Attlee ministry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Clement Attlee

Clement Attlee formed the Attlee Ministry in the United Kingdom in 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It won a landslide victory in 1945, enacting much of the Post-war consensus policies, especially the welfare state and nationalization of some industries.[1] It worked to reduce the severity of economic austerity, gave independence to India and engaged in the Cold War against Soviet Communism. It was narrowly reelected in 1950, and narrowly defeated in 1951.

Leaders[edit]

The Labour Party came to power in the United Kingdom after its unexpected victory in the July 1945 general elections. Party leader Clement Attlee became Prime Minister replacing Winston Churchill in late July. Ernest Bevin was Foreign Secretary until shortly before his death in April 1951. Hugh Dalton became Chancellor of the Exchequer, but had to resign in 1947, while James Chuter Ede was Home Secretary for the whole length of the party's stay in power.

Other notable figures in the government included: Herbert Morrison, Deputy Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Commons, who replaced Bevin as Foreign Secretary in March 1951; Sir Stafford Cripps was initially President of the Board of Trade but replaced Dalton as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1947; Hugh Gaitskell held several minor posts before replacing Cripps as Chancellor in 1950; Nye Bevan was Minister for Health; Arthur Greenwood was Lord Privy Seal and Paymaster General while future Prime Minister Harold Wilson became the youngest member of the cabinet in the 20th century (at the age of 31) when he was made President of the Board of Trade in 1947. The most notable of the few female members of the government was Ellen Wilkinson, who was Minister for Education until her early death in 1947.

Policies[edit]

Main article: Post-war Britain

It was an "age of austerity," as wartime rationing was continued and even expanded to cover bread. Living conditions were poor, instead of expansion it was a matter of replacing the national wealth destroyed or used up during the war. The Great Depression did not return, and full employment was the norm. Returning veterans were successfully reabsorbed into the economy and society.[2] The Attlee government nationalized about 20% of the economy, including coal, railways, road transport, the Bank of England, civil aviation, cable and wireless, electricity and gas, and steel. However there was no money for investment to modernize these industries, and there was no effort made to turn control over to union members. The Attlee government greatly expanded the welfare state, with the Family Allowances Act (1945) and especially the National Health Service Act of 1946, which nationalized the hospitals and provided for free universal medical care. The National Insurance Act of 1946 provided sickness and unemployment benefits for adults, plus retirement pensions. The National Assistance Act of 1948 provided a safety net for anyone not otherwise covered. The Education Act of 1944 was expanded, more council housing was built, and plans were made through the New Towns Act of 1946 for the growth of suburbs. Since there was little money for detailed planning, the government adopted Keynesianism, which allowed for planning in the sense of overall control of the national deficit and surplus.[3][4]

The Transport Act 1947 established the British Transport Commission taking over the railways from the Big Four being the Great Western Railway, London, Midland and Scottish Railway, London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway to form British Railways.

In foreign affairs, the government was active in the United Nations and negotiated a $5 billion loan from the U.S. and Canada in 1946. It eagerly joined the Marshall Plan in 1948. It could no longer afford to support the Greek government and encouraged the U.S. to take its place through the Truman Doctrine in 1947. It took an active role in joining the United States in the Cold War and forming NATO. It gave independence to India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma and moved to strengthen the British Commonwealth.[5]

Nationalization projects[edit]

Social policies[edit]

Health[edit]

Trafford General Hospital, known as the birthplace of the NHS.

Attlee's Health Minister, Aneurin Bevan, fought hard against the general disapproval of the medical establishment, including the British Medical Association, by creating the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. This was a publicly funded healthcare system, which offered treatment free of charge for all at the point of use. Reflecting pent-up demand that had long existed for medical services, the NHS treated some 8½ million dental patients and dispensed more than 5 million pairs of spectacles during its first year of operation.[20]

Consultants benefited from the new system by being paid salaries that provided an acceptable standard of living without the need for them to resort to private practice.[21] The NHS brought major improvements in the health of working-class people, with deaths from diphtheria, pneumonia, and TB significantly reduced.[22] Although there were often disputes about its organisation and funding, British parties continued to voice their general support for the NHS in order to remain electable.[23]

In the field of health care, funds were allocated to modernisation and extension schemes aimed at improving administrative efficiency. Improvements were made in nursing accommodation in order to recruit more nurses and reduce labour shortages which were keeping 60,000 beds out of use, and efforts were made to reduce the imbalance "between an excess of fever and tuberculosis (TB) beds and a shortage of maternity beds."[24]

BCG vaccinations were introduced for the protection of medical students, midwives, nurses, and contacts of patients with TB,[25] a pension scheme was set up for employees of the newly established NHS,[26] and the Radioactive Substances Act of 1948 set out general provisions to control radioactive substances.[27] Numerous lesser reforms were also introduced, some of which were of great benefit to certain segments of British society, such as the mentally deficient and the blind.[28] Between 1948–51, Attlee's government increased spending on health from £6 billion to £11 billion, an increase of over 80%, and from 2.1% to 3.6% of GDP.[29]

Welfare[edit]

The government set about implementing William Beveridge's plans for the creation of a 'cradle to grave' welfare state, and set in place an entirely new system of social security. Among the most important pieces of legislation was the National Insurance Act 1946, in which people in work paid a flat rate of national insurance. In return, they (and the wives of male contributors) were eligible for flat-rate pensions, sickness benefit, unemployment benefit, and funeral benefit. Various other pieces of legislation provided for child benefit and support for people with no other source of income.[30] In 1949, unemployment, sickness and maternity benefits were exempted from tax.[31]

