Pine honey

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Pine honey Turkish: çam balı is a type of honeydew honey. [1] It is a sweet and spicy honey, with some woody notes, a resinous fragrance and dark amber color. It is a common breakfast dish in Turkey, where it is drizzled over yoghurt and eaten with bread.[1]

Pine honey is an unusual honey because it is not produced entirely by honey bees .[2] It is produced by bees that collect honeydew (sugary secretions) from a scale insect species called Marchalina hellenica, which lives on the sap of certain pine trees.[3] The marchalina hellenica can be found on the Turkish Pine (Pinus brutia), as well as the Aleppo Pine(Pinus halepensis), Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra), Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea).[4][5]

Pine honey is produced in eastern Mediterranean Pinus brutia forests.[3] Turkey produces 92% of the world’s pine honey.[6][7] The province of Muğla accounts for 80% of Turkish pine honey production.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Marchese, C. Marina (2011-05-20). Honeybee: Lessons from an Accidental Beekeeper. Running Press. ISBN 978-1-60376-239-7. 
  2. ^ Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009-03-25). A History of Food. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-0514-2. 
  3. ^ a b de-Miguel, Sergio; Pukkala, Timo; Yeşil, Ahmet (2014-05-01). "Integrating pine honeydew honey production into forest management optimization". European Journal of Forest Research. 133 (3): 423–432. doi:10.1007/s10342-013-0774-2. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  4. ^ Crane, Ethel Eva (2013-08-16). The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-74669-7. 
  5. ^ Paine, Timothy D.; Lieutier, Francois (2016-01-06). Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-24744-1. 
  6. ^ "Turkey makes over 90 percent of pine honey production worldwide". DailySabah. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  7. ^ The Turkish Bee Keeping and Honey Sector, United States Department of Agriculture, 2015
  8. ^ "Muğla'da çam balı üretimi yüze 50 düştü". Dünya Gazetesi. 2016-01-06. Retrieved 2018-04-03.