|1685 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|State leaders – Colonial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2438|
|English Regnal year||36 Cha. 2 – 1 Ja. 2|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4381 or 4321
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4382 or 4322
|- Vikram Samvat||1741–1742|
|- Shaka Samvat||1606–1607|
|- Kali Yuga||4785–4786|
|Japanese calendar||Jōkyō 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||227 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2227–2228|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1685.|
1685 (MDCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Julian calendar, the 1685th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 685th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1685, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- February 6 – James Stuart, Duke of York becomes James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland in succession to his brother Charles II (1630–1685), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland since 1660. James II and VII reigns to 1688.
- February 20 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, intending to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands with 200 surviving colonists at Matagorda Bay on the Texas coast, believing the Mississippi near. He establishes Fort St. Louis. 
- February–March – Morean War: The Ottoman serasker Halil Pasha invades the Mani Peninsula and forces it to surrender hostages.
- March – Louis XIV of France passes the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies.
- May 11 – The Killing Time: Five Covenanters in Wigtown, Scotland, notably Margaret Wilson, are executed for refusing to swear an oath declaring King James of England, Scotland and Ireland as head of the church, becoming the 'Wigtown martyrs'.
- June 11 – Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, lands at Lyme Regis with an invasion force brought from the Netherlands to challenge his uncle, James II, for the Crown of England.
- June 20 – Monmouth Rebellion: James, Duke of Monmouth declares himself at Taunton to be King and heir to his father's Kingdoms as James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland.
- July 6 – Monmouth Rebellion – Battle of Sedgemoor: the armies of King James II of England defeat rebel forces under James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and capture the Duke himself, shortly after the battle.
- July 15 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, London, England.
- August 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress of Koroni from the Ottoman Empire. Its garrison is massacred.
- August 25 – The Bloody Assizes begin in Winchester; over 1000 of Monmouth's rebels tried and condemned to death or transportation.
- September 14 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice defeats an 8,000-strong Ottoman army at Kalamata.
- September – The first organised street lighting was introduced in London, England with oil lamps to be lit outside every tenth house on moonless winter nights.
- October 18–October 19 – Louis XIV issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and declares Protestantism illegal, thereby depriving Huguenots of civil rights.
- November 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress town of Igoumenitsa from the Ottoman Empire and razes it to the ground.
- The Chinese army of the Qing dynasty attacks a Russian post at Albazin, during the reigns of the Kangxi Emperor and the dual Russian rulers Ivan V of Russia and Peter I of Russia. The events lead to the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
- Adam Baldridge finds a pirate base at Île Sainte-Marie in Madagascar.
- Louis XIV is married to Madame de Maintenon in a secret ceremony.
- The Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow in the State of New York in the United States was constructed by the original Dutch settlers of New York, later to become famous as the site of the rampage of the "Headless Horseman" spirit in the early American author Washington Irving's novel The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.
- January 1 – Joseph Burroughs, English minister (d. 1761)
- January 6 – Manuel de Montiano, Spanish colonial administrator (d. 1762)
- January 7
- January 9 – Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch philologist and critic (d. 1766)
- January 24 – Giuseppe Alessandro Furietti, Catholic cardinal (d. 1764)
- February 6 – Sir John Rushout, 4th Baronet (d. 1775)
- February 8 – Charles-Jean-François Hénault, French writer and historian (d. 1770)
- February 9 – Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice (d. 1762)
- February 10 – Aaron Hill (writer), English dramatist and miscellaneous writer (d. 1750)
- February 12 – George Hadley, English lawyer and amateur meteorologist (d. 1768)
- February 23 – George Frideric Handel, German composer (d. 1759)
- February 24 – Hieronymus Pez, Austrian historian (d. 1762)
- March 2 – Moses Williams (antiquarian), Welsh scholar (d. 1742)
- March 11
- March 12 – George Berkeley, English philosopher (d. 1753)
- March 13 – Johann Paul Schiffelholz, German Baroque composer (d. 1758)
- March 17 – Jean-Marc Nattier (d. 1766)
- March 18 – Ralph Erskine (preacher), Scottish churchman (d. 1752)
- March 24 – John Fane, 7th Earl of Westmorland, British politician (d. 1762)
- March 26
- March 27 – Simon Hatley, English sailor (d. 1723)
- March 31 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (d. 1750)