A block grant introduced in 1948 helped the social services provided by local authorities.[32] Personal Social Services or welfare services were developed in 1948 for individual and families in general, particularly special groups such as the mentally disordered, deprived children, the elderly, and the handicapped.[33]

The Attlee Government increased pensions and other benefits, with pensions raised to become more of a living income than they had been. War pensions and allowances (for both world wars) were increased by an Act of 1946 which gave the wounded man with an allowance for his wife and children if he married after he had been wounded, thereby removing a grievance of more than twenty years standing.[34] Other improvements were made in war pensions during Attlee’s tenure as prime minister. A Constant Attendance Allowance was tripled, an Unemployability Allowance was tripled from 10s to 30s a week, and a special hardship allowance of up to £1 a week was introduced. In addition, the 1951 Budget made further improvements in the supplementary allowances for many war pensioners. From 1945 onwards, three out of every four pension claims had been successful, whilst after the First World War only one pension claim in three was allowed.[35] Under the Superannuation (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act of 1948, employees of a body representative of local authorities or of the officers of local authorities could be admitted “on suitable terms to the superannuation fund of a local authority.”[36]

A more extensive system of social welfare benefits was established by the Attlee Government, which did much to reduce acute social deprivation. The cumulative impact of the Attlee's Government's health and welfare policies was such that all the indices of health (such as statistics of school medical or dental officers, or of medical officers of health) showed signs of improvement, with continual improvements in survival rates for infants and increased life expectancy for the elderly.[32] The success of the Attlee Government's welfare legislation in reducing poverty was such that, in the general election of 1950, according to one study, "Labour propaganda could make much of the claim that social security had eradicated the most abject destitution of the 1930s".[20]

Housing[edit]

The New Towns Act of 1946 set up development corporations to construct new towns, while the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947 instructed county councils to prepare development plans and also provided compulsory purchase powers.[37] The Attlee Government also extended the powers of local authorities to requisition houses and parts of houses, and made the acquisition of land less difficult than before.[38] The Housing (Scotland) Act of 1949 provided grants of 75% (87.5% in the highlands and islands) towards modernisation costs payable by Treasury to local authorities.[39]

In 1949, local authorities were empowered to provide people suffering from poor health with public housing at subsidised rents.[40]

To assist home ownership, the limit on the amount of money that people could borrow from their local authority in order to purchase or build a home was raised from £800 to £1,500 in 1945, and to £5,000 in 1949.[41] Under the National Assistance act of 1948, local authorities had a duty "to provide emergency temporary accommodation for families which become homeless through no fault of their own."[42]

A large house-building programme was carried out with the intention of providing millions of people with high-quality homes.[20] A housing bill passed in 1946 increased Treasury subsidies for the construction of local authority housing in England and Wales.[37] Four out of five houses constructed under Labour were council properties built to more generous specifications than before the Second World War, and subsidies kept down council rents. Altogether, these policies provided public-sector housing with its biggest ever boost up until that point, while low-wage earners particularly benefited from these developments. Although the Attlee Government failed to meet its targets, primarily due to economic constraints, over a million new homes were built between 1945-51 (a significant achievement under the circumstances) which ensured that decent, affordable housing was available to many low-income families for the first time ever.[20]

Women and children[edit]

A number of reforms were embarked upon to improve conditions for women and children. In 1946, universal family allowances were introduced to provide financial support to households for raising children.[43][44] These benefits had been legislated for the previous year by Churchill's Family Allowances Act 1945, and was the first measure pushed through parliament by Attlee's government.[45] Conservatives would later criticise Labour for having been "too hasty" in introducing family allowances.[38]

A Married Women (Restraint Upon Anticipation) Act was passed in 1949 "to equalise, to render inoperative any restrictions upon anticipation or alienation attached to the enjoyment of property by a woman," while the Married Women (Maintenance) Act of 1949 was enacted with the intention of improving the adequacy and duration of financial benefits for married women.[46]

The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 1950 amended an Act of 1885 to bring prostitutes within the law and safeguard them from abduction and abuse.[47] The Criminal Justice Act of 1948 restricted imprisonment for juveniles and brought improvements to the probation and remand centres systems, while the passage of the Justices of the Peace Act of 1949 led to extensive reforms of magistrates courts.[48] The Attlee Government also abolished the marriage bar in the Civil Service, thereby enabling married women to work in that institution.[49]

In 1946, the government set up a National Institute of Houseworkers as a means of providing a social democratic variety of domestic service.[50]

By late 1946, agreed standards of training were established, which was followed by the opening of a training headquarters and the opening of an additional nine (9) training centres in Wales, Scotland, and then throughout Great Britain. The National Health Service Act of 1946 indicated that domestic help should be provided for households where that help is required "owing to the presence of any person who is ill, lying-in, an expectant mother, mentally defective, aged or a child not over compulsory school age". 'Home help' therefore included the provision of home-helps for nursing and expectant mothers and for mothers with children under the age of five, and by 1952 some 20,000 women were engaged in this service.[51]

Planning and development[edit]

Development rights were nationalised while the government attempted to take all development profits for the State. Strong planning authorities were set up to control land use, and issued manuals of guidance which stressed the importance of safeguarding agricultural land. A strong chain of regional offices was set up within its planning ministry to provide a strong lead in regional development policies.[52]

Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs), a designation under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947, allowed local authorities to acquire property in the designated areas using powers of compulsory purchase in order to re-plan and develop urban areas suffering from urban blight or war damage.[53]

Workers' rights[edit]

Various measures were carried out to improve conditions in the workplace. Entitlement to sick leave was greatly extended, and sick pay schemes were introduced for local authority administrative, professional and technical workers in 1946 and for various categories of manual workers in 1948.[54] Worker's compensation was also significantly improved.[55]

The Fair Wages Resolution of 1946 required any contractor working on a public project to at least match the pay rates and other employment conditions set in the appropriate collective agreement.[56][57][58] In 1946, purchase tax was removed completely from kitchen fittings and crockery, while the rate was reduced on various gardening items.[50]

The Fire Services Act 1947 introduced a new pension scheme for fire-fighters,[59] while the Electricity Act 1947 introduced better retirement benefits for workers in that industry.[60] A Workers' Compensation (Supplementation) Act was passed in 1948 that introduced benefits for workers with certain asbestos-related diseases which had occurred before 1948.[61] The Merchant Shipping Act of 1948 and the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act of 1949 were passed to improve conditions for seamen. The Shops Act of 1950 consolidated previous legislation which provided that no one could be employed in a shop for more than six hours without having a break for at least 20 minutes. The legislation also required a lunch break of at least 45 minutes for anyone for worked between 11:30 am and 2:30 pm and a half-hour tea break for anyone working between 4 pm and 7 pm.[62] The government also strengthened a Fair Wages Resolution, with a clause that required all employers getting government contracts to recognise the rights of their workers to join trade unions.[63]

The Trades Disputes Act 1927 was repealed, and a Dock Labour Scheme was introduced in 1947 to put an end to the casual system of hiring labour in the docks.[64] This scheme gave registered dockers the legal right to minimum work and decent conditions. Through the National Dock Labour Board (on which trade unions and employers had equal representation) the unions acquired control over recruitment and dismissal. Registered dockers laid off by employers within the Scheme had the right either to be taken on by another, or to generous compensation.[65] All dockers were registered under the Dock Labour Scheme, giving them a legal right to minimum work, holidays and sick pay.[66]

Wages for members of the police force were significantly increased.[67] The introduction of a Miner's Charter in 1946 instituted a five-day work week for miners and a standardised day wage structure,[32] and in 1948 a Colliery Workers Supplementary Scheme was approved, providing supplementary allowances to disabled coal-workers and their dependants.[68][69] In 1948, a pension scheme was set up to provide pension benefits for employees of the new NHS, as well as their dependents.[70] Under the Coal Industry Nationalisation (Superannuation) Regulations of 1950, a pension scheme for mineworkers was established.[71] Improvements were also made in farmworkers' wages,[35] and the Agricultural Wages Board in 1948 not only safeguarded wage levels, but also ensured that workers were provided with accommodation.[72]

A number of regulations aimed at safeguarding the health and safety of people at work were also introduced during Attlee's time in office. Regulations were issued in February 1946 applying to factories involved with “manufacturing briquettes or blocks of fuel consisting of coal, coal dust, coke or slurry with pitch as a binding .substance,” and which concerned “dust and ventilation, washing facilities and clothing accommodation, medical supervision and examination, skin and eye protection and messrooms.”[73]

The Magnesium (Grinding of Castings and Other Articles) (Special Regulations) Order of December 1946 contained special measures “respecting the maintenance of plant and apparatus; precautions against causing sparks; the interception and removal of dust; automatic operation of appliances; protective clothing; and prohibition of smoking, open lights and fires.”[74] For those workers engaged in luminising processes, the Factories (Luminising) Special Regulations (1947) prohibited the employment of those under the age of 18 and ordered “an initial medical examination to be carried out before the seventh day of employment; subsequent examinations are to be carried out once a month.”Under the terms of the Blasting (Castings and Other Articles) Special Regulations (1949) “no sand or other substance containing free silica is to be employed in any blasting process,” while the Foundries (Parting Materials) Special Regulations (1950) prohibited the use of certain parting powders “which give rise to a substantial risk of silicosis.”[75]

The Building (Safety, Health & Welfare) Regulations of 1948 required that measures should be taken to minimise exposure to potentially harmful dust or fumes,[76] while the Pottery (Health) Special Regulations (1947) prohibited the use “except in the manufacture of glazed tiles" of all “but leadless or low solubility glazes and prescribe certain processes in which ground or powdered flint or quartz are not to be employed.”[75] while the Pottery (Health and Welfare) Special Regulations of 1950 made provision for the health and safety of workers employed in factories "in which there is carried on the manufacture or decoration of pottery or certain allied manufactures or processes."[77]

Law[edit]

Various law reforms were also carried out by Attlee's government. The Criminal Justice Act of 1948 provided for new methods to deal with offenders, and abolished hard labour, penal servitude, prison divisions and whipping.[78] The Law Reform (Personal Injuries) Act 1948 enabled employees to sue their employers in cases where they experienced injury due to the negligence of a fellow employee.[79] The Legal Aid and Advice Act of 1949 introduced a State aided scheme to assist those who couldn't afford legal services.[80]

Post-war consensus[edit]

Main article: Post-war consensus

Most historians argue that the main domestic policies (except nationalization of steel) reflected a broad bipartisan consensus. The post-war consensus is a historians' model of political agreement from 1945 to the late-1970s. In 1979 newly elected Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher rejected and reversed it.[81] The concept claims there was a widespread consensus that covered support for coherent package of policies that were developed in the 1930s, promised during the Second World War, and enacted under Attlee. The policies dealt with a mixed economy, Keynesianism, and a broad welfare state.[82] In recent years the validity of the interpretation has been debated by historians.

