Diethylcarbamazine

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Diethylcarbamazine
Diethylcarbamazine.svg
Clinical data
Other namesN, N-diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazine carboxamide
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Routes of
administration
by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
  • N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.001.840 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H21N3O
Molar mass199.298 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point47 to 49 °C (117 to 120 °F)
  • C1CN(C)CCN1C(=O)N(CC)CC
  • InChI=1S/C10H21N3O/c1-4-12(5-2)10(14)13-8-6-11(3)7-9-13/h4-9H2,1-3H3 checkY
  • Key:RCKMWOKWVGPNJF-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is a medication used in the treatment of filariasis including lymphatic filariasis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, and loiasis.[1] It may also be used for prevention of loiasis in those at high risk.[1] While it has been used for onchocerciasis (river blindness), ivermectin is preferred.[2] It is taken by mouth.[3]

Common side effects include itching, facial swelling, headaches, and feeling tired.[3] Other side effects include vision loss and dizziness.[3] It is a recommended treatment in pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[4][5] The World Health Organization; however, recommends waiting until after pregnancy for treatment when feasible.[2] It is made from 4-methyl-piperazine.[6]

Diethylcarbamazine was discovered in 1947.[7] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[8] It is not commercially available in the United States but can be acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[1]

Medical uses[edit]

DEC is indicated for treatment of individual patients with certain filarial diseases, including lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori; tropical pulmonary eosinophilia; and loiasis.[citation needed]

In cases of onchocerciasis, another common filarial parasite, the drug is effective[citation needed].

DEC continues to be the mainstay for treatment of patients with lymphatic filariasis and loiasis. DEC is also used to prevent heartworm in dogs.[citation needed]

Now, the WHO recommends prescribing DEC to patients who are infected with microfilariae of filarial parasites and also to control transmission of infection in filariasis-endemic areas.[citation needed]

Contraindications are previous history of heart problems, gastrointestinal problems, and allergies.[medical citation needed]

In India and China, diethylcarbamazine has been added to salt to combat lymphatic filariasis.[9]

Mechanism[edit]

DEC is an inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism in microfilariae. This makes the microfilariae more susceptible to innate immune attack, but does not kill the parasites outright.[10]

Trade names[edit]

  • Hetrazan
  • Carbilazine
  • Caricide
  • Cypip
  • Ethodryl
  • Notézine
  • Spatonin
  • Filaribits
  • Banocide Forte
  • Eofil

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Our Formulary Infectious Diseases Laboratories CDC". www.cdc.gov. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 91. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  3. ^ a b c "Diethylcarbamazine Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  4. ^ Sweet, Richard L.; Gibbs, Ronald S. (2009). Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 382. ISBN 9780781778152. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10.
  5. ^ Herbert-Ashton, Marilyn; Clarkson, Nancy Elaine (2005). Quick Look Nursing: Pharmacology. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 48. ISBN 9780763735951. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10.
  6. ^ "WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - Second Edition: Helminths: Lymphatic filariasis: Diethylcarbamazine". apps.who.int. 1995. p. 152. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. ^ Busvine, James (2012). Disease Transmission by Insects: Its Discovery and 90 Years of Effort to Prevent it. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 260. ISBN 9783642457166. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10.
  8. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  9. ^ [1] WHO: Unfulfilled potential: using diethylcarbamazine-fortified salt to eliminate lymphatic filariasis
  10. ^ El-Shahawi, G. A.; Abdel-Latif, M; Saad, A. H.; Bahgat, M (2010). "Setaria equina: In vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate on microfilariae in albino rats". Experimental Parasitology. 126 (4): 603–10. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2010.06.022. PMID 20599991.

External links[edit]