- April 4 – Claude Sallier, French librarian (d. 1761)
- April 18 – Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière, French admiral and colonial administrator (d. 1752)
- April 24 – Cosimo Imperiali, Italian cardinal (d. 1764)
- April 30 – Hermann Friedrich Teichmeyer, German botanist (d. 1746)
- May 4 – Akdun, Manchu statesman (d. 1756)
- May 6 – Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Prussian Queen consort (d. 1735)
- May 19 – Neri Maria Corsini, Italian Catholic priest and cardinal (d. 1770)
- June 6 – Spencer Phips, Acting governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (d. 1757)
- June 10 – Harry Grey, 3rd Earl of Stamford, English peer (d. 1739)
- June 11 – Thomas Wedgwood III, English potter and the father of Josiah Wedgwood (d. 1739)
- June 14 – Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess by marriage of Hanau-Münzenberg (d. 1767)
- June 23 – Antonio Bernacchi, Italian opera singer (d. 1756)
- June 24 – Hans von Lehwaldt, German general (d. 1768)
- June 30
- July 3 – Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, British cavalry officer (d. 1768)
- July 22 – Henrik Magnus von Buddenbrock, Swedish general and noble (d. 1743)
- July 28 – Richard Newport (MP) (d. 1716)
- August 6 – Martin Bouquet, French Benedictine monk and historian (d. 1754)
- August 7 – Claude Lamoral, 6th Prince of Ligne, Austrian Field Marshal (d. 1766)
- August 8 – Claude Joseph Geoffroy, brother of Étienne François Geoffroy (d. 1752)
- August 15 – Jacob Theodor Klein, German scholar (d. 1759)
- August 18 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (d. 1731)
- September 2 – Christiane Charlotte of Nassau-Ottweiler, Countess, later Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg (d. 1761)
- September 3 – Charles Powlett, 3rd Duke of Bolton (d. 1754)
- September 4 – Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (d. 1746)
- September 14 – Didier Diderot, French craftsman (d. 1759)
- September 16 – Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt, German scientist (d. 1735)
- September 17
- September 20 – Giuseppe Matteo Alberti, Italian Baroque composer and violinist (d. 1751)
- September 29 – George Brudenell, 3rd Earl of Cardigan (d. 1732)
- October 1 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1740)
- October 13 – Henri François Le Dran, French surgeon (d. 1770)
- October 15 – Diederik van Domburg, 23rd Governor of Zeylan during the Dutch period in Ceylon (d. 1736)
- October 21 – George Forbes, 3rd Earl of Granard, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1765)
- October 26 – Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer (d. 1757)
- October 28 – Hans Gram (historian), Danish historian (d. 1748)
- October 31 – John Murray, 2nd Earl of Dunmore, Scottish soldier and peer (d. 1752)
- November 3 – François Roettiers, engraver, medallist, painter, sculptor (d. 1742)
- November 5 – Peter Angelis, French painter (d. 1734)
- November 7
- November 10 – Duncan Forbes, Lord Culloden, Scottish politician and judge (d. 1747)
- November 11
- November 15 – Balthasar Denner, German artist (d. 1749)
- November 17 – Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, French Canadian military officer (d. 1749)
- November 24 – Princess Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, German noble (d. 1761)
- November 25 – Eiler Hagerup d.e., Norwegian bishop (d. 1743)
- November 29 – John Willes (judge) (d. 1761)
- December 6 – Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, wife of Louis (d. 1712)
- December 8 – Johann Maria Farina (d. 1766)
- December 12 – Lodovico Giustini, Italian composer (d. 1743)
- December 17 – Thomas Tickell, minor English poet and man of letters (d. 1740)
- Date unknown – Marie Wulf, Danish pietist leader (d. 1738)
- Date unknown – Aldegonde Jeanne Pauli, banker in the Austrian Netherlands (d. 1761)
- January 2 – Harbottle Grimston, English politician (b. 1603)
- February 6 – King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland (b. 1630)
- February 11 – David Teniers III, Flemish painter (b. 1638)
- February 24 – Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle, English politician and military leader (b. 1629)
- March 22 – Emperor Go-Sai of Japan (b. 1638)
- April – Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter and engraver whose subject matter included tavern scenes, peasants drinking and smoking, itinerant musicians, village festivities and quaint village characters (b. 1610)
- May 11 – Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLachlan, the Wigtown martyrs
- May 26 – Karl II, Elector Palatine (b. 1651)
- July 15 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II of England (beheaded) (b. 1649)
- July 28 – Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, English statesman (b. 1618)
- September 1 – Leoline Jenkins, Welsh lawyer and diplomat (b. 1625)
- October 12 – Christoph Ignaz Abele, Austrian jurist (b. 1628)
- October 30 – Michel Le Tellier, French statesman (b. 1603)
- December 12 – John Pell, English mathematician (b. 1610)
- date unknown – Nalan Xingde, Chinese poet who became a scholar and officer in the Imperial Bodyguard (b. 1655)
- "La Salle Expedition". The Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 2014-12-19.
- "Wigtown Martyrs". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Harris, Tim (2004). "Scott (Crofts), James, duke of Monmouth and first duke of Buccleuch (1649–1685)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24879. Retrieved 2011-10-26. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Roberts, J: History of the World, Penguin, 1994.