The historians' model of the post-war consensus was most fully developed by Paul Addison.[83] The basic argument is that in the 1930s Liberal Party intellectuals led by John Maynard Keynes and William Beveridge developed a series of plans that became especially attractive as the wartime government promised a much better post-war Britain and saw the need to engage every sector of society. The coalition government during the war, headed by Churchill and Attlee, signed off on a series of white papers that promised Britain a much improved welfare state. After the war, the promises included the national health service, and expansion of education, housing, and a number of welfare programs. It did not include the nationalization of iron and steel, which was aaproved only by the Labour Party.

The model states that from 1945 until the arrival of Thatcher in 1979, there was a broad multi-partisan national consensus on social and economic policy, especially regarding the welfare state, nationalized health services, educational reform, a mixed economy, government regulation, Keynesian macroeconoic, policies , and full employment. Apart from the question of nationalization of some industries, these policies were broadly accepted by the three major parties, as well as by industry, the financial community and the labour movement. Until the 1980s, historians generally agreed on the existence and importance of the consensus. Some historians such as Ralph Milibrand expressed disappointment that the consensus was a modest or even conservative package that blocked a fully socialized society. [84] Historian Angus Calder complained bitterly that the post-war reforms were an inadequate reward for the wartime sacrifices, and a cynical betrayal of the people's hope for a more just post-war society. [85] In recent years, there has been a historiographical debate on whether such a consensus ever existed.[86]

Fate[edit]

The Labour Party narrowly defeated the Conservative Party at the February 1950 general election. However, in the October 1951 general elections the Conservatives returned to power under Winston Churchill. Labour was to remain out of office for the next thirteen years, until 1964, when Harold Wilson became Prime Minister.

Cabinets[edit]

1945 − 1950[edit]

Changes[edit]

1950 − 1951[edit]

In February 1950, a substantial reshuffle took place following the General Election:

Changes[edit]

  • October 1950: Hugh Gaitskell succeeds Sir Stafford Cripps as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
  • January 1951: Aneurin Bevan succeeds George Isaacs as Minister of Labour and National service. Bevan's successor as Minister of Health is not in the cabinet. Hugh Dalton's post is renamed Minister of Local Government and Planning.
  • March 1951: Herbert Morrison succeeds Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary. Lord Addison succeeds Morrison as Lord President. Bevin succeeds Addison as Lord Privy Seal. James Chuter Ede succeeds Morrison as Leader of the House of Commons whilst remaining Home Secretary.
  • April 1951: Richard Stokes succeeds Ernest Bevin as Lord Privy Seal. Alf Robens succeeds Aneurin Bevan (resigned) as Minister of Labour and National Service. Sir Hartley Shawcross succeeds Harold Wilson (resigned) as President of the Board of Trade.

List of Ministers[edit]

Members of the Cabinet are in bold face.

