Central Park jogger case
|Date||April 19, 1989|
|Time||9–10 p.m. (EDT)|
|Duration||Approximately 1 hour|
|Location||Central Park, New York City, U.S.|
|Non-fatal injuries||Trisha Meili and eight others|
|Accused||Five male teenagers indicted for raping a woman and other charges; another was given a plea deal and pleaded guilty to assault; four other teenagers were indicted for assault and other charges related to attacks on other persons that night in the park.|
|Convicted||Five male youths were tried in two trials for the rape and violent assault of Trisha Meili while she was on an evening jog (the 6th made a plea deal in 1991 for a lesser charge and had a lesser sentence). Four of the five in the Meili case were convicted in 1990 of rape, assault, and other charges; one of these was convicted of attempted murder; one was convicted on lesser charges but as an adult. The other five defendants pleaded guilty to assault before trial and received lesser sentences.|
|Verdict||Guilty; sentences ranged from 5–10 years for four juveniles, and 5–15 years for a 16-year-old who was classified as an adult because of the violent nature of the crime.|
|Convictions||Four of the teenagers in the Meili case served 6–7 years in juvenile facilities; one, sentenced as an adult, served 13 years. Four unsuccessfully appealed their convictions in 1991.|
After another man was identified as the rapist in 2002, these five convictions were vacated, and the state withdrew all charges against the men.
|Litigation||The five men sued the city for discrimination and emotional distress; the city settled in 2014 for $41 million. They also sued New York State, which settled in 2016 for $3.9 million total.|
The Central Park jogger case (events also referenced as the Central Park Five Case) was a criminal case in the United States over the aggravated assault and rape of a white woman in Manhattan's Central Park on April 19, 1989, occurring at the same time as an unrelated string of other attacks in the park the same night.
Five black and Latino youths (known as the Central Park Five, later the Exonerated Five) were convicted of assaulting the woman, and served sentences ranging from six to twelve years. All later had their charges vacated after a prison inmate confessed to the crime.
From the outset the case was a topic of national interest. Initially, it fueled public discourse about New York City's perceived lawlessness, criminal behavior by youths, and violence toward women. After the exonerations, the case became a prominent example of racial profiling, discrimination, and inequality in the legal system and the media. All five defendants subsequently sued the City of New York for malicious prosecution, racial discrimination, and emotional distress; the city settled the suit in 2014 for $41 million.
At 9 p.m. on April 19, 1989, a group of an estimated 30 to 32 teenagers who lived in East Harlem entered Manhattan's Central Park at an entrance in Harlem, near Central Park North. Some of the group committed several attacks, assaults, and robberies against people who were either walking, biking, or jogging in the northernmost part of the park near the reservoir, and victims began to report the incidents to police.
Within the North Woods, between 102nd and 105th Street, assailants were reported attacking several bicyclists, hurling rocks at a cab, and attacking a pedestrian, whom they robbed of his food and beer and left unconscious. The teenagers roamed south along the park's East Drive and the 97th Street transverse, between 9 and 10 p.m. Police attempted to apprehend suspects after crimes began to be reported between 9 and 10 p.m.
At least some of the group traveled farther south to the area around the reservoir, where four men who were jogging were attacked by several youths. Among the victims was John Loughlin, a 40-year-old schoolteacher, who was severely beaten and robbed between 9:40 and 9:50. He was hit in the head with a pipe and a stick, briefly knocking him unconscious. At a pretrial hearing in October 1989, a police officer testified that when Loughlin was found, he was bleeding so badly that he "looked like he was dunked in a bucket of blood".
It was not until 1:30 a.m. that night that a female jogger was found in the North Woods area of the park. She had been pulled to the north some 300 feet off the path known as the 102nd Street Crossing. The path of her feet dragged through the grass was marked so clearly that it could be photographed. It was 18 inches wide. There was no evidence in the grass of footprints of multiple perpetrators. She was brutally beaten, suffering major blood loss and skull fractures; she was later revealed to have been raped.
After her discovery, the police increased the intensity of their effort to identify suspects in this attack and took more teenagers into custody. The jogger was not identified for about 24 hours, and it took days for the police to retrace her movements of that night. By the time of the trial of the first three suspects in June 1990, The New York Times characterized the attack on the jogger as "one of the most widely publicized crimes of the 1980's".
Assault on Trisha Meili
Trisha Meili was going for a regular run in Central Park shortly before 9 p.m. While jogging in the park, she was knocked down, dragged nearly 300 feet (91 m) off the roadway, and violently assaulted. She was raped and beaten almost to death. About four hours later at 1:30 am, she was found naked, gagged, and tied, and covered in mud and blood in a shallow ravine in a wooded area of the park about 300 feet north of the path called the 102nd Street Crossing. The first policeman who saw her said: "She was beaten as badly as anybody I've ever seen beaten. She looked like she was tortured."
Meili was so badly injured that she was in a coma for 12 days. She had severe hypothermia, severe brain damage, severe hemorrhagic shock, loss of 75–80 percent of her blood, and internal bleeding. Her skull had been fractured so badly that her left eye was dislodged from its socket, which in turn was fractured in 21 places, and she also had facial fractures.
