1st Canadian Parliament

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The initial seat distribution of the 1st Canadian Parliament
Sir John A. Macdonald was Prime Minister during the 1st Canadian Parliament.

The 1st Canadian Parliament was in session from November 6, 1867 until July 8, 1872. The membership was set by the 1867 federal election from August 7 to September 20, 1867, and it changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections until it was prorogued prior to the 1872 election.

It was controlled by a Conservative/Liberal-Conservative Party majority under Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald. The Official Opposition was the Liberal Party, led by Edward Blake from 1869 to 1871.

The Speaker was James Cockburn. See also List of Canadian electoral districts 1867-1871 for a list of the ridings in this parliament.

There were 5 sessions of the 1st Parliament:

Session Start End
1st November 6, 1867 May 22, 1868
2nd April 15, 1869 June 22, 1869
3rd February 15, 1870 May 12, 1870
4th February 15, 1871 April 14, 1871
5th April 11, 1872 June 14, 1872

Nova Scotia

Riding Member Party
Annapolis William Hallett Ray Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Antigonish Hugh McDonald Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Cape Breton James Charles McKeagney Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Colchester Archibald McLelan to June 21, 1869 (appointed to Senate) Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Adams George Archibald from September 9, 1869 to May 19 1870
(named Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories)
Frederick M. Pearson from November 8, 1870 Liberal
Cumberland Charles Tupper Conservative
Digby Alfred William Savary Anti-Confederate then Conservative*
Guysborough Stewart Campbell Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Halifax Alfred Gilpin Jones Anti-Confederate then Independent
Halifax Patrick Power Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Hants Joseph Howe Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Inverness Hugh Cameron Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Kings William Henry Chipman to April 9, 1870 (death) Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Leverett de Veber Chipman from June 23, 1870 Liberal
Lunenberg Edmund Mortimer McDonald Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Pictou James William Carmichael Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Queens James Fraser Forbes Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Richmond William Croke to March 11, 1869 (death) Anti-Confederate then Conservative*
Isaac Le Vesconte from April 20, 1869 Conservative*
Shelburne Thomas Coffin Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative*
Victoria William Ross Anti-Confederate then Liberal*
Yarmouth Thomas Killam to December 15, 1868 (death) Anti-Confederate
Frank Killam from April 20, 1869 Liberal

The Anti-Confederate Party dissolved after failing to secure Nova Scotia's secession from Confederation. In 1869 its members joined other parties, or in one case sat as an independent.

New Brunswick

Riding Member Party
Albert John Wallace Liberal
Carleton Charles Connell Liberal
Charlotte John Bolton Liberal
City and County of Saint John John Hamilton Gray Conservative
City of Saint John Samuel Leonard Tilley Liberal-Conservative
Gloucester Timothy Warren Anglin Liberal
Kent Auguste Renaud Liberal
King's George Ryan Liberal
Northumberland John Mercer Johnson to September 8, 1868 (death) Liberal
Richard Hutchison from December 24, 1868 Liberal
Queen's John Ferris Liberal
Restigouche John McMillan to February 15, 1868 (appointed Inspector of Post Offices) Liberal
William Murray Caldwell from March 13, 1868 to September 29, 1870 (death) Liberal
George Moffat from November 29, 1870 Conservative
Sunbury Charles Burpee Liberal
Victoria John Costigan Liberal-Conservative
Westmorland Albert James Smith Liberal
York Charles Fisher to October 3, 1868 (appointed to the Supreme Court of New Brunswick) Liberal
John Pickard from October 28, 1868 Independent Liberal