Office Name Dates Notes
Prime Minister
and First Lord of the Treasury
Clement Attlee 26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951  
Lord Chancellor The Lord Jowitt 27 July 1945  
Lord President of the Council Herbert Morrison 27 July 1945 also Leader of the House of Commons
The Viscount Addison 9 March 1951 also Leader of the House of Lords
Lord Privy Seal Arthur Greenwood 27 July 1945  
The Lord Inman 17 April 1947  
The Viscount Addison 7 October 1947 also Leader of the House of Lords
Ernest Bevin 9 March 1951  
Richard Stokes 26 April 1951 Also Minister of Materials from 6 July 1951
Chancellor of the Exchequer Hugh Dalton 27 July 1945  
Sir Stafford Cripps 13 November 1947  
Hugh Gaitskell 19 October 1950  
Minister of Economic Affairs Sir Stafford Cripps 29 September 1947 New office. Combined with Chancellor of the Exchequer November 1947
Hugh Gaitskell 28 February 1950 – 19 October 1950  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury William Whiteley 3 August 1945  
Financial Secretary to the Treasury Glenvil Hall 4 August 1945  
Douglas Jay 2 March 1950  
Economic Secretary to the Treasury Douglas Jay 5 December 1947 Office vacant 2 March 1950
John Edwards 19 October 1950  
Lords of the Treasury Robert John Taylor 4 August 1945 – 26 October 1951  
Joseph Henderson 4 August 1945 – 1 January 1950  
Michael Stewart 10 August 1945 – 30 March 1946  
Arthur Blenkinsop 10 August 1945 – 10 May 1946  
Frank Collindridge 10 August 1945 – 9 December 1946  
Charles Simmons 30 March 1946 – 1 February 1949  
William Hannan 10 May 1946 – 26 October 1951  
Julian Snow 9 December 1946 – 3 March 1950  
Richard Adams 1 February 1949 – 23 April 1950  
William Wilkins 1 January 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Herbert Bowden 3 March 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Charles Royle 23 April 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Ernest Bevin 27 July 1945  
Herbert Morrison 9 March 1951  
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Philip Noel-Baker 3 August 1945
Hector McNeil 4 October 1946  
Kenneth Younger 28 February 1950  
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Hector McNeil 4 August 1945 – 4 October 1946  
Christopher Mayhew 4 October 1946 – 2 March 1950  
The Lord Henderson 7 June 1948 – 26 October 1951  
Ernest Davies 2 March 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Secretary of State for the Home Department James Chuter Ede 3 August 1945 also Leader of the House of Commons 1951
Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department George Oliver 4 August 1945  
Kenneth Younger 7 October 1947  
Geoffrey de Freitas 2 March 1950  
First Lord of the Admiralty A. V. Alexander 3 August 1945  
George Henry Hall 4 October 1946 Not in cabinet
The Lord Pakenham 24 May 1951  
Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty John Dugdale 4 August 1945  
James Callaghan 2 March 1950  
Civil Lord of the Admiralty Walter James Edwards 4 August 1945  
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Tom Williams 3 August 1945  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries The Earl of Huntingdon 4 August 1945 – 22 November 1950  
Percy Collick 5 September 1945 – 7 October 1947  
George Brown 7 October 1947 – 26 April 1951  
The Earl of Listowel 22 November 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Arthur Champion 26 April 1951 – 26 October 1951  
Secretary of State for Air The Viscount Stansgate 3 August 1945  
Philip Noel-Baker 4 October 1946 Not in Cabinet
Arthur Henderson 7 October 1947  
Under-Secretary of State for Air John Strachey 4 August 1945  
Geoffrey de Freitas 27 May 1946  
Aidan Crawley 2 March 1950  
Minister of Aircraft Production John Wilmot 4 August 1945 Office abolished 1 April 1946
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Aircraft Production Arthur Woodburn 4 August 1945  
Minister of Civil Aviation The Lord Winster 4 August 1945  
The Lord Nathan 4 October 1946  
The Lord Pakenham 31 May 1948 Office in Cabinet until 28 February 1950
The Lord Ogmore 1 June 1951  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Civil Aviation Ivor Thomas 10 August 1945  
George Lindgren 4 October 1946  
Frank Beswick 2 March 1950  
Secretary of State for the Colonies George Hall 3 August 1945  
Arthur Creech Jones 4 October 1946  
James Griffiths 28 February 1950  
Minister of State for the Colonies The Earl of Listowel 4 January 1948  
John Dugdale 28 February 1950  
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies Arthur Creech Jones 4 August 1945  
Ivor Thomas 4 October 1946  
David Rees-Williams 7 October 1947  
Thomas Fotheringham Cook 2 March 1950  
Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations The Viscount Addison 7 July 1947 also Leader of the House of Lords
Philip Noel-Baker 7 October 1947  
Patrick Gordon Walker 28 February 1950  
Minister of State for Commonwealth Relations Arthur Henderson 14 August 1947 – 7 October 1947  
Under-Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations Arthur Bottomley 7 July 1947  
Patrick Gordon Walker 7 October 1947  
The Lord Holden 2 March 1950  
David Rees-Williams 4 July 1950 Lord Ogmore from 5 July
The Earl of Lucan 1 July 1951  
Minister of Defence Clement Attlee 27 July 1945 Also Prime Minister
A. V. Alexander 20 December 1946  
Emanuel Shinwell 28 February 1950  
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs The Viscount Addison 3 August 1945 also Leader of the House of Lords; became Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 7 July 1947
Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs John Parker 4 August 1945  
Arthur Bottomley 10 May 1946  
Minister of Education Ellen Wilkinson 3 August 1945  
George Tomlinson 10 February 1947  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Education Arthur Jenkins 4 August 1945  
David Hardman 30 October 1945  
Minister of Food Sir Ben Smith 3 August 1945  
John Strachey 27 May 1946  
Maurice Webb 28 February 1950  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Food Edith Summerskill 4 August 1945  
Stanley Evans 2 March 1950  
Fred Willey 18 April 1950  
Minister of Fuel and Power Emanuel Shinwell 3 August 1945  
Hugh Gaitskell 7 October 1947 Office no longer in Cabinet
Philip Noel-Baker 28 February 1950  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Fuel and Power William Foster 4 August 1945  
Hugh Gaitskell 10 May 1946  
Alfred Robens 7 October 1947  
Harold Neal 26 April 1951  