The initial medical prognosis was that Meili would die of her injuries. She was given the last rites. Because of this, the police treated the attack as a probable homicide. Alternatively, doctors thought that she might remain in a permanent coma due to her injuries. She came out of her coma after 12 days. She was then treated for seven weeks in Metropolitan Hospital in East Harlem. When Meili first emerged from her coma, she was unable to talk, read, or walk.
In early June, Meili was transferred to Gaylord Hospital, a long-term acute care center in Wallingford, Connecticut, where she spent six months in rehabilitation. She did not walk until mid-July 1989. She returned to work eight months after the attack. She largely recovered, with some lingering disabilities related to balance and loss of vision. As a result of the severe trauma, she had no memory of the attack or any events up to an hour before the assault, nor of the six weeks following the attack. During the trial of the defendants, Meili was not cross-examined due to the amnesia caused by her assault.
At a time of concern about crime in general in the city, which was suffering high rates of assaults, rapes, and homicides, these attacks provoked great outrage, particularly the brutal rape of the female jogger. It took place in the public park that is "mythologized as the city's verdant, democratic refuge". New York Governor Mario Cuomo told the New York Post: "This is the ultimate shriek of alarm."
Earlier violent incidents that night
As identified by the Morgenthau report and The New York Times in a 2002 review of the case, several acts of violence were perpetrated that night by a group of more than 30 teenagers. These were:
- Michael Vigna, a competitive bike rider hassled about 9:05 p.m. by the group, one of whom tried to punch him.
- Antonio Diaz, a 52-year-old man walking in the park near 105th Street, was knocked to the ground by teenagers about 9:15 p.m., who stole his bag of food and bottle of beer. He was left unconscious but soon found by a policeman.
- Gerald Malone and Patricia Dean, riding on a tandem bike, were attacked on East Drive south of 102nd Street about 9:15 p.m. by boys who tried to stop them and grab Dean; the couple called police after reaching a call box.
The remaining victims were attacked by members of the large group while jogging near the reservoir:
- David Lewis, banker, attacked and robbed about 9:25–9:40
- Robert Garner, attacked about 9:30 p.m.
- David Good, attacked about 9:47 p.m.
- John Loughlin, the 40-year-old teacher, severely beaten and kicked about 9:40–9:50 p.m. near the reservoir and left unconscious. He was also robbed of a Walkman and other items.
Three of the victims were black or Hispanic, like most of the suspects, complicating any narrative attributing the attacks solely to racial factors.
Patricia Ellen Meili was born on June 24, 1960, in Paramus, New Jersey, and raised in Upper St. Clair, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh. She is the daughter and youngest of three children of John Meili, a Westinghouse senior manager, and his wife Jean, a school board member. She attended Upper St. Clair High School, graduating in 1978.
Meili was a Phi Beta Kappa economics major at Wellesley College, where she received a B.A. in 1982. The chairman of Wellesley's economics department said: "She was brilliant, probably one of the top four or five students of the decade." In 1986, she earned an M.A. from Yale University and an M.B.A. in finance from the Yale School of Management. She worked from the summer of 1986 until the attack as an associate and then a vice president in the corporate finance department and energy group of Salomon Brothers, an investment bank.
In most media accounts of the incident at that time, Meili was simply referred to as the "Central Park Jogger", but two local TV stations violated the media policy of not publicly identifying the victims of sex crimes and released her name in the days immediately following the attack. Two newspapers aimed at the African American community—The City Sun and the Amsterdam News—and the black-owned talk radio station WLIB continued to cover the case as it progressed. Their editors said this was in response to the media having publicized the names and personal information about the five suspects, who were all minors before they were arraigned. The Open Line hosts on WRKS were credited with helping continue to cover the case until the convicted youths were cleared in 2002 of the crime.
In 2003, Meili publicly revealed her identity as the jogger in her memoir I Am the Central Park Jogger: A Story of Hope and Possibility.
Arrests and investigation
Arrests of youths
The police were dispatched at 9:30 pm and responded with scooters and unmarked cars. Through the night, they apprehended about 20 teenagers. They took custody of Raymond Santana, 14; and Kevin Richardson, 14; along with three other teenagers at approximately 10:15 pm on Central Park West and 102nd Street. Steven Lopez, 14, was arrested with this group within an hour of the several attacks that were first reported to police. He was also interrogated.
The severely beaten Meili was not found until 1:30 a.m. on April 20. Her discovery increased the urgency of police efforts to apprehend suspects. Antron McCray, 15; Yusef Salaam, 15; and Korey Wise (then known as Kharey Wise), 16, were brought in for questioning later that day (April 20), after having been identified by other youths in the large group as participants in or present at some of the attacks on other victims. Korey Wise said he had not been involved, and accompanied Salaam because they were friends. These were the six suspects indicted for the attack on the female jogger (later identified as Meili).