Riding Member Party
Argenteuil John Abbott Liberal-Conservative
Bagot Pierre-Samuel Gendron Conservative
Beauce Christian Pozer Liberal
Beauharnois Michael Cayley Conservative
Bellechasse Louis Napoléon Casault to May 26, 1870 (appointed to Superior Court of Quebec) Conservative
Télesphore Fournier from August 15, 1870 Liberal
Berthier Anselme Pâquet Liberal
Bonaventure Théodore Robitaille Conservative
Brome Christopher Dunkin* to October 24, 1871 (appointed to Superior Court of Quebec) Conservative
Edward Carter from November 17, 1871 Conservative
Chambly Pierre Benoit Conservative
Champlain John Jones Ross Conservative
Charlevoix Simon Xavier Cimon Conservative
Châteauguay Luther Holton Liberal
Chicoutimi—Saguenay Pierre Alexis Tremblay Liberal
Compton John Henry Pope* Liberal-Conservative
Dorchester Hector-Louis Langevin Conservative
Drummond—Arthabaska Louis Adélard Sénécal Conservative
Gaspé Pierre Fortin Conservative
Hochelaga Antoine Dorion Liberal
Huntingdon John Rose* to September 30, 1869 (appointed to Senate) Liberal-Conservative
Julius Scriver from October 30, 1869 Liberal
Iberville François Béchard Liberal
Jacques Cartier Guillaume Gaucher Conservative
Joliette François Benjamin Godin Liberal
Kamouraska no election in 1867 due to rioting
Charles Pelletier from February 17, 1869 Liberal
Laprairie Alfred Pinsonneault Conservative
L'Assomption Louis Archambeault Liberal-Conservative
Laval Joseph Bellerose Conservative
Lévis Joseph Blanchet Liberal-Conservative
L'Islet Barthélemy Pouliot* Conservative
Lotbinière Henri Joly De Lotbinière Liberal
Maskinongé George Caron Conservative
Mégantic George Irvine Conservative
Missisquoi Brown Chamberlin to June 6, 1870 (resigned to become Queen's Printer) Conservative
George Baker from July 5, 1870 Liberal-Conservative
Montcalm Joseph Dufresne to July 13, 1871 (resigned) Conservative
Firmin Dugas from September 15, 1871 Conservative
Montmagny Joseph-Octave Beaubien Conservative
Montmorency Joseph Cauchon to November 1, 1867 Conservative
Jean Langlois from December 11, 1867 Conservative
Montreal Centre Thomas Workman Liberal
Montreal East George-Étienne Cartier Liberal-Conservative
Montreal West Thomas D'Arcy McGee to April 7, 1868 (assassinated) Liberal-Conservative
Michael Patrick Ryan from April 20, 1868 Liberal-Conservative
Napierville Sixte Coupal dit la Reine Liberal
Nicolet Joseph Gaudet Conservative
Ottawa (County of) Alonzo Wright Liberal-Conservative
Pontiac Edmund Heath Conservative
Portneuf Jean Brousseau Conservative
Quebec-Centre Georges-Honoré Simard Conservative
Quebec County Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau Conservative
Quebec East Pierre Huot to June 14, 1870 (resigned to become Postmaster of Quebec) Liberal
Adolphe Guillet dit Tourangeau from July 18, 1870 Conservative
Quebec West Thomas McGreevy Liberal-Conservative
Richelieu Thomas McCarthy to September 23, 1870 (death) Conservative
Georges Isidore Barthe from November 18, 1870 Independent Conservative
Richmond—Wolfe William Hoste Webb Conservative
Rimouski George Sylvain Conservative
Rouville Guillaume Cheval dit St-Jacques Liberal
Saint Maurice Louis Léon Lesieur Desaulniers to September 29, 1868 (resigned) Conservative
Élie Lacerte from October 30, 1868 Conservative
Shefford Lucius Huntington Liberal
Sherbrooke (Town of) Alexander Galt Liberal-Conservative
Soulanges Luc Masson Conservative
St. Hyacinthe Alexandre Kierzkowski to August 4, 1870 (death) Liberal
Louis Delorme from September 1, 1870 Liberal
St. John's François Bourassa Liberal
Stanstead Charles Colby Liberal-Conservative
Témiscouata Charles Bertrand Conservative
Terrebonne Louis Masson Conservative
Three Rivers Louis Boucher De Niverville to September 30, 1868 (resigned) Conservative
William McDougall from October 17, 1868 Conservative
Two Mountains Jean-Baptiste Daoust Conservative
Vaudreuil Donald McMillan Conservative
Verchères Félix Geoffrion Liberal
Yamaska Moïse Fortier Liberal

Four Quebec members recontested their seats in byelections, and were re-elected:

  • John Rose was reelected in Huntingdon on November 28, 1867, after being named Minister of Finance.
  • Barthélemy Pouliot was unseated on petition, but was reelected in L'Islet on July 14, 1869.
  • Christopher Dunkin was reelected in Brome on November 29, 1869, after being named Minister of Agriculture.
  • John Henry Pope was reelected in Compton on November 11, 1871, after being named Minister of Agriculture following Dunkin's resignation from Parliament.