Minister of Health Aneurin Bevan 3 August 1945  
Hilary Marquand 17 January 1951 Office not in Cabinet
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health Charles Key 4 August 1945  
John Edwards 12 February 1947  
Arthur Blenkinsop 1 February 1949  
Secretary of State for India and Burma The Lord Pethick-Lawrence 3 August 1945  
The Earl of Listowel 17 April 1947 Offices abolished 14 August 1947 (India) and 4 January 1948 (Burma)
Under-Secretary of State for India and Burma Arthur Henderson 4 August 1945 – 14 August 1947  
Minister of Information Edward Williams 4 August 1945  
The Earl of Listowel 26 February 1946 Office abolished 31 March 1946
Minister of Labour and National Service George Isaacs 3 August 1945  
Aneurin Bevan 18 January 1951  
Alfred Robens 24 April 1951  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Labour Ness Edwards 4 August 1945  
Fred Lee 2 March 1950  
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster John Hynd 4 August 1945  
The Lord Pakenham 17 April 1947  
Hugh Dalton 31 May 1948 Office in Cabinet
The Viscount Alexander of Hillsborough 28 February 1950  
Minister of National Insurance James Griffiths 4 August 1945  
Edith Summerskill 28 February 1950  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of National Insurance George Lindgren 4 August 1945  
Tom Steele 4 October 1946  
Bernard Taylor 2 March 1950  
Paymaster General office vacant    
Arthur Greenwood 9 July 1946  
Hilary Marquand 5 March 1947  
The Viscount Addison 2 July 1948 also Leader of the House of Lords
The Lord Macdonald of Gwaenysgor 1 April 1949  
Minister without Portfolio A. V. Alexander 4 October 1946 – 20 December 1946  
Arthur Greenwood 17 April 1947 – 29 September 1947  
Minister for Pensions Wilfred Paling 3 August 1945  
John Hynd 17 April 1947  
George Buchanan 7 October 1947  
Hilary Marquand 2 July 1948  
George Isaacs 17 January 1951  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions Jennie Adamson 4 August 1945  
Arthur Blenkinsop 10 May 1946  
Charles Simmons 1 February 1949  
Postmaster General The Earl of Listowel 4 August 1945  
Wilfred Paling 17 April 1947  
Ness Edwards 28 February 1950  
Assistant Postmaster General Wilfrid Burke 10 August 1945  
Charles Rider Hobson 7 October 1947  
Secretary of State for Scotland Joseph Westwood 3 August 1945  
Arthur Woodburn 7 October 1947  
Hector McNeil 28 February 1950  
Under-Secretary of State for Scotland George Buchanan 4 August 1945 – 7 October 1947  
Tom Fraser 4 August 1945 – 26 October 1951  
John James Robertson 7 October 1947 – 26 October 1951  
Margaret Herbison 2 March 1950 – 26 October 1951  
Minister of Supply John Wilmot 3 August 1945  
George Strauss 7 October 1947  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Supply William Leonard 4 August 1945 – 7 October 1947  
Arthur Woodburn 1 April 1946 – 7 October 1947  
John Freeman 7 October 1947 – 23 April 1951  
John Henry Jones 7 October 1947 – 2 March 1950  
Michael Stewart 2 May 1951 – 26 October 1951  
Minister of Town and Country Planning Lewis Silkin 4 August 1945  
Hugh Dalton 28 February 1950 Became Minister of Local Government and Planning 31 January 1951
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Town and Country Planning Fred Marshall 10 August 1945  
Evelyn King 7 October 1947  
George Lindgren 2 March 1950  
President of the Board of Trade Sir Stafford Cripps 27 July 1945  
Harold Wilson 29 September 1947  
Sir Hartley Shawcross 24 April 1951  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade Ellis Smith 4 August 1945  
John Belcher 12 January 1946  
John Edwards 1 February 1949  
Hervey Rhodes 2 March 1950  
Secretary for Overseas Trade Hilary Marquand 4 August 1945  
Harold Wilson 5 March 1947  
Arthur Bottomley 7 October 1947  
Minister of Transport Alfred Barnes 3 August 1945  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Transport George Strauss 4 August 1945  
James Callaghan 7 October 1947  
The Lord Lucas of Chilworth 2 March 1950  
Secretary of State for War Jack Lawson 3 August 1945  
Frederick Bellenger 4 October 1946  
Emanuel Shinwell 7 October 1947  
John Strachey 28 February 1950  
Under-Secretary of State for War The Lord Nathan 4 August 1945  
The Lord Pakenham 4 October 1946 – 17 April 1947 Office combined with Financial Secretary
Financial Secretary to the War Office Frederick Bellenger 4 August 1945  
John Freeman 4 October 1946 Under-Secretary role incorporated 17 April 1947
Michael Stewart 7 October 1947  
Woodrow Wyatt 2 May 1951  
Minister of Works George Tomlinson 4 August 1945  
Charles Key 10 February 1947  
Richard Stokes 28 February 1950  
George Brown 26 April 1951  
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Works Harold Wilson 4 August 1945  
Evan Durbin 5 March 1947  
The Lord Morrison 26 September 1948  
Attorney General Sir Hartley Shawcross 4 August 1945  
Sir Frank Soskice 24 April 1951  
Solicitor General Sir Frank Soskice 4 August 1945  
Sir Lynn Ungoed-Thomas 24 April 1951  
Lord Advocate George Reid Thomson 10 August 1945  
John Wheatley 7 October 1947  
Solicitor General for Scotland Daniel Patterson Blades 10 September 1945  
John Wheatley 19 March 1947  
Douglas Johnston 24 October 1947  
Treasurer of the Household George Mathers 4 August 1945  
Arthur Pearson 30 March 1946  
Comptroller of the Household Arthur Pearson 4 August 1945  
Michael Stewart 30 March 1946  
Frank Collindridge 9 December 1946  
Vice-Chamberlain of the Household Julian Snow 10 August 1945  
Michael Stewart 9 December 1946  
Ernest Popplewell 16 October 1947  
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms The Lord Ammon 4 August 1945  
The Lord Shepherd 18 October 1949  
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard The Lord Walkden 4 August 1945  
The Lord Shepherd 6 July 1949  
The Lord Lucas of Chilworth 18 October 1949  
The Earl of Lucan 5 March 1950  
The Lord Archibald 8 June 1951  
Lords in Waiting The Lord Westwood 10 September 1945 – 17 January 1947  
The Lord Pakenham 14 October 1945 – 4 October 1946  
The Lord Henderson 21 October 1945 – 7 June 1948  
The Lord Chorley 11 October 1946 – 31 March 1950  
The Lord Morrison 17 January 1947 – 26 September 1948  
The Lord Lucas of Chilworth 9 July 1948 – 18 October 1949  
The Lord Shepherd 14 October 1948 – 6 July 1949  
The Lord Kershaw 6 July 1949 – 26 October 1951  
The Lord Darwen 18 October 1949 – 26 December 1950  
The Lord Burden 31 March 1950 – 26 October 1951  
The Lord Haden-Guest 13 February 1951 – 26 October 1951  

