Carnauba (/ - -/,; Portuguese: carnaúba [kahnaˈubɐ]), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the carnauba palm Copernicia prunifera (synonym: Copernicia cerifera), a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Piauí, Ceará, Maranhão, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Norte. It is known as the "Queen of Waxes". In its pure state, it usually available in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes. It is obtained by collecting and drying the leaves, beating them to loosen the wax, then refining and bleaching the wax. As a food additive, its E number is E903.
Carnauba consists mostly of aliphatic esters (40 wt%), diesters of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (21.0 wt%), ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids (13.0 wt%), and fatty alcohols (12 wt%). The compounds are predominantly derived from acids and alcohols in the C26-C30 range. It is distinctive for its high content of diesters and its methoxycinnamic acid.
It is sold in grades of T1, T3 and T4 according to its purity level, which is accomplished by filtration, centrifugation and bleaching.
Because it creates a glossy finish, carnauba wax is used in automobile waxes, shoe polishes, dental floss, food products (such as sweets), polishes for musical instruments, and floor and furniture waxes and polishes, especially when mixed with beeswax and turpentine. It is commonly used for paper coatings in the United States. In its purest form, it was often used on speedboat hulls in the early 1960s to enhance speed and handling in saltwater. It is also the main ingredient in surfboard wax, combined with coconut oil.
Because of its hypoallergenic and emollient properties as well as its gloss, carnauba wax is used as a thickener in cosmetics such as lipstick, eyeliner, mascara, eye shadow, foundation, deodorant, and skincare and sun care preparations. It is also used to make cutler's resin.
Because it is too brittle to be used alone, carnauba wax is often combined with other waxes (principally beeswax) to treat and waterproof leather products, where it provides a high-gloss finish and increases leather's hardness and durability.
It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a coating to make tablets easier to swallow. A very small amount (less than 1/100 of 1% by weight, e.g. 30 grams per 300 kg) is sprinkled onto a batch of tablets after they have been sprayed and dried; they are then tumbled for a few minutes to coat them.
Carnauba wax may be used as a mold release agent for manufacturing fibre-reinforced plastics. An aerosol mold release agent is formed by dissolving it in a solvent. Unlike silicone or PTFE, carnauba is suitable for use with liquid epoxy, epoxy molding compounds (EMC), and some other plastic types, generally enhancing their properties. It is not very soluble in chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. It is used in melt/castable explosives to produce an insensitive explosive formula such as Composition B, which is a blend of RDX and TNT.
Production and export
In 2006, Brazil produced 22,409 tons of carnauba wax, of which 14% was solid and 86% was in powder form. There are 20-25 exporters of carnauba wax in Brazil who, after buying it from middlemen or directly from farmers, refine the wax before shipping it to the rest of the world. The four largest exporters are Pontes, Brasil Ceras, Foncepi, and Carnauba do Brasil, who together account for around €25 million of the export market. According to the German television program Markencheck, conditions for many carnauba production workers are quite poor; one Brazilian Labor Ministry official found conditions "that could be described as slavery."
According to the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, the major destinations for exported carnauba wax are:
The Initiative for Responsible Carnauba (IRC) was founded in 2018 as part of the Private Business Action for Biodiversity project, in association with the Union for Ethical BioTrade (UEBT). Its aim is to foster responsible production that respects workers’ rights and preserves biodiversity. In an established working group with 20 local manufacturers and international distributors and brands, the IRC has set social, traceability and biodiversity standards and helped local producers implement them, with the UEBT's support. In collaboration with the local NGO Associação Caatinga, the Initiative has created a manual of good practices for the sector and 12 short learning videos, available on YouTube and sharable via WhatsApp, to inform field workers of their rights and about good biodiversity practices.
- INCI name: Copernicia cerifera (carnauba) wax
- Melting point: 82–86 °C (180–187 °F) (among the highest of natural waxes; higher than beeswax, 62–64C)
- Relative density: ~0.97
- Among the hardest of natural waxes
- Practically insoluble in water or ethyl alcohol
- Soluble by heating in ethyl acetate or xylene
- Steinle, J. Vernon (September 1936). "Carnauba wax: an expedition to its source". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (9): 1004–1008. doi:10.1021/ie50321a003.
- Parish, Edward J.; Terrence L. Boos; Shengrong Li (2002). "The Chemistry of Waxes and Sterols". In Casimir C. Akoh, David B. Min. (ed.). Food lipids: chemistry, nutrition, and biochemistry (2nd ed.). New York: M. Dekker. p. 103. ISBN 0-8247-0749-4.
- Associacao Caatinga, BMU-IKI/GIZ (2019). "Good Practices Manual for the Carnauba supply chain" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Wolfmeier, Uwe; Schmidt, Hans; Heinrichs, Franz-Leo; Michalczyk, Georg; Payer, Wolfgang; Dietsche, Wolfram; Boehlke, Klaus; Hohner, Gerd; Wildgruber, Josef (2000). "Waxes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_103. ISBN 3527306730.
- "The Dangers of Carnauba Wax Explained: Stay Safe!". Maple Holistics. 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
- Apps, E. A. (1958). Printing Ink Technology. London: Leonard Hill Books ltd. pp. 86.
- Der Haribo-Check. Markencheck (in German). ARD. October 16, 2017.
- Knight, Ben (October 19, 2017). "Haribo gummy bear ingredients made by modern slaves, documentary shows". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- "Initiative for Responsible Carnauba". The Union for Ethical BioTrade. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
- "Manual of good practices for the Carnauba production chain". The Union for Ethical BioTrade. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
- "Boas Práticas na Cadeia Produtiva da Carnaúba". Associacao Caatinga (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-20.
- Wu, X. (July 2020). "Hybrid Graphene/Carbon Nanofiber Wax Emulsion for Paper‐Based Electronics and Thermal Management". Advanced Electronic Materials. 6 (7): 2000232. arXiv:2004.11476. doi:10.1002/aelm.202000232. S2CID 216144540.
- Botanical description - from the Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden
- Carnauba wax data sheet - from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization
- Carnauba Wax Background Paper - published report from field work
- Associacao Caatinga
- Good Practices Manual for the Carnauba supply chain Archived 2019-12-05 at the Wayback Machine - Associacao Caatinga/BMU-IKI/GIZ (2019)
- Initiative for Responsible Carnauba - IRC
- Private Business Action for Biodiversity - BMU-IKI/GIZ
- Union for Ethical BioTrade - UEBT