They took into custody 14 or more other suspects over the next few days and arrested a total of ten suspects who were ultimately tried for the attacks. Among them were four African American and two Hispanic American teenagers who were indicted on May 10 on charges of assault, robbery, riot, rape, sexual abuse, and the attempted murders of Meili and an unrelated man, John Loughlin.
The police arrested additional suspects over 48 hours after the night of April 19 and interrogated numerous others. Among these was Clarence Thomas, 14, who was arrested on April 21, 1989, on charges related to the rape of the female jogger. After further investigation, he was never indicted, and all charges were dismissed against him on October 31, 1989. Also arrested in this period on charges of attacks against other persons in the park, and later indicted, was Jermaine Robinson, 15; Antonio Montalvo, 18; and Orlando Escobar, 16.
The videotaped confessions started on April 21, after the detectives finished unrecorded interrogations during which the five suspects were in custody for at least seven hours. Santana, McCray, and Richardson made video statements in the presence of parents. Wise made several statements unaccompanied by any parent, guardian or counsel. Lopez was interviewed on videotape in the presence of his parents on April 21, 1989, beginning at 3:30 a.m. He named others of the group by first names in the group attacks on other persons but denied any knowledge of the female jogger. None of the six had defense attorneys during the interrogations or videotape process.
When taken into custody, Salaam told the police he was 16 years old and showed them identification to that effect. If a suspect had reached 16 years of age, his parents or guardians no longer had a right to accompany him during police questioning, or to refuse to permit him to answer any questions. After Salaam's mother arrived at the station, she insisted that she wanted a lawyer for her son, and the police stopped the questioning. He neither made a videotape nor signed the earlier written statement, but the court ruled to accept it as evidence before his trial.
Salaam allegedly made verbal admissions to the police. He confessed to being present at the rape only after the detective falsely told him that fingerprints had been found on the victim's clothing and if his matched, he would be charged with rape. He said years later, "I would hear them beating up Korey Wise in the next room", and "they would come and look at me and say: 'You realize you're next.' The fear made me feel really like I was not going to be able to make it out."
The prosecutor planned to try the defendants in two groups and then scheduled the sixth defendant to be tried last. The latter pleaded guilty in January 1991 on lesser charges and received a reduced sentence.
Prosecution of the five remaining defendants—Kevin Richardson, Antron McCray, Raymond Santana, Korey Wise, and Yusef Salaam—in the rape and assault case was based primarily on confessions which they had made after lengthy police interrogations. None of the defendants had legal counsel during questioning. Many consider the interrogation techniques to have been coercive and they have been subject to wide criticism. Within weeks, they each withdrew their confessions, pleaded not guilty, and refused plea deals on the rape and assault charges. None of the suspects' DNA matched the DNA collected from the crime scene: two semen samples that both belonged to one unidentified man. No substantive physical evidence connected any of the five teenagers to the rape scene, but each was convicted in 1990 of related assault and other charges. Subsequently, known as the Central Park Five, they received sentences ranging from 5 to 15 years. Four of the defendants appealed their convictions, but these were affirmed by appellate courts. The four juvenile defendants served 6–7 years each; the 16-year-old was tried and sentenced as an adult and served 13 years in an adult prison. The five other defendants, indicted for assaults of other victims, pleaded guilty to reduced charges and received less severe sentences.
April 21 press conference and media coverage
On April 21, senior police investigators held a press conference to announce having apprehended about 20 suspects in the attacks of a total of nine people in Central Park two nights before and began to offer their theory of the attack and rape of the female jogger. Her name was withheld as a victim of a sex crime. The police said up to 12 youths were believed to have attacked the jogger.
The main suspects were a sub-group within the loose gang of 30 to 32 teenagers who had assaulted strangers in the park as part of an activity that the police said the teenagers referred to as "wilding". New York City senior detectives said the term was used by the suspects when describing their actions to police. The police described the attacks as "random" and "motiveless", saying they had "terrorized" people in the park. This account of the term "wilding" was soon disputed by investigative reporter Barry Michael Cooper, who said that it originated in a police detective's misunderstanding of the suspects' use of the phrase "doing the wild thing", lyrics from rapper Tone Loc's hit song "Wild Thing". There was massive media coverage of the conference, with the rape and beating of the female jogger especially recounted in dramatic, inflammatory language.
Normal police procedures stipulated that the names of criminal suspects under the age of 16 were to be withheld from the media and the public. But this policy was ignored when the names of the arrested juveniles were released to the press before any of them had been formally arraigned or indicted. For example, the name of Kharey Wise (he later adopted the use of Korey as his first name) was published in an April 25, 1989, article in the Philadelphia Daily News about the attack on the female jogger.
By that time, more information had been published about the primary suspects in the rape, who did not seem to satisfy typical profiles of perpetrators. Common factors had been ruled out. Reporters had found that some came from stable, financially secure families; police had ruled out drugs or major robbery, and most had no criminal records. On April 26, 1989, The New York Times published a cautionary editorial against the use of labels and questioning why such "well-adjusted youngsters" could have committed such a "savage" crime.
After the major media's decisions to print the names, photos, and addresses of the juvenile suspects, they and their families received serious threats. Other residents living at the Schomburg Plaza, where four suspects lived, were also threatened. Because of this, editors of The City Sun and the Amsterdam News chose to use Meili's name in their continuing coverage of the events.
