Bungi has been categorized as a post-creole, with the distinctive features of the language gradually abandoned by successive generations of speakers in favour of standard Canadian English. Today, the creole mostly survives in the speech of a few elders, and the use of non-standard pronunciations and terminology by a wider population.
The name derives from either Ojibwe: bangii, or Cree: pahkī, both words meaning “a little bit”. In addition to describing the language, Bungi can refer to First Nations persons generally, or those with mixed European and First Nations ancestry (regardless of perceived cultural affiliation). In these colloquial uses the term may have mildly pejorative connotations, even when used by speakers to describe themselves.
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Barkwell, Lawrence J., Dorion, Leah; & Préfontaine, Darren R. (n.d.). Annotated bibliography and references in Metis legacy.
Blain, Eleanor M. (1987). Speech of the lower Red River settlement. In W. Cowan (Ed.), Papers of the eighteenth Algonquian Conference (pp. 7–16). Ottawa: Carleton University.
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Walters, Frank J. (1969–1970). Bungee as she is spoke. Red River Valley Historian and History News. The Quarterly Journal of the Red River Valley Historical Society, 3 (4), 68–70.
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