Major legislation enacted during the Attlee Government[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rachel Reeves, and Martin McIvor. "Clement Attlee and the foundations of the British welfare state." Renewal: a Journal of Labour Politics 22#3/4 (2014): 42+. online
  2. ^ Andrew Marr, A History of Modern Britain (2007) pp 1–111
  3. ^ Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of British Political History 1914–1995 (1996) pp 185–89
  4. ^ Alan Sked and Chris Cook, Post-War Britain: A Political History (1993) pp 24–223
  5. ^ Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of British Political History 1914–1995 (1996) pp 261–66, 310–12
  6. ^ William Ashworth, The state in business: 1945 to the mid 1980s (1991).
  7. ^ Martin Chick, Industrial policy in Britain 1945-1951: economic planning, nationalisation and the Labour governments (2002).
  8. ^ Robert A. Brady, Crisis in Britain. Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government (1950) excerpt
  9. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 77-32
  10. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 43-77.
  11. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 352-401
  12. ^ Michael Foot, Aneurin Bevan: v. 2. 1945-1960 (1973) pp 100-215
  13. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 132-8
  14. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 284-306
  15. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 236-83
  16. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 132-8
  17. ^ George W. Ross, The Nationalization of Steel: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? (1965).
  18. ^ Alasdair M. Blair, "The British iron and steel industry since 1945." Journal of European Economic History 26.3 (1997): 571.
  19. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 183-235
  20. ^ a b c d Jefferys, Kevin. The Attlee Governments, 1945–1951.
  21. ^ Timmins, Nicholas. The Five Giants: A Biography of the Welfare State.
  22. ^ Lowe, Norman. Mastering Modern World History (second edition)
  23. ^ Blendon, R.J. & K. Donelan (1989). "British public opinion on National Health Service reform" (PDF). Health Affairs. 8 (4): 52–62. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.8.4.52. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  24. ^ Chick, Martin. Industrial Policy in Britain 1945–1951: Economic Planning, Nationalisation and the Labour Governments
  25. ^ Poverty, inequality and health in Britain, 1800–2000: a reader edited by George Davey Smith, Daniel Dorling, and Mary Shaw
  26. ^ Emslie, Stuart & Charles Hancock, eds. (30 July 2008). Issues in Healthcare Risk Management. Oxford, UK: Healthcare Governance Limited. p. 179. ISBN 9780955852602. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  27. ^ "International Standards for Food Safety". Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  28. ^ Hill, C.P. British Economic and Social History, 1700–1964.
  29. ^ Ten Years of New Labour (edited by Matt Beech and Simon Lee)
  30. ^ Thorpe, Andrew. (2001) A History of the British Labour Party, Palgrave; ISBN 0-333-92908-X
  31. ^ "HC S Budget Resolution and Economic Situation". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 5 May 1966. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c Morgan, Kenneth. Labour in Power, 1945–51.
  33. ^ Byrne, Tony & Colin F. Padfield. Social Services: Made Simple.
  34. ^ Socialism: The British Way (edited by Donald Munro).
  35. ^ a b Fifty Facts for Labour, published by the Labour Party, Transport House, Smith Square, London, SW1, October 1951.
  36. ^ "Pension and Widows' and Orphans' Funds". Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  37. ^ a b Harmer, Harry. The Longman Companion to The Labour Party 1900–1998.
  38. ^ a b Pritt, Denis Nowell. The Labour Government 1945–51.
  39. ^ Scottish Housing in the Twentieth Century (edited by Richard Rodger)
  40. ^ Miller, George (1 January 2000). On Fairness and Efficiency: The Privatisation of the Public Income Over the Past Millennium. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press. p. 172. ISBN 9781861342218. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  41. ^ "Fifty Facts on Housing", published by the Labour Party, Transport House, Smith Square, London SW1, February 1951
  42. ^ Socially Deprived Families in Britain (edited by Robert Holman), first published in 1970 (reprinted edition 1971).
  43. ^ "Who, What, Why: Why do the rich get child benefit?". BBC News. 4 October 2010. 
  44. ^ "An Assessment of the Attlee Government". Google. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  45. ^ Waltman, Jerold L. (2004). The Case for the Living Wage. Algore Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 9780875863023. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  46. ^ J.P. Lawton (April 1950). "Married Women (Maintenance) Act, 1949". The Modern Law Review. Wiley. 13 (2): 220–22. JSTOR 1089590. 
  47. ^ "Mulberry". Learningeye.net. 9 October 2004. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  48. ^ The Longman Companion to the Labour Party, 1900–1998 by H.J.P. Harmer
  49. ^ Hollowell, J. (2008). Britain Since 1945. Wiley. p. 180. ISBN 9780470758175. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Francis, Martin. Ideas and Policies Under Labour, 1945–1951.
  51. ^ "The Women's Library Special Collections Catalogue". Calmarchive.londonmet.ac.uk. 9 July 1952. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  52. ^ Labour and Inequality: Sixteen Fabian Essays (edited by Peter Townsend and Nicholas Bosanquet).
  53. ^ Squires, Graham (21 August 2012). "Urban and Environmental Economics: An Introduction". ISBN 9781136791000. 
  54. ^ Townsend, Peter. Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living.
  55. ^ Hicks, Alexander M. Social Democracy & Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics.
  56. ^ Beaumont, Phil B. (1987). The Decline of Trade Union Organisation. Croom Helm. ISBN 9780709939580. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  57. ^ Card, David, Richard Blundell & Richard B. Freeman (1 December 2007). Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms. University of Chicago Press. p. 192. ISBN 9780226092904. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  58. ^ Asplund, Rita, ed. (1998). Flexibility in the Nordic Labour Market. Nordic Council of Ministers. p. 119. ISBN 9789289302579. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  59. ^ "Google Drive Viewer" (PDF). Google. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  60. ^ "MIDLANDS ELECTRICITY BOARD (WORKERS' PENSION SCHEME) (Hansard, 21 November 1957)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 21 November 1957. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  61. ^ "DWP IIAC Cm 6553 1805" (PDF). July 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  62. ^ "Working Time Directive" (PDF). 19 November 1996. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  63. ^ Fraser, W. Hamish. A History of British Trade Unionism, 1700–1998.
  64. ^ "DOCK WORKERS (PENSIONS) BILL (Hansard, 11 May 1960)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 11 May 1960. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  65. ^ Harrison, Brian (26 March 2009). Seeking a Role: The United Kingdom 1951–1970. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191606786. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  66. ^ "Ken Loach's film - The Spirit Of '45 – How We Did it". thespiritof45.com. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  67. ^ "POLICE PENSIONS REGULATIONS (Hansard, 29 June 1949)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 29 June 1949. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  68. ^ "HC S National Insurance (Colliery Workers)". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 15 March 1965. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  69. ^ Social security in Britain, Great Britain, Central Office of Information, Reference Division, H.M. Stationery Office (1977)
  70. ^ http://www.amicustheunion.org/pdf/NHSHandSBlueBook.pdf
  71. ^ Eggar, Tim (22 November 1994). "The Industry-Wide Mineworkers' Pension Scheme Regulations 1994". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  72. ^ "Labour's rural legacy under threat". 29 April 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  73. ^ [1]
  74. ^ The Magnesium (Grinding of Castings and Other Articles) (Special Regulations) Order of December 1946, staging.ilo.org; accessed 25 March 2016.
  75. ^ a b "Foundries (Parting Materials) Special Regulations (1950)", staging.ilo.org; accessed 25 March 2016.
  76. ^ "International Handbook on Regulating Nanotechnologies". Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  77. ^ "The Pottery (Health and Welfare) Special Regulations 1950". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  78. ^ Examination note-book of the English legal system: including a history of judicial institutions by Ronald Harry Graveson
  79. ^ Steele, J. (2010). Tort Law: Text, Cases, and Materials. OUP Oxford. p. 15. ISBN 9780199550753. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  80. ^ Collins, M. (2000). AS Level Law. Taylor & Francis. p. 164. ISBN 9781135340858. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  81. ^ Richard Toye, "From 'Consensus' to 'Common Ground': The Rhetoric of the Postwar Settlement and its Collapse," Journal of Contemporary History (2013) 48#1 pp 3-23.
  82. ^ Dennis Kavanagh, "The Postwar Consensus," Twentieth Century British History (1992) 3#2 pp 175-190.
  83. ^ Paul Addison, The road to 1945: British politics and the Second World War (1975).
  84. ^ Ralph Miliband, Parliamentary socialism: A study in the politics of labour. (1972).
  85. ^ Angus Calder, The Peoples War: Britain, 1939 – 1945 (1969).
  86. ^ Daniel Ritschel, Daniel. "Consensus in the Postwar Period After 1945," in David Loades, ed., Reader's Guide to British History (2003) 1:296-297.