Reverend Calvin O. Butts of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, who came to support the five suspects, said to The New York Times, "The first thing you do in the United States of America when a white woman is raped is round up a bunch of black youths, and I think that's what happened here."
On May 1, 1989, Donald Trump, then a real estate magnate, called for the return of the death penalty for murder in full-page advertisements published in all four of the city's major newspapers. Trump said he wanted the "criminals of every age ... to be afraid". The advertisement, which cost an estimated US$85,000 (equivalent to $186,000 in 2021), said, in part,
Mayor Koch has stated that hate and rancor should be removed from our hearts. I do not think so. I want to hate these muggers and murderers. They should be forced to suffer ... Yes, Mayor Koch, I want to hate these murderers and I always will. ... How can our great society tolerate the continued brutalization of its citizens by crazed misfits? Criminals must be told that their Civil Liberties End When an Attack On Our Safety Begins!
According to a contemporaneous article in the New York Amsterdam News, the ad was "widely condemned", including by then-Mayor Koch. Colin Moore, one of the attorneys defending one of the Central Park defendants, said that the ad "proved that anything is possible in America", and that "even a fool can become a multi-millionaire."
According to defendant Yusef Salaam, quoted in a February 2016 article in The Guardian, Trump "was the fire starter" in 1989, as "common citizens were being manipulated and swayed into believing that we were guilty." Salaam said his family received death threats after papers ran Trump's full-page ad urging the death penalty.
May 4, 1989
- Michael Briscoe, 17, was initially arrested for the rape of the female jogger, but his indictment was for riot and assault related to the attack of David Lewis, one of the four male joggers near the reservoir. In a plea deal arranged in June 1990, he pleaded guilty to assault and was immediately sentenced to a year in prison, with credit for time served.
- Jermaine Robinson, 15, was indicted on multiple counts of robbery and assault in the attacks on Lewis and John Loughlin, another jogger near the reservoir. In a plea deal, he pleaded guilty on October 5, 1989, to the robbery of Loughlin and was sentenced to a year in a juvenile facility.
May 10, 1989
Six youths were indicted with attempted murder and other charges in the attack on and rape of the female jogger, and additional charges related to the attack of David Lewis, the attack and robbery of John Loughlin, and riot:
- Steve Lopez, 14,
- Antron McCray, 15
- Kevin Richardson, 14,
- Yusef Salaam, 15,
- Raymond Santana, 14,
- Korey Wise, 16.
Each of the youths pleaded "not guilty". The families of Lopez, Richardson, and Salaam were able to make the $25,000 bail imposed by the court. The two other youths under 16 were returned to a juvenile facility to be held there until trial. Classified as an adult at 16, Korey Wise was separated from the others from the first and held in an adult jail at Rikers Island until trial.
Four of the six youths who were indicted for the rape lived at the Schomburg Plaza, 1309 Fifth Avenue, at the northeast corner of Central Park near 110th Street; two lived further north of there. The ones at Schomburg included friends Salaam and Wise, who lived in the northwest tower, and Kevin Richardson and Steve Lopez who lived elsewhere in the complex. They had seen each other in the neighborhood. The Schomburg was a large, mixed-income complex with two 35-story towers and an associated multi-story rectangular building. Designed for families, the complex was built in 1974 and was partially subsidized by the city and federal government; it had 600 households, in apartments ranging in size from studios to five bedrooms.
January 10, 1990
- Orlando Escobar, 16, was indicted for three counts of robbery, two counts of assault, and one count of riot-related to the attack on John Loughlin. In a plea deal, he pleaded guilty on March 14, 1991, to attempted robbery in second degree, and was sentenced to 6 months' incarceration and 4+1⁄2 years' probation.
- Antonio Montalvo, 18, was charged with two counts of robbery and one of assault, related to the attack on Antonio Diaz. In a plea deal, he pleaded guilty on January 29, 1991, to a robbery in second degree, and was sentenced to 1 year.
Four of the five had confessed to police about other attacks in the park in other areas on the night of April 19, including the assault and robbery of John Loughlin, to which they said they were witnesses or participants. Salaam's unsigned statement also covered the range of actions and crimes. According to The New York Times, their accounts of these other attacks were accurate, unlike their confessions to the assault on the jogger. Only Wise made any statement about the different times and locations of the jogger attack, and detectives had taken him to the park to the crime scene before he made his videotaped confession.
Each of the suspects had made different errors in time and place about the jogger attack in their confessions, with most placing it near the reservoir. None of the five said that he had raped the jogger, but each confessed to having been an accomplice to the rape. Each youth said that he had only helped restrain the jogger, or touched her, while one or more others had raped her. Their confessions varied as to who they identified as having participated in the rape, including naming several youths who were never questioned. In his untaped confession, Salaam claimed to have struck the jogger with a pipe at the beginning of the incident.
