Anthelmintic

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Anthelmintic effect of papain on Heligmosomoides bakeri.

Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. They may also be called vermifuges (those that stun) or vermicides (those that kill). They are used to treat people or animals who are infected by helminths, a condition called helminthiasis.

Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries.[1][2] For example, the treatment of choice for soil-transmitted helminths is mebendazole and albendazole[3] and praziquantel for schistosomiasis.[4]

Types[edit]

Antiparasitics that specifically target Ascaris worms are called ascaricides.

Anthelmintic resistance[edit]

The ability of parasites to survive treatments that are generally effective at the recommended dose rate is a major threat to the future control of worm parasites in small ruminants and horses. This is especially true of nematodes, and has helped spur development of aminoacetonitrile derivatives for treatment against drug resistant nematodes.

The resistance is measured by the "Fecal egg count reduction" value which varies for different types of helminths.[8]

Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug. But resistant parasites survive and pass on their "resistance" genes. Resistant varieties accumulate and finally treatment failure occurs. See drug resistance.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WHO (2006). Preventive chemotherapy in human helminthiasis: coordinated use of anthelminthic drugs in control interventions: a manual for health professionals and programme managers (PDF). WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 1–61. ISBN 9241547103. 
  2. ^ Albonico, Marco; Allen, Henrietta; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis-Francesco; Savioli, Lorenzo; Brooker, Simon (2008). "Controlling Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Pre-School-Age Children through Preventive Chemotherapy". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2 (3): e126. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000126. PMC 2274864. PMID 18365031. 
  3. ^ Taylor-Robinson, DC; Maayan, N; Soares-Weiser, K; Donegan, S; Garner, P (23 July 2015). "Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 7: CD000371. PMID 26202783. 
  4. ^ "Helminth control in school-age children" (PDF). World Health Organisation. 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  5. ^ Hagel I, Giusti T (October 2010). "Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets". Infect Disord Drug Targets 10 (5): 349–67. doi:10.2174/187152610793180876. PMID 20701574. new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. 
  6. ^ Shoff WH (5 October 2015). Chandrasekar PH, Talavera F, King JW, eds. "Cyclospora Medication". Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 11 January 2016. Nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole derivative with broad-spectrum activity against helminths and protozoans, has been shown to be effective against C cayetanensis, with an efficacy 87% by the third dose (first, 71%; second 75%). Three percent of patients had minor side effects. 
  7. ^ http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=47308
  8. ^ Levecke, Bruno; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Ame, Shaali M.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Noumedem, Calvine D.; Engels, Dirk; Guillard, Bertrand; Kotze, Andrew C.; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; McCarthy, James S.; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Periago, Maria V.; Sopheak, Hem; Tchuem-Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Duong, Tran Thanh; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Vercruysse, Jozef; Olliaro, Piero L. (9 October 2014). "Assessment of Anthelmintic Efficacy of Mebendazole in School Children in Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8 (10): e3204. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003204. 

External links[edit]