Bradenton, Florida

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Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton City Hall
Bradenton City Hall
Official seal of Bradenton, Florida
Seal
Motto(s): 
The Friendly City[1]
Location in Manatee County and the U.S. state of Florida
Location in Manatee County and the U.S. state of Florida
Coordinates: 27°29′N 82°35′W / 27.483°N 82.583°W / 27.483; -82.583Coordinates: 27°29′N 82°35′W / 27.483°N 82.583°W / 27.483; -82.583
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyManatee
Settled1842[2]
Incorporated (city)1903
Former names
  • Braidentown (1842–1905)
  • Bradentown (1905–1924)
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • MayorGene Brown[3]
 • City AdministratorCarl Callahan
Area
 • City17.16 sq mi (44.43 km2)
 • Land14.38 sq mi (37.24 km2)
 • Water2.78 sq mi (7.19 km2)  16.14%
Elevation
6 ft (1.83 m)
Population
 • City49,546
 • Estimate 
(2019)[6]
59,439
 • Density4,134.02/sq mi (1,596.17/km2)
 • Metro
702,281
Time zoneUTC−5:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4:00 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
34201–34212, 34280–34282
Area code(s)941
FIPS code12-07950[7]
GNIS feature ID0279311[8]
Websitecityofbradenton.com

Bradenton (/ˈbrdəntən/ BRAY-dən-tən) is a city and the county seat[9] of Manatee County, Florida, United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's 2019 population to be 59,439.[5][10]

History[edit]

Late 18th & 19th centuries[edit]

A settlement established by Maroons or escaped slaves named Angola existed in Bradenton's present area starting in the late 1700s and ending in 1821. It is believed to been spread out between the Manatee River (then known as Oyster River) all the way to Sarasota Bay. The community is estimated to have had 600-750 residents in it. Angola was a rather large maroon settlement as the Manatee River at that time was too shallow for US Navy vessels to navigate. The settlement would be abandoned after the Creeks who were aligned with Andrew Jackson attacked Angola.[11][12]

When the United States annexed Florida in 1821, there were two known claimants of land in the vicinity of Bradenton but none of them were confirmed by the US federal government.[13]

Mid & late 19th century[edit]

Josiah Gates along with his family and eight slaves would move to the area where present day Bradenton exists in January 1842 after being attracted to the area for its natural beauty. Gates also thought the area would be a popular place for new settlers to arrive at because it was near Fort Brooke; and he also figured that while they were building there homes they would need a place to stay at temporarily. He would build his home near present-day 15th Street East and his inn at another location naming it Gates House.[14] Gates is also credited as being the first known American settler in present day Manatee County.[15]

Bradenton is named after Dr. Joseph Braden, whose nearby fort-like house was a refuge for early settlers during the Seminole Wars. Braden would own a sugar plantation in the area covering 1,100 acres and being worked by slave labor. Dr. Joseph Braden was originally from Virginia and relocated to Leon County in Florida shortly after its annexation by the United States in 1821 where he established a cotton plantation bringing his preexisting Virginia slaves along with him. After having financial difficulties from the Panic of 1837, he would try to reestablish himself financially in Manatee County in 1843 moving to the area along with his slaves.[16] To help with the shipment of sugar grown at the plantation, he would construct a pier in present day Downtown Bradenton where ships could dock at and pick up sugar. Where the pier met the land he constructed a stockade getting the name of Fort Braden.[17] Braden would be financially successful with his plantation but ended up moving back to Leon County in 1857 because of a financial panic that occurred that year.[16]

Major Alden Joseph Adams would purchase 400 acres of land in 1876 between present day Manatee Memorial Hospital and 9th Street East and build his home there in 1882. He would name his three story home Villa Zanza and was built of concrete. Alden was known for having many animals and a large amount of foliage at his home. At one point he would own over 300,000 acres of land in Manatee County. Major Alden Joseph Adams would serve in the Union Army during the American Civil War and eventually reach the rank of Major. After the war he would serve in the US Secret Service and later a Newspaper correspondent for the New York Herald. He would report from Paris during when the Paris Commune was existing there. At one point he would be asked to look for Dr. David Livingstone but declined and suggested that that Henry Morton Stanley should look for him instead. Adams would die in 1915 and his property would be bought in 1924 with the intent of remodeling his home. However it would be completed and his home was torn at some point in the late 1920s.[18][19]

