Bornavirus is a genus of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, and human serve as natural hosts. There are currently five species in this genus, and it is the only genus in its family (Bornaviridae). Diseases associated with this genus include: mammals borna disease : fatal neurologic disease, restricted to central europe. birds: encephalitis, proventricular dilatation disease.
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral GP glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, and and human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are fomite, contact, urine, feces, and saliva.