Although four suspects (all except Salaam) confessed on videotape in the presence of a parent or guardian (who had generally not been present during the interrogations), each of the four retracted his statement within weeks. Together they claimed that they had been intimidated, lied to, and coerced by police into making false confessions. While the confessions were videotaped, the hours of interrogation that preceded the confessions were not.
Numerous pretrial hearings were conducted by Judge Thomas B. Galligan of the State Supreme Court of Manhattan, who had been assigned the case. Since 1986, judges were generally assigned by lottery, but the court administrator assigned him to this case. The defense attorneys criticized Galligan as being biased toward the assistant district attorney and handing down tough sentences. The counsel of the defendants filed a motion for a different judge which was rejected. In one of the pre-trial hearings, on February 23, 1990, Galligan ruled that he would accept the videotaped confessions and Salaam's unsigned statement as prosecution evidence at trial, despite defense counsel's objections. He said that Salaam's statement was being admitted as evidence because Salaam had lied to police about his age and showed them false identification.
Analysis indicated that none of the suspects' DNA matched either of the two DNA samples collected from the crime scene (from the jogger's cervix and running sock), but results were reported as "inconclusive" by the police.
In 1990 the six suspects (including Steve Lopez) indicted in the attack on the female jogger and other crimes were scheduled for trial. The prosecution arranged to try the six defendants in the Meili case in two separate groups. This enabled them to control the order in which certain evidence would be introduced to the court.
Lopez was scheduled to be tried in January 1991, after the two other groups of defendants in the rape and assault case. He had denied any knowledge of the rape in his videotaped confession, but was implicated by other defendants' statements. Like the five others, he was also indicted on charges related to the attack and robbery of Loughlin.
In the first trial, which began June 25 and ended on August 18, 1990, defendants Antron McCray, Yusef Salaam, and Raymond Santana were tried. Each of the teenagers had his own defense counsel. The jury consisted of four white Americans, four black Americans, three Hispanic Americans, and one Asian American. Meili testified at the trial, but her identity was not given to the court. None of the three defense attorneys cross-examined her.
The jury deliberated for 10 days before rendering its verdict on August 18. Each of the three youths was acquitted of attempted murder, but convicted of assault and rape of the female jogger, and convicted of assault and robbery of John Loughlin, a male jogger who was badly beaten that night in Central Park. Salaam and McCray were 15 years old, and Santana 14 years old, at the time of the crime. As such, they were each sentenced by Judge Thomas B. Galligan to the maximum allowed for juveniles, 5–10 years each in a youth correctional facility.
The second trial, of Kevin Richardson and Korey Wise, began October 22, 1990 and also lasted about two months, ending in December. Kevin Richardson, 14 years old at the time of the crime, had been free on $25,000 bail before the trial.
Assistant District Attorney Elizabeth Lederer had a lengthy opening statement, and Wise broke down at the defense table after it, weeping and shouting that she had lied. He was removed temporarily from the courtroom. Richardson's defense counsel made a motion for a mistrial, because of the potential effect on the jury, but the judge rejected it. The trial proceeded.
The defense attorneys noted that each youth had limited intellectual ability and said that neither was capable of preparing the written statements or videotaped confessions submitted by the prosecution as evidence. They contended that the confessions had been coerced from youths vulnerable to pressure because of their age and their intellectual capacity.
Meili testified again at this trial; again, her name was not given in court. This time one of the defense counsels, Wise's lawyer, cross-examined her. She later said in an interview on Oprah: "I'll tell you what—I didn't feel wonderful about the boys' defense attorneys, especially the one who cross-examined me. He was right in front of my face and, in essence, calling me a slut by asking questions like 'When's the last time you had sex with your boyfriend?'" Wise's lawyer had also asked her whether she had ever been assaulted by men in her life, suggested that a man she knew may have attacked her, and implied that her injuries were not as severe as they had been presented.
Richardson was the only one of the five defendants to be convicted of attempted murder of Meili, in addition to sodomy and assault of her, and robbery and riot in the attack on John Loughlin, another jogger in the park. He was sentenced to 5–10 years in a juvenile facility.
Korey Wise, 16 years old at the time of the crime, was acquitted of rape and attempted murder. At trial, Melody Jackson—the sister of one of Wise's friends—testified that while incarcerated in the Rikers Island he had told her that he had restrained and fondled the jogger. Wise was convicted of lesser charges of sexual abuse, assault, and riot in the attack on the female jogger and on Loughlin. Because of his age and the violent nature of the felony charge, he was tried and sentenced as an adult, receiving 5–15 years in adult prison. After the verdict, Wise shouted at the prosecutor: "You're going to pay for this. Jesus is going to get you. You made this up."
Jurors who agreed to interviews after the trials said that they were not convinced by the youths' confessions, but were impressed by the physical evidence introduced by the prosecutors: semen, grass, dirt, and two hairs described as "consistent with" the victim's hair: 6 that were recovered from Richardson's underpants.
According to an FBI expert who gave evidence at the trial, all five defendants could be excluded as being the man who had left the semen samples inside Meili and on a sock. In total, 14 men were tested, including the defendants and Meili's former boyfriend, and all were excluded. The semen belonged to another, unidentified male. Years later, more advanced DNA testing also revealed that the hairs in Richardson's clothes did not match the victim.