The town was originally spelled "Braidentown," as a spelling error was made when it applied for a post office on May 9, 1878.[20] The first bridge across Wares Creek would be built in 1886.[21] The following year, Bradenton was designated the county seat after DeSoto County was formed from eastern Manatee County, as the then county seat, Pine Level, was in the new county.[22] A county courthouse would be built in 1890 at Courthouse Square.[23]

20th century[edit]

First half of the 20th century[edit]

Old Main Street circa 1910

Railroad service would be extended from Palmetto across the Manatee River to Bradenton in 1902.[24] Bradenton would be incorporated on May 19, 1903[25] in a vote with 59 voting in favor of incorporating while 34 voted against it.[26] After being incorporated, a local election would be held soon afterwards to elect the city's first elected municipal officials. A.T Cornwell was elected as mayor, Robert H. Roesch as clerk and tax assessor, A.B. Murphy as treasurer and F. Dryman as tax collector along with seven city council members.[27] One of the earliest moves made by the municipal government was amending the name to "Bradentown".[28][29][30] However the name change would not be reflected with the US Postal Service until 1905.[31] On December 29, a streetcar line would begin operation going from Bradenton to the neighboring city of Manatee and would go west crossing Wares Creek to the nearby community of Fogartyville.[32][33] The company operating the line would have financial difficulties likely due to a lack of ridership and would cancel the line in 1906.[34][35] The Manavista Hotel would be opened in January 1907 bordering the Manatee River on Main Street.[36]

The Davis Bridge, the first general traffic bridge across the Manatee River would be opened in June 1910. It was a wooden toll bridge built by C.H. Davis that had one lane and passing spots. The bridge went from present day 9th Street East (located within then nearby Manatee) to near where the Atwood Grapefruit Groves were located at west of Ellenton.[37] In 1912, the first road, Range Road leading from present-day Bradenton (then, Manatee) to Sarasota was built.[33] Also during that year, the original county courthouse was bought and moved to a new location becoming a grade school for black students in the area, Lincoln Academy Grammar School. A new courthouse would be built on the site of the old one which still stands today in the following year, 1913.[23] The Victory Bridge would be opened in August 1919 running from current 10th Street West in Bradenton to 8th Avenue in Palmetto. Funding for the bridge came from bond issues by both Bradenton and Palmetto. The bridge itself had two lanes and was made of wood. It's name came from the United States' recent victory in World War I against the Central Powers.[38] With the Victory Bridge's construction, the municipal government of Manatee would attempt to buy Davis Bridge and make it public as a way to compete with Bradenton's Victory Bridge but the deal however never went through.[37] The rest of the bridge would end up being dismantled with the exception of it's draw section which was sold to county government and put into use for the Snead Island's Cut off bridge in 1920.[38]

1920s & 1930s[edit]

Spring training would begin in Bradenton with the construction of Ninth Street Park in 1923. The first team to train in the city would be the St. Louis Cardinals doing so for 1923 and 1924. The city council would begin the process of removing the "w" letter from it's then name "Bradentown" in January 1925 and be completed on May 2, 1925 when the state Governor signed a bill relating to it making it official.[20] All streets in the city would become renamed in 1926 with a numbering system.[39]

After the collapse of the Florida land boom and the Great Depression starting, the city would face an economic downturn.[40] The city would retract its municipal boundaries and have issues with bonds it had issued during the Florida land boom. Bradenton's municipal government issued the bonds as a way to finance the construction of infrastructure in newly developed areas. The bonds would be defaulted and later on those living inside the retracted city limits would pay for the bonds.[41] Despite the economic downtown, several new projects would be done in the city. Municipal pier (interchangeably referred to as Memorial pier) would be built in 1927 and with a building at it's end. The pier itself still stands and the building at its end has served a variety of functions ever since.[42] As the Victory Bridge was deemed to unsafe to use after a hurricane hitting in 1926, the Green Bridge would be built the following year in 1927 as a replacement to it. In the meantime a ferry would be operated until the Green Bridge was built.[38][43] On July 22, 1931 a joint committee would be appointed by the municipal city councils of Bradenton, Manatee and Palmetto to consider and possibly even merge the three cities but nothing would come out of the committee in the end. The city would get a new post office building in 1937 that was built on Manatee Avenue and 9th Street West as a Works Progress Administration project. The post office is still in operation and still serves its original purpose.[44]