Further reading[edit]

  • Brady, Robert A. Crisis in Britain: Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government. (1950), 730pp, highly detailed coverage of each nationalization project Social Security, health programs, and other domestic policies. excerpt
  • Butler, David and G. Butler, Twentieth Century British Political Facts 1900–2000.
  • Childs, David. Britain since 1945: A Political History (2012) excerpt and text search
  • French, David. Army, Empire, and Cold War: The British Army and Military Policy, 1945-1971 (Oxford University Press, 2012).
  • Hennessy, Peter. Never Again: Britain, 1945-1951 (1994).
  • Hennessey, Thomas. Britain's Korean War: Cold War diplomacy, strategy and security 1950-53 (Oxford University Press, 2015).
  • Kynaston, David. Austerity Britain, 1945–1951 (2008) excerpt and text search, social history
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. Labour in Power 1945–51 (Oxford University Press, 1984)
  • Ovendale, R. ed. The foreign policy of the British Labour governments, 1945–51 (1984).
  • Pelling, Henry. "The 1945 general election reconsidered." Historical Journal 23#2 (1980): 399-414. in JSTOR
  • Pelling, Henry. Labour Governments, 1945-51 (1984) 313pp.
  • Reeves, Rachel, and Martin McIvor. "Clement Attlee and the foundations of the British welfare state." Renewal: a Journal of Labour Politics 22#3/4 (2014): 42+. online
  • Sked, Alan, and Chris Cook. Post-War Britain: A Political History (1979)
  • Tomlinson, Jim. Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951 (2002) Excerpt and text search
  • Williamson, Adrian. "The Bullock Report on Industrial Democracy and the Post-War Consensus." Contemporary British History 30#1 (2016): 119-149.
Preceded by
Churchill caretaker ministry
Government of the United Kingdom
1945–1951
Succeeded by
Third Churchill ministry