Sentencing and appeals
After the guilty verdicts, the judge sentenced the defendants to the maximum for the charges and their ages. The four youths under 16 were sentenced to 5–10 years each. They had been held in a juvenile facility since their arrest. Wise at 16 was tried and sentenced as an adult because of the nature of the violent felony charges against him, under the Juvenile Offender Law of 1978. He was sentenced to 5–15 years.
The sentences each of them served is as follows:
- Yusef Salaam served 6 years and 8 months in juvenile detention from 1990 to 1996 and was released on parole.
- Raymond Santana served 6 years and 8 months in juvenile detention from 1990 to 1996 and was released on parole. In 1998, he violated his parole and was sentenced to 3+1⁄2–7 years' prison on drug charges. He was released and exonerated in 2002.
- Kevin Richardson served 7 years in juvenile detention from 1990 to 1997 and was released on parole.
- Antron McCray was sentenced to 5–10 years in juvenile detention. He served 6 years from 1990 to 1996 and was released on parole.
- Korey Wise was sentenced to 6–15 years in prison on sexual abuse, assault and riot. He served 13 years and 8 months in multiple state prisons: Rikers' Island Prison in 1990, Attica Correctional Facility in 1991, Wende State Penitentiary in 1993 and Auburn State Correctional Facility in 2001. In this prison, Wise met Matias Reyes, who was later found to have had actually assaulted and raped Meili. Reyes confessed and Wise was released in 2002.
On appeal, Salaam's attorneys charged that he had been held by police without access to parents or guardians. The majority appellate court decision upheld his conviction, noting that Salaam had initially lied to police about his age, claiming to be 16 and backing up his claim with a forged transit pass that, falsely, indicated that he was 16. This was the age at which a suspect could be questioned without a parent or guardian present. When Salaam informed police of his true age, they allowed his mother entry to the interrogation room.
Biases affecting the convictions
In a 2016 Guardian article, defense counsel William Warren was reported saying that he thought Trump's ads in 1989 had played a role in securing conviction by the juries, saying that "he poisoned the minds of many people who lived in New York City and who, rightfully, had a natural affinity for the victim." He noted, "Notwithstanding the jurors' assertions that they could be fair and impartial, some of them or their families, who naturally have influence, had to be affected by the inflammatory rhetoric in the ads." In 2019 Time magazine also assessed Trump's ads in 1989 as having adversely affected the case for the defendants.
In a 1991 New York Review of Books article, which was the first mainstream piece arguing that the Five's convictions had been wrongful, Joan Didion suggested the verdicts stemmed from a cultural crisis, writing that "So fixed were the emotions provoked by this case that the idea that there could have been, for even one juror, even a moment's doubt in the state's case ... seemed, to many in the city, bewildering, almost unthinkable: the attack on the jogger had by then passed into narrative, and the narrative was ... about what was wrong with the city and about its solution".
January 1991 plea bargain for Lopez
Although Assistant District Attorney Elizabeth Lederer had said she would not accept a plea deal for any of the defendants indicted in the rape case, she did come to agreement with Steve Lopez and his attorney in the court on January 30, 1991, prior to a new jury being selected for his trial. He was considered the final of the six defendants in the jogger trial. Because Lopez had not acknowledged participating at all in the rape in his statement to police, and prosecution witnesses had withdrawn from testifying, based on what they said was fear of self-incrimination or "fear of their own safety", according to Lederer, the prosecution's case was extremely weak. Although some of the five defendants who had been convicted had accused Lopez in their statements of the most severe violence against the jogger, these could not be used against him because of their convictions.
After agreeing to the plea deal, Judge Galligan allowed Lopez to remain free on $25,000 bail until sentencing. He was sentenced in March 1991 to 1+1⁄2 to 4+1⁄2 years, after pleading guilty to the mugging of jogger John Loughlin. Because Lopez was younger than 16 at the time of the crime, he was sentenced to serve his time in a juvenile facility.
The four youngest of the five convicted defendants each served between six and seven years in juvenile facilities. Richardson, Salaam, and Santana attended classes. Each earned a GED and also completed an associate degree while there.
Richardson and Salaam were released in 1997. Afterward Salaam talked about how important family was. He was part of an Islamic community and served as a spiritual leader at his youth facility, but talked about how important his mother's visits had been. He was held at a juvenile facility in upstate New York about five miles from the Canadian border and hours from New York City, but she came to see him three times a week.
Wise had to serve all of his time in adult prison, and encountered so much personal violence that he asked to stay in isolation for extended periods. He was held at four different prisons, having asked for transfers in the hope of improving his situation. He was released in August 2002, the last of the five men to leave prison.
Through this period, each of the five continued to maintain their innocence in the rape and attack of Meili, including at hearings before parole boards. While they acknowledged "witnessing or participating in other wrongdoing" in the park, they each maintained innocence in the attack of Meili.