Compiled in the late 1930s and first published in 1939, the Florida guide listed Bradenton's population as being 5,986 and described it as:

lies opposite Palmetto on the south bank of the Manatee River. The two towns are connected by a mile-long bridge. Boom-time hotels dominate the skyline and do a thriving business in winter, when the population almost doubles. In the residential sections comfortable houses are surrounded with aged trees. The neighboring area of rich muck land normally produces two or three crops each season, making Bradenton the principal shipping center for winter vegetables on the west coast. Celery, citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbages, eggplants, green peppers and square are the main products. [45]

— Federal Writers' Project, "Part III: The Florida Loop", Florida: A Guide to the Southernmost State (1947)
1940s[edit]
An aerial photograph taken of Downtown Bradenton in August 1941 by the US Army Air Forces.
Downtown Bradenton in August 1941 in an aerial photograph taken by the US Army Air Forces.

Bradenton would be affected by World War II like many other cities in Florida and the United States. During the war, Manatee County would have it's own Civil Defense battalion in it with two sub units existing in Bradenton and another for nearby Manatee. A recreational center would be opened in March 1942 at a building on the intersection of 6th Avenue and 12th Street West in the downtown area to be used by soldiers. The recreation center would close in November 1945 and would be popular with local soldiers and visited even by those who were stationed outside of Bradenton. The Bradenton Police Chief, Clyde Benton would expand the police force by naming 45 officers to serve without pay during the war.[46] Camp Weatherford located at LECOM Field would exist for 8 months at some point during the war as a training center for the US Army Signal Corps. About 350 soldiers would be trained there during it's existence. The camp itself often had an issue with being flooded because of the rainy climate, showers at the camp occurring often, clothes being washed, it's low elevation and being located nearby to Wares Creek. A soldier named Joe Grossman at the camp would run a radio show broadcasting on WSPB called Weatherford Shinings. Local residents would accommodate the troops stationed at the base in a variety of ways.[47] Bradenton would merge with nearby Manatee (incorporated in 1888) in 1943. Manatee would face similar financial problems as Bradenton did in regards to their bonds and faced high debt levels as a result.[41][48]

Second half of the 20th century[edit]

Mayor A. Sterling Hall would take office in January 1948. During his tenure lasting the next 20 years before retiring the city would be radically transformed. While serving as mayor he was considered to progressive in his time period when it came to racial issues.[49] The Manavista Hotel would be demolished in 1959 and replaced with a motel and later a retirement community.[50] During the 1960s the Manatee River would dredged and an area nicknamed "the Sandpile" would be formed getting developed over the course of the rest of the 20th century and the 21st century.[43] Bradenton would get a new city hall located on 15th Street West bordering Wares Creek in January 1970 as a replacement to their location on 13th Street West which the city used since 1913.[51][52] Governor Claude R. Kirk Jr. would arrive in Bradenton on April 6, 1970 in an attempt to stop Manatee County School District's desegregation busing. When he arrived he would suspend the district superintendent along with the school district leading to the district stopping the busing of 2,500 students and 107 teachers. During February he would threaten to impeach a federal judge and said he would not sign checks that would pay for busing students. He would stay in the Manatee County School District's Administration building then located at the corner of 9th Avenue and 14th Street[53] for a week before being threatened with a $10,000 fine per day if he continued to say in the building and was unsuccessful with preventing bussing.[54] The 8 floor Hotel Dixie Grande, which opened in April 1926 would be demolished in August 1974.[55]

The Green Bridge would be replaced in 1986.[43] The city hall would move to a new location on 12th Street West in November 1998 after the property was sold to a local resident who had the intent of redeveloping it but never ended up doing it.[51]

21st century[edit]

