A Special Day
|A Special Day|
|Directed by||Ettore Scola|
|Produced by||Carlo Ponti|
|Written by||Maurizio Costanzo|
|Music by||Armando Trovajoli|
|Cinematography||Pasqualino De Santis|
|Edited by||Raimondo Crociani|
|Distributed by||Surf Film|
A Special Day (Italian: Una giornata particolare) is a 1977 Italian drama film directed by Ettore Scola and starring Sophia Loren, Marcello Mastroianni and John Vernon. Set in Rome in 1938, its narrative follows a woman and her neighbor who stay home the day Adolf Hitler visits Benito Mussolini. It is an Italian-Canadian co-production.
Themes addressed in the film include gender roles, fascism, and the persecution of homosexuals under the Mussolini regime. It received several nominations and awards, including a César Award for Best Foreign Film, a Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film, and two Academy Award nominations in 1978. It is featured on the list of the 100 Italian films to be saved.
On May 4, 1938, the day Hitler visits Mussolini in Rome, Antonietta, a naïve, sentimental and overworked homemaker, stays home doing her usual domestic tasks, while her fascist husband, Emanuele, and their six spoiled children take to the streets to follow a parade. The building is empty, except for the caretaker and a neighbor across the complex, a charming man named Gabriele. He is a radio broadcaster who has been dismissed from his job and is about to be deported to Sardinia because of his homosexuality and alleged anti-fascist stance. After the family's myna escapes from their apartment and flies outside Gabriele's window, Antonietta shows up at his door, asking to be let in to reach the bird. Gabriele has been interrupted from attempting suicide, but helps rescue the myna by offering it food, and is amused by the episode. Antonietta is surprised by his demeanor and, unaware of his sexual orientation, flirts and dances the rumba with him.
Despite their differences, they warm to each other. The caretaker warns Antonietta that Gabriele is an anti-fascist, which Antonietta finds despicable. Gabriele eventually opens up, confessing he was fired because he is a homosexual. Antonietta confides in him her troubles with her arrogant and unfaithful husband; who, she says, has shown a preference for an educated woman. Throughout their interaction and conversation, each realize that the other is oppressed by social and governmental conditioning and come to form a new impression than the one they first drew from one another. As a result, they have sex, but for different reasons. Gabriele explains that this changes nothing; as does Antonietta. (However, later, when her son reminds his mother of all the newspaper clippings she will have from the parade for her album collection, Antonietta's face reveals a look of slight indifference.) Soon after their intimate encounter, Antonietta's family comes back home and Gabriele is arrested. At the end, Antonietta sits near the window and starts reading a book Gabriele has given to her (The Three Musketeers). She watches as her lover leaves the complex, escorted by fascist policemen, before turning off the light and retiring to bed: Her husband is waiting there for her in order to beget their seventh child, whom he wants to name Adolfo.
- Sophia Loren – Antonietta
- Marcello Mastroianni – Gabriele
- John Vernon – Emanuele, Antonietta's husband
- Françoise Berd – Caretaker (Pauletta)
- Patrizia Basso – Romana
- Tiziano De Persio – Arnaldo
- Maurizio Di Paolantonio – Fabio
- Antonio Garibaldi – Littorio
- Vittorio Guerrieri – Umberto
- Alessandra Mussolini – Maria Luisa
- Nicole Magny – Officer's Daughter
Much of the film's themes revolve around gender roles and the model of masculinity under fascist Italy. Antonietta is the donna madre, a mother figure who meets her feminine responsibilities in the regime by having six children, boasting one more will secure her the government bonus established for large families in 1933. The Fascist regime equates homosexuality with depopulation, and thus, Gabriele is suspected of treason. The bachelor tax of 1926 was a measure against this, and Gabriele has to pay it. While the stay-at-home mother and homosexual neighbor would seem to be an improbable pairing, both are minimized by the regime, and find comfort and some sympathy in each other. At the end of the film, domestic life will continue as usual, but "inner resistance" to Fascism has been awakened.
Maurizio Costanzo, Ruggero Maccari and Ettore Scola wrote the screenplay, after Maccari had learned about an incident in Fascist Italy in which homosexuals were arrested and taken to Sardinia. Particularly, the story of broadcaster Nunzio Filogamo was an inspiration to the story, as Filogamo always had to carry a certificate stating he was not homosexual.
The actors selected for the roles defied type casting, as Marcello Mastroianni was often seen in previous roles as "the prototype of the Italian Latin lover," and Sophia Loren was perceived as a sexy Italian celebrity. Along with Il bell'Antonio and I Don't Want to Talk About It, this is one of Mastroianni's roles critiquing the Italian masculine figure as the incompetent character falling behind an evolving society.
Due to the abundance of news coverage of Hitler's visit to Rome in 1938, the filmmakers had plenty of footage to write a screenplay around. The public service film The Führer's Trip to Italy was especially mined for footage. Faced with a lack of funding from Italian producers, the filmmakers persuaded investors in Canada to support the project. Canafox, a company based in Montreal, co-produced.
A number of unusual cinematic techniques are used in this film. A long take scene introduces Antonietta and her family: the camera enters through the kitchen window and moves into the rooms. Deep focus is utilized in a scene in which the camera is in Antonietta's room with her in the frame, and through a distant window Gabriele can simultaneously be seen moving in his house in the same frame. In post production cinematic color grading was applied to the film to give it muted sepia tones throughout.