Convictions vacated in 2002
In 2001, convicted serial rapist and murderer Matias Reyes was serving a life sentence in New York state. He had never been identified as a suspect in the Central Park attack on Meili, although he had been at large at the time. Reyes was believed to have raped another woman in the same area of the park during the day on April 17, two days before the attack on Meili. Initially the Meili case was investigated as a homicide, and the April 17 rape was investigated as a rape assault, which resulted in a lack of comparison of the DNA recovered in the two cases. The NYPD did not have a DNA database until 1994; after that, detectives and prosecutors had access to common information about DNA from evidence and taken from suspects in certain crimes. During the summer of 1989, Reyes raped four more women, killing one, and was interrupted after robbing a fifth.
In 2001 Reyes met Wise when they were held at the Auburn Correctional Facility in upstate New York. That year, Reyes informed a corrections officer that he had raped Meili. In 2002, Reyes told officials that on the night of April 19, 1989, he had assaulted and raped the female jogger. He was 17 years old at the time of the assault and said that he had committed it alone. He also said that he had intended to burglarize the victim's apartment. Reyes was then working at an East Harlem convenience store on Third Avenue and 102nd Street, and living in a van on the street.
District Attorney Robert Morgenthau's office was notified of the confession in 2002. Morgenthau appointed a team led by Assistant District Attorneys Nancy Ryan and Peter Casolaro to investigate the case, based on Reyes's confession and a review of evidence. Reyes provided officials with a detailed account of the attack, details of which were corroborated by other evidence which the police held. In addition, his DNA matched the DNA evidence at the scene, confirming that he was the sole source of the semen found in and on the victim "to a factor of one in 6,000,000,000 people". Reyes' DNA matched the semen found on Meili, and he provided other confirmatory evidence. In announcing these facts, Morgenthau also said that the perpetrator had tied up Meili with her T-shirt in a distinctive fashion that Reyes used again on later victims in crimes for which he was convicted.
Based on interviews and other evidence, the team believed that Reyes had acted alone: The rape appeared to have taken place in the North Woods area after the main body of the thirty teenagers had moved well to the south, and the timeline reconstruction of events made it unlikely that he was joined by any of the defendants. In addition, Reyes was not known to have been associated with any of the six indicted defendants. He lived at 102nd Street, in what locals considered another neighborhood. None of the six defendants in the rape mentioned him by name in association with the rape.
Reyes' confession occurred after the statute of limitations had passed and the Central Park Five had already served their sentences. Reyes claimed he came forward because "it was the right thing to do". At the time of his confession, Reyes had been convicted and sentenced to life in state prison for raping and robbing four other women in the summer of 1989, murdering one of them and robbing another. In a plea deal, he pleaded guilty to the top counts in each of the five cases on November 1, 1991.
DNA analysis of the strands of hair found on the clothing of two of the defendants, conducted with advanced technology not available at the time of their trial, established that the hair did not belong to the victim, despite what the prosecution had testified to at trial.
Based on the newly discovered evidence, each of the five men who had been convicted of charges related to the rape of Meili filed motions to have their convictions set aside and for the court "to grant whatever further relief may be just and proper."
After an investigation into the defendants' innocence was conducted in 2002 by Robert Morgenthau, District Attorney for New York County, the city withdrew all charges against the men, and the defendants' sentences were vacated. In 2003, the five men sued the City of New York for malicious prosecution, racial discrimination, and emotional distress; they reached a $41 million settlement with the city government in 2013, and an additional $3.9 million in monetary compensation from the state in 2016.
In late 2002, as a result of his team's review, the confession by Reyes, and DNA testing that confirmed Reyes was the sole source of semen, District Attorney Robert Morgenthau recommended vacating the convictions of the five defendants who had been convicted and sentenced to prison.
The DA's office questioned the veracity of the confessions, pointing to the many inconsistencies between them and their lack of correspondence to established facts. Nancy Ryan, an ADA in Morgenthau's office, filed an affirmation supporting motions by the defendants to vacate their convictions in December 2002:
A comparison of the statements reveals troubling discrepancies. ... The accounts given by the five defendants differed from one another on the specific details of virtually every major aspect of the crime—who initiated the attack, who knocked the victim down, who undressed her, who struck her, who held her, who raped her, what weapons were used in the course of the assault, and when in the sequence of events the attack took place. ... In many other respects the defendants' statements were not corroborated by, consistent with, or explanatory of objective, independent evidence. And some of what they said was simply contrary to established fact.
In addition to the confessions, the filing noted that a "reconstruction of the events in the park has bared a significant conflict, one that was hinted at but not explored in depth at the trials: at the time the jogger was believed to have been attacked, the teenagers were said to be involved—either as spectators or participants—in muggings elsewhere in the park." Ryan continued: "Ultimately, there proved to be no physical or forensic evidence recovered at the scene or from the person or effects of the victim which connected the defendants to the attack on the jogger, or could establish how many perpetrators participated." In light of the "extraordinary circumstances" of the case, the affirmation further recommended that the court also vacate the convictions for the other crimes, including robbery and assault, to which the defendants had confessed. Given that the defendants' confessions to the other crimes were made at the same time and in the same statements as those related to the attack on Meili, the DA's office argued that, had the newly discovered evidence been available at the original trials, it could have caused juries to question the defendants' confessions in those crimes as well.