The local resident who had owned the former city hall property along Wares Creek would sell it to a development group sometime in 2004 and it would be demolished in December 2004.[51] The Bradenton Riverwalk, a 1.5 mile long park along the Manatee River would open in October 2012.[56] McKechnie Field, the spring training stadium for the Pittsburg Pirates would be renamed to LECOM Park in February 2017.[57]

Historic properties[edit]

Historic properties in Bradenton include:

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, Bradenton has a total area of 14.44 square miles (37.4 km2), of which 12.11 square miles (31.4 km2) is land and 2.33 square miles (6.0 km2) (16.14%) is water. Bradenton is located on US 41 between Tampa and Sarasota. The area is surrounded by waterways, both fresh and saltwater. Along the Gulf of Mexico and into Tampa Bay are over 20 miles (32 km) of Florida beaches, many of which are shaded by Australian pines. Bordered on the north by the Manatee River, Bradenton is located on the mainland and is separated from the outer barrier islands of Anna Maria Island and Longboat Key by the Intracoastal Waterway.

Downtown Bradenton is located in the northwest area of the city. Home to many of Bradenton's offices and government buildings, the tallest is the Bradenton Financial Center, 12 stories high, with its blue-green windows. The next tallest is the brand new Manatee County Judicial Center with nine floors, located next to the historic courthouse. Other major downtown buildings include the Manatee County Government building and the headquarters of the School Board of Manatee County.

Climate[edit]

Bradenton has a typical Central Florida humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) characterised by hot, humid summers and warm winters.

Climate data for Bradenton 5 ESE, Florida, 1991-2020 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 72.0
(22.2)
75.0
(23.9)
78.4
(25.8)
83.0
(28.3)
88.2
(31.2)
91.1
(32.8)
92.0
(33.3)
91.8
(33.2)
90.0
(32.2)
85.2
(29.6)
78.6
(25.9)
74.0
(23.3)
83.3
(28.5)
Daily mean °F (°C) 62.1
(16.7)
64.9
(18.3)
68.4
(20.2)
73.0
(22.8)
78.4
(25.8)
82.4
(28.0)
83.6
(28.7)
83.7
(28.7)
82.1
(27.8)
76.7
(24.8)
69.3
(20.7)
64.5
(18.1)
74.1
(23.4)
Average low °F (°C) 52.2
(11.2)
54.8
(12.7)
58.4
(14.7)
63.0
(17.2)
68.5
(20.3)
73.7
(23.2)
75.2
(24.0)
75.5
(24.2)
74.2
(23.4)
68.3
(20.2)
60.1
(15.6)
55.0
(12.8)
64.9
(18.3)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.76
(70)
1.99
(51)
3.11
(79)
2.53
(64)
3.49
(89)
9.03
(229)
8.91
(226)
10.07
(256)
7.43
(189)
2.88
(73)
1.82
(46)
2.26
(57)
56.28
(1,430)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.5 5.7 5.7 5.6 6.9 14.0 17.2 18.1 14.1 7.5 5.1 6.2 113.6
Source: NOAA[58][59]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
19101,886
19203,868105.1%
19305,98654.8%
19407,44424.4%
195013,60482.8%
196019,38042.5%
197021,0408.6%
198030,22843.7%
199043,77944.8%
200049,50413.1%
201049,5460.1%
2019 (est.)59,439[6]20.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[60]

Bradenton is a principal city of the North Port–Sarasota–Bradenton metropolitan statistical area, which had a 2018 estimated population of 821,573.[61]

As of the census[7] of 2000, there were 49,504 people, 21,379 households, and 12,720 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,088.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,578.3/km2). There were 24,887 housing units at an average density of 2,055.4 per square mile (793.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.14% White, 15.11% African American, 0.79% Asian, 0.29% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.91% from other races, and 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.26% of the population. There were 21,379 households, out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.5% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 17.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.85.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 25.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,902, and the median income for a family was $42,366. Males had a median income of $28,262 versus $23,292 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,133. About 9.7% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.3% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.