After a restoration by Cineteca Nazionale di Roma and Surf Film, the film was placed in the Venice Classics section in the 2014 Venice Film Festival. In Region 1, The Criterion Collection released the film on Blu-ray on 13 October 2015.
The film received praise from critics in Italy and throughout Europe on its release. Vincent Canby, writing for The New York Times, appreciated the film's humor and humanity. The New York review states that while the celebrity of Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni would draw audiences in, they were too glamorous to play their characters, and thus, the film did not work.
In 2008, it was featured on the list of the 100 Italian films to be saved, chosen by a jury of film experts for preservation. In 2015, The Hollywood Reporter critic Deborah Young praised it as "one of the most telling films ever made about Italian Fascism," which "suggests a path that cuts through mass-think ideologies, one that anyone can follow with a little human solidarity and courage." Writing for the LGBT-oriented Out, Armond White said the film demonstrated empathy before falling into the mawkish, and Mastroianni was great. Mike D'Angelo of The A.V. Club gave it a B-, saying the film became more powerful through its runtime, although there is less of a story. D'Angelo felt it was positive the sex between the protagonists is not claimed to convert Gabriele to heterosexuality.
The film competed for the Palme d'Or in the 1977 Cannes Film Festival, and while its bid was supported by a few festival co-ordinators, juror Roberto Rossellini successfully lobbied for Padre Padrone instead. At the 2014 Venice Film Festival, it won the award for Best Restored Film.
|Award||Date of ceremony||Category||Recipient(s)||Result||Ref(s)|
|Academy Awards||3 April 1978||Best Actor||Marcello Mastroianni||Nominated|||
|Best Foreign Language Film||Ettore Scola||Nominated|
|César Awards||4 February 1978||Best Foreign Film||Ettore Scola||Won|||
|David di Donatello Awards||1978||Best Director||Ettore Scola||Won|||
|Best Actress||Sophia Loren||Won|
|Golden Globes||28 January 1978||Best Foreign Language Film||A Special Day||Won|||
|Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama||Marcello Mastroianni||Nominated|
|Nastro d'Argento||1978||Best Actress||Sophia Loren||Won|||
|Best Screenplay||Maurizio Costanzo, Ruggero Maccari and Ettore Scola||Won|
|Best Score||Armando Trovajoli||Won|
|National Board of Review||19 December 1977||Top Foreign Films||A Special Day||Won|||
An English-language stage adaptation, titled Working on a Special Day, had its U.S. Premiere in 2013 in an Off-Broadway production from Por Piedad Teatro and The Play Company. Mexican theatre artists Ana Graham and Antonio Vega co-directed and performed the roles of Antonietta and Gabriele, respectively.
- List of submissions to the 50th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
- List of Italian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- Reich 2004, p. 133.
- Reich 2004, pp. 133-134.
- Reich 2004, p. 134.
- Ponzanesi 2014.
- Young, Deborah (15 October 2015). "A Special Day: Small Victories". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Chansel 2001, p. 91.
- Reich 2008, pp. 49-50.
- Carotenuto 2009, p. 209.
- Hawley, Brendan (May 1981). "Co-productions and Canada". Cinema Canada. p. 54.
- Dorland, Michael (October 1983). "Canada and coproductions: A retrospective (1963-1983)". Cinema Canada. p. 19.
- Rosa, Miguel (5 January 2012). "A Special Day (1977)". Flickfeast. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Glasser, Joyce (31 October 2016). "Ettore Scola's seldom-seen masterpiece stars Sophia Loren". Mature Times. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Hoberman, J. (7 April 2016). "Magic Neorealism in World War's Wake". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Canby, Vincent (26 September 1977). "Miss Loren and Mastroianni Light Screen as a Team in 'Special Day'". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Barraclough, Leo (15 July 2014). "'Guys and Dolls' Joins Venice Classics Line-up". Variety. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- D'Angelo, Mike (14 October 2015). "Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni play against type in A Special Day". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Gilbert, Ruth, ed. (31 October 1977). "Movies Around Town". New York. p. 18.
- "'Ecco i cento film italiani da salvare' e su tutti vincono Fellini e Visconti". la Repubblica (in Italian). 28 February 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- White, Armond (5 November 2015). "Marcello, Our Sexual Ally". Out. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Dillard, Clayton (14 October 2015). "A Special Day". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "The 50th Academy Awards (1978) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Palmares 1978 - 3rd Cesar Award Ceremony". Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- "Una giornata particolare". David di Donatello. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "A Special Day". The Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (January 2017). "Two Ordinary People; One Special Day". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "1977 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Saltz, Rachel (24 January 2013). "The Führer's Visit Can't Suppress This Friendship". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- Carotenuto, Marinella (2009). Sofia Loren: The Quintessence of Being an Italian Woman, Ediz. italiana e inglese. Mediane. ISBN 978-8896042106.
- Chansel, Dominique (2001). Europe On-screen: Cinema and the Teaching of History. Council of Europe. ISBN 9287145318.
- Ponzanesi, Sandra (1 January 2014). "Queering European Sexualities Through Italy's Fascist Past: Colonialism, Homosexuality, and Masculinities". What's Queer about Europe?: Productive Encounters and Re-enchanting Paradigms. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0823255375.
- Reich, Jacqueline (2004). Beyond the Latin Lover: Marcello Mastroianni, Masculinity, and Italian Cinema. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253216443.
- Reich, Jacqueline (2008). "Stars, Gender and Nation: Marcello Mastroianni and Italian Masculinity". Screening Genders. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813543406.