Riding Member Party
Addington James N. Lapum Conservative
Algoma Wemyss Mackenzie Simpson to April 26, 1871 (appointed Indian Commissioner for Rupert's Land) Conservative
Frederick William Cumberland from June 30, 1871 Conservative
Bothwell David Mills Liberal
Brant North John Young Bown Liberal-Conservative
Brant South Hon. Edmund Burke Wood Liberal
Brockville James Crawford Conservative
Bruce North Alexander Sproat Conservative
Bruce South Francis Hurdon Conservative
Cardwell Thomas Roberts Ferguson Conservative
Carleton John Holmes Liberal-Conservative
Cornwall Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald Liberal
Dundas John Sylvester Ross Liberal-Conservative
Durham East Francis H. Burton Conservative
Durham West Edward Blake Liberal
Elgin East Thomas William Dobbie Conservative
Elgin West John H. Munroe Conservative
Essex John O'Connor Conservative
Frontenac Thomas Kirkpatrick to March 26, 1870 (death) Conservative
George Airey Kirkpatrick from April 27, 1870 Conservative
Glengarry Donald Alexander Macdonald Liberal
Grenville South Walter Shanly Conservative
Grey North George Snider Liberal
Grey South George Jackson Conservative
Haldimand David Thompson Liberal
Halton John White Liberal
Hamilton Charles Magill Liberal
Hastings East Hon. Robert Read to February 24, 1871 (appointed to Senate) Conservative
John White from March 20, 1871 Conservative
Hastings North Mackenzie Bowell Conservative
Hastings West James Brown Conservative
Huron North Joseph Whitehead Liberal
Huron South Malcolm Colin Cameron Liberal
Kent Rufus Stephenson Conservative
Kingston The Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, Prime Minister of Canada Liberal-Conservative
Lambton Alexander Mackenzie Liberal
Lanark North Hon. William C.B. McDougall Liberal-Conservative
Lanark South Alexander Morris* Conservative
Leeds North and Grenville North Francis Jones Conservative
Leeds South John Willoughby Crawford Conservative
Lennox Richard John Cartwright Conservative
Lincoln Hon. James Rea Benson to March 14, 1868 (appointed to the Senate) Liberal-Conservative
Thomas Rodman Merritt from April 13, 1868 Liberal
London Hon. John Carling Liberal-Conservative
Middlesex East Crowell Willson Liberal-Conservative
Middlesex North Thomas Scatcherd Liberal
Middlesex West Angus Peter McDonald Conservative
Monck Lachlin McCallum Liberal-Conservative
Niagara Angus Morrison Conservative
Norfolk North Aquila Walsh Conservative
Norfolk South Peter Lawson Liberal
Northumberland East Joseph Keeler Liberal-Conservative
Northumberland West Hon. James Cockburn Conservative
Ontario North John Hall Thompson Liberal
Ontario South Thomas Nicholson Gibbs Liberal-Conservative
City of Ottawa Joseph Merrill Currier Liberal-Conservative
Oxford North Thomas Oliver Liberal
Oxford South Ebenezer Vining Bodwell Liberal
Peel Hon. John Hillyard Cameron Conservative
Perth North James Redford Liberal
Perth South Robert MacFarlane Liberal
Peterborough East Peregrine Maitland Grover Conservative
Peterborough West Charles Perry Conservative
Prescott Albert Hagar Liberal
Prince Edward Walter Ross Liberal
Renfrew North John Rankin to October 12, 1869 (resigned) Conservative
Francis Hincks from November 13, 1869 Liberal-Conservative
Renfrew South Daniel McLachlin to June 3, 1869 (resigned) Liberal
John Lorn McDougall from July 12, 1869 Liberal
Russell James Alexander Grant Conservative
Simcoe North Thomas David McConkey Liberal
Simcoe South William Carruthers Little Liberal-Conservative
Stormont Samuel Ault Liberal-Conservative
Toronto East James Beaty Conservative
Victoria North John Morison Liberal
Victoria South George Kempt Liberal
Waterloo North Isaac Erb Bowman Liberal
Waterloo South James Young Liberal
Welland Thomas Clark Street Conservative
Wellington Centre Thomas Sutherland Parker to October 24, 1868 (death) Liberal
James Ross from January 18, 1869 Liberal
Wellington North George Alexander Drew Liberal-Conservative
Wellington South David Stirton Liberal
Wentworth North James McMonies Liberal
Wentworth South Joseph Rymal Liberal
West Toronto Robert Alexander Harrison Conservative
York East James Metcalfe Liberal
York North James Pearson Wells Liberal
York West Hon. William Pearce Howland to July 14, 1868 (appointed Lieutenant Governor of Ontario) Liberal-Conservative
Amos Wright from August 14, 1868 Liberal

One Ontario MP, Alexander Morris, recontested his seat in a byelection. He was reelected in Lanark South on November 29, 1869, after being appointed Minister of Inland Revenue.


Manitoba joined Confederation in 1870. Byelections to choose Manitoba's representatives were held on March 2 and March 3, 1871.

Riding Member Party
Lisgar John Christian Schultz from March 2, 1871 Conservative
Marquette James S. Lynch and Angus McKay from March 2, 1871 (both declared elected due to a tie) Liberal and Conservative
Selkirk Donald Alexander Smith from March 2, 1871 Independent Conservative
Provencher Pierre Delorme from March 3, 1871 Conservative

British Columbia

British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871. Byelections to choose the province's representatives were held in November and December of that year.

Riding Member Party
Cariboo District Joshua Spencer Thompson from December 19, 1871 Liberal-Conservative
New Westminster District Hugh Nelson from December 13, 1871 Liberal-Conservative
Vancouver Robert Wallace from December 15, 1871 Conservative
Victoria Amor De Cosmos from November 24, 1871 Liberal
Victoria Henry Nathan, Jr. from November 24, 1871 Liberal
Yale District Charles Frederick Houghton from December 19, 1871 Liberal


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