Economy[edit]

Tropicana Products was founded in Bradenton in 1947 by Anthony T. Rossi, an Italian immigrant. By 2004 it had over 8,000 employees and marketed its products throughout the United States. PepsiCo, Inc., acquired it in 1998. Tropicana's juice trains have been running to northern markets via CSX and predecessor railroads since 1971. In 2003, Pepsi relocated Tropicana's corporate headquarters to Chicago after it acquired Gatorade and consolidated its non-carbonated beverage businesses. However, their juice production facilities remain in Bradenton.[62]

Champs Sports, a nationwide sports apparel chain, is headquartered in Bradenton.[63] The department store chain Bealls is also headquartered in Bradenton.[64]

Bradenton was significantly affected by the United States housing market correction, as reported by CNN, projecting a 24.8% loss in median home values by the third quarter of 2008.[65] Real estate has shown a recovery since 2012, as home prices stabilize and inventory subsides.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Bradenton is served by Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport and is connected to St. Petersburg by the Sunshine Skyway Bridge. The Sunshine Skyway is a 5.5-mile (8.9 km) cross-bay bridge that rises 250 feet (76 m) above the bay at its highest point. Remnants of the old Skyway bridge have been converted into a fishing pier extending into Tampa Bay from both sides of the bay.

Manatee County Area Transit (MCAT) buses serve Bradenton along with the cities/communities of Palmetto, Ellenton, Anna Maria, Holmes Beach, Bradenton Beach, Longboat Key, Tallevast and Samoset, with transfers to Sarasota and St. Petersburg. Free trolleys run north-south on Anna Maria Island, as well as to/from various points on the mainland. Amtrak charter buses run through downtown Bradenton outside the courthouse to Tampa Union Station and Venice.

Government[edit]

The city is governed by a city council with five members. Each of the members are residents of one of the five wards. The city council selects the city's vice mayor. The mayor is elected at-large for a four year term and so are the five council members.[66]

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Radio stations[edit]

Bradenton is located in the Sarasota-Bradenton radio market. It also receives many stations from the nearby Tampa-St. Petersburg market.

The stations listed below are located and/or licensed in Bradenton or Manatee County:

  • WWPR – 1490 AM – studio and transmitter in Bradenton
  • WBRD – 1420 AM – licensed to Palmetto
  • WJIS – 88.1 FM
  • WPBB – 98.7 FM (studios and transmitter in Pinellas County)
  • WHPT – 102.5 FM (Sarasota; transmitter in northeastern corner of Sarasota County; studios in St. Petersburg)
  • WRUB – 106.5 FM

Television stations[edit]

WSNN-LD is based in Sarasota but transmits from Manatee County. WWSB channel 40, the local ABC affiliate, is based in Sarasota, but has a transmitter in Parrish, northeast of Bradenton; it is seen on cable channel 7 on most cable systems in the area. WXPX-TV channel 66, the local Ion Television affiliate, is licensed in Bradenton, with its transmitter in Riverview in Hillsborough County.

Education[edit]

Manatee County Public Schools operates area public schools. Schools in the city limits include:

The State College of Florida, Manatee-Sarasota's (SCF) main campus is located in Bayshore Gardens, and State College of Florida Collegiate School has a campus on the SCF Bradenton campus.[67][68]

Culture[edit]

Some of the restored homes

Bradenton is home to the Village of the Arts, a renovated neighborhood immediately south of downtown where special zoning laws allow residents to live and work in their homes. Many of these once dilapidated houses have been converted into studios, galleries, small restaurants and other small businesses. The Village of the Arts promotes its 'First Fridays' activities celebrating the seasons and different holidays. The Village of the Arts remains the largest arts district on the Gulf Coast.

The Manatee Players, who reside at the Manatee Performing Arts Center, have a three-year record of first-place wins within the Florida Theatre Conference and the Southeastern Theatre Conference competitions. In addition, the theatre currently holds the first place title from the American Association of Community Theatre competition.

