1648 so that the Long Parliament can be reassembled long enough for a full Parliament to approve elections for a new legislative body.[3]
  • February 27John Thurloe is reinstated as England's Secretary of State, having been deprived of his offices late in the previous year.
  • March 3 – General John Lambert, who had attempted to stop the Restoration, is arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. He escapes on April 9 but is recaptured on April 24. Though spared the death penalty for treason in 1662, he remains incarcerated on the island of Guernsey for the rest of his life until his death at age 75 on March 1, 1694.[8]
  • March 16 – The Long Parliament, after having been reassembled for the first time in more than 11 years, votes for its own dissolution and calls for new elections for what will become the Convention Parliament to make the return from republic to monarchy.[3]
  • March 31 – The war in the West Indies between the indigenous Carib people, and the French Jesuits and English people who have colonized the islands, is ended with a treaty signed at Basse-Terre at Guadeloupe at the residence of the French Governor, Charles Houël du Petit Pré.[9]

April–June[edit]

July–September[edit]

October–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]


Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b J. W. Fortescue, The History of the British Army (Musaicum Books, 2020)
  2. ^ "January 1". Chambers' Book of Days. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h The History of Nations: England, by Samuel R. Gardner (John D. Morris and Company, 1906) p. 374-275
  4. ^ a b Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  5. ^ Samuel Pepys, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Vol. 1, transcribed and edited by Robert Latham and William Matthews (University of California Press, 1970) p. 3
  6. ^ a b c François Guizot, translated by Andrew R. Scoble, Monk, Or, The Fall of the Republic and the Restoration of the Monarchy in England, in 1660 (Henry G. Bohn, 1851) pp.64-69
  7. ^ a b c Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 187–188. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  8. ^ "Lambert, John (1619—1694)", by F. Warre Cornish, Encyclopedia Britannica, Ninth Edition, Volume 14 (Henry G. Allen Company, 1890) p. 236-237
  9. ^ Christopher Taylor, The Black Carib Wars: Freedom, Survival, and the Making of the Garifuna (University Press of Mississippi, 2012)
  10. ^ "Leigh Rayment's list of baronets".
  11. ^ a b c Anna Keay, The Magnificent Monarch: Charles II and the Ceremonies of Power (Bloomsbury, 2008) p. 81
  12. ^ "Friday 25 May 1660". The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
  13. ^ Jann Tibbetts, 50 Great Military Leaders of All Time (Vij Books, 2016)
  14. ^ Jerzy Zdanowski, Middle Eastern Societies in the 20th Century (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014) p. 239
  15. ^ Nick Lipscombe, The English Civil War An Atlas and Concise History of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1639–51 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020) p.23
  16. ^ "House of Lords Journal Volume 11: 29 August 1660", British History Online website
  17. ^ Knud J. V. Jespersen, A History of Denmark (Macmillan Press, 2018) p. 54
  18. ^ Elise C. Otté, Denmark and Iceland (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1881) pp. 107-108
  19. ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
  20. ^ Howe, Elizabeth (1992). The First English Actresses: Women and Drama, 1660–1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 24.
  21. ^ Gilder, Rosamond (1931). Enter the Actress: The First Women in the Theatre. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 166.
  22. ^ "The Vere Street Desdemona: Othello and the Theatrical Englishwoman, 1602—1660", by Clare McManus, in Women Making Shakespeare: Text, Reception and Performance (Bloomsbury, 2013) p. 222
  23. ^ a b Renato Constantino and Letizia R. Constantino, A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War (Monthly Review Press, 1975) p. 95
  24. ^ George Frederick Zook, The Company of Royal Adventurers Trading Into Africa, reprinted from The Journal of Negro History (April 1919), reprinted by The New Era Printing Company, 1919) p. 8