Located on the Manatee River in downtown Bradenton is the South Florida Museum, Bishop Planetarium and Parker Manatee Aquarium. This one-stop museum-planetarium-aquarium offers a glimpse of Florida history, a star and multimedia show, and ongoing lecture and film series. The Parker Manatee Aquarium was the permanent home to Manatee County's most famous resident and official mascot, Snooty, the manatee. Born at the Miami Aquarium and Tackle Company on July 21, 1948, Snooty was one of the first recorded captive manatee births. He was the oldest manatee in captivity, and likely the oldest manatee in the world.[69] On July 23, 2017, two days after his 69th birthday, Snooty died as the result of drowning.[70]

ArtCenter Manatee is the center for art and art education in Manatee County. The nearly 10,000 sq ft (930 m2) building in downtown Bradenton features three galleries, five classrooms, an Artists' Market gift shop and an art library featuring over 3,000 art volumes.

The nonprofit organization Realize Bradenton works with the above-listed cultural partners to promote Downtown Bradenton as a destination for the arts. It also produces events in the downtown area with a focus on arts and culture like the annual Bradenton Blues Festival, ArtSlam public art festival as well as several smaller public art and music events throughout the year.[71]

Additionally, the town is the subject of the We the Kings song "This Is Our Town"; they, as well as the band Have Gun, Will Travel originate from Bradenton.

Sports[edit]

Bradenton is the spring training home of Major League Baseball's Pittsburgh Pirates who play their home games at downtown's LECOM Park. During the regular baseball season, the stadium is home to the minor league Bradenton Marauders who play in the Florida State League in Class A-Advanced.

The city is home to the State College of Florida, Manatee–Sarasota Manatees sports teams.

Manatee County high schools produce several teams including Manatee High School whose football team was nationally ranked in the 1950s, 1980s, and 1990s and regained their national status in 2009. Manatee High School has won five football state championships. Bradenton is also home to the IMG Academy, the home of the U.S U-17 residential soccer program.

The Concession Golf Club in Bradenton was home of the 2015 NCAA Division I Men's Golf Championship.

Points of interest[edit]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Welcome to the Friendly City!". City of Bradenton. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  2. ^ Favorite, Merab-Michal (2013). Bradenton. Arcadia Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7385-9078-3. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  3. ^ "Mayor & Council". City of Bradenton. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  4. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the population for the Incorporated Places of Florida". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original (XLS) on May 8, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
  6. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  7. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  8. ^ "Bradenton". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. October 19, 1979. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  9. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  11. ^ White, Dale (September 8, 2016). "When Bradenton was a home for escaped slaves". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  12. ^ Eger, Issac (June 27, 2018). "A Newly Excavated Settlement Highlights Florida's History as a Haven for Escaped Slaves". Sarasota Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  13. ^ Congress, United States (1860). "Land Claims in East Florida". American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States ... Gales and Seaton.
  14. ^ Favorite, Merab (November 12, 2017). "Sunday Favorites: The First Settler". The Bradenton Times. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  15. ^ King, Carl (April 19, 1972). "Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. pp. 6–7. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  16. ^ a b King, Carl (1979–1982). "Speech by Carl King "The Plantation Builders"". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. Retrieved April 25, 2021.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  17. ^ King, Carl (March 26, 1983). "Speech by Carl King "Boat Tour on Anna Maria Sound and Manatee River"". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  18. ^ "Major Adams' Castle, Bradentown". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  19. ^ Favorite, Merab-Michal (January 8, 2012). "Community Sunday Favorites: Villa Zanza and the Eccentric Major Adams". The Bradenton Times. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  20. ^ a b King, Carl (May 17, 1978). "Speech by Carl King "The Story of Bradenton". Manatee County Public Library Digital Collection. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  21. ^ "Residences on Wares Creek, Bradentown". Manatee County Public Library System Digital Collection. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  22. ^ "Manatee County Courthouse from the 1890s". Manatee County Public Library Digital Collection. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Manatee County Court House, Bradentown". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. 1896–1907. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  24. ^ Gibson, Pamela (February 1985). "Speech by Pamela Gibson "Railroads of Manatee County"". Manatee County Public Library Digital Collection. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  25. ^ Hall, A. Sterling (1970). Speech by A. Sterling Hall "Bradenton Municipal Government". p. 2.
  26. ^ Parvin, Elizabeth (May 15, 1970). "Early Cultural and Social Life of Manatee County". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  27. ^ Thompson, Sharyn (October 24, 1983). "1903 Banner Year for Bradentown". Manatee County Public Library System: Digital Collection. p. 2. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
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