The DA's recommendation to vacate the convictions was, and continues to be strongly opposed by lead detectives on the case and other members of the police department. Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly complained at the time that Morgenthau's staff had denied his detectives access to "important evidence" needed to conduct a thorough investigation.
Linda Fairstein, who directed the original prosecution, agreed with the decision to vacate the rape charges but said the separate assault charges should have remained.[better source needed] Morgenthau would later express regret assigning the case to Fairstein, saying "I had complete confidence in Linda Fairstein. Turned out to be misplaced. But we rectified it."
The five defendants' convictions were vacated by New York Supreme Court Justice Charles J. Tejada on December 19, 2002. As Morgenthau recommended, Tejada's order vacated the convictions for all the crimes of which the defendants had been convicted. All five of the defendants had completed their prison sentences at the time of Tejada's order; their names were cleared in relation to this case. This also enabled them being removed from New York State's sex offender registry. In addition to having had difficulty getting employment or renting housing, as registered offenders, they had been required to report to authorities in person every three months. The city government also withdrew all charges against the men. Meili later commented that she wished the matter would have been retried, rather than settled out of court, and that she believed her attack was not the result of a single person.
Lawyers for the five defendants repeated their assessment that Trump's advertisements in 1989 had inflamed public opinion about the case. After Reyes confessed to the crime and said he acted alone, defense counselor Michael W. Warren said, "I think Donald Trump at the very least owes a real apology to this community and to the young men and their families." Protests were held outside Trump Tower in October 2002 with protestors chanting, "Trump is a chump!" Trump did not apologize.
Following these events, in 2002, New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly commissioned a panel to review the case, "To determine whether the new evidence [from the Reyes affidavit and related evidence, and Morgenthau's investigation] indicated that police supervisors or officers acted improperly or incorrectly, and to determine whether police policy or procedures needed to be changed as a result of the Central Park jogger case." The panel was chaired by attorney Michael F. Armstrong, the former chief counsel to the Knapp Commission, which in 1972 had documented widespread corruption in the NYPD. Two other attorneys were included: Jules Martin, a former police officer and now New York University Vice President; and Stephen Hammerman, deputy police commissioner for legal affairs. The panel issued a 43-page report in January 2003.
In its January 2003 Armstrong Report, the panel "did not dispute the legal necessity of setting aside the convictions of the five defendants based on the new DNA evidence that Mr. Reyes had raped the jogger." But it disputed acceptance of Reyes's claim that he alone had raped the jogger. It said there was "nothing but his uncorroborated word" that he acted alone. Armstrong said the panel believed "the word of a serial rapist killer is not something to be heavily relied upon."
The report concluded that the five men whose convictions had been vacated had "most likely" participated in the beating and rape of the jogger and that the "most likely scenario" was that "both the defendants and Reyes assaulted her, perhaps successively." The report said Reyes had most likely "either joined in the attack as it was ending or waited until the defendants had moved on to their next victims before descending upon her himself, raping her and inflicting upon her the brutal injuries that almost caused her death."
Despite the analysis conducted by the District Attorney's Office, New York City detectives supported the 2003 Armstrong Report by the police department. The panel said there had been "no misconduct in the 1989 investigation of the Central Park jogger case".
As to the five defendants, the report said:
We believe the inconsistencies contained in the various statements were not such as to destroy their reliability. On the other hand, there was a general consistency that ran through the defendants' descriptions of the attack on the female jogger: she was knocked down on the road, dragged into the woods, hit and molested by several defendants, sexually abused by some while others held her arms and legs, and left semiconscious in a state of undress.
Lawsuits against New York City
In 2003, Kevin Richardson, Raymond Santana Jr., and Antron McCray sued the City of New York for malicious prosecution, racial discrimination, and emotional distress. The other two defendants later joined the lawsuit. Under Michael Bloomberg's mayoral administration, the city refused to pursue a settlement for the lawsuits based on a conclusion that the defendants had had a fair trial.
Speaking at a news conference in 2002, Bloomberg spoke of his confidence regarding the actions of the police department. "As far as I can tell, the N.Y.P.D. did exactly what they should have done a number of years ago when the terrible incident took place ... If we see any reason to think that we acted inappropriately, [Police] Commissioner Kelly will certainly take appropriate measures. But so far we believe that the N.Y.P.D. did act appropriately."
In 2011, Celeste Koeleveld, then New York City's Executive Assistant Corporation Counsel for Public Safety, gave a public statement on behalf of the city in 2011 after receiving public criticism from Councilman Charles Barron for failing to resolve the lawsuits:
The charges against the plaintiffs and other youths were based on abundant probable cause, including confessions that withstood intense scrutiny, in full and fair pretrial hearings and at two lengthy public trials ... Nothing unearthed since the trials, including Matias Reyes's connection to the attack on the jogger, changes that fact.
After a change in city administration, with the election of Mayor Bill de Blasio (who had run on a campaign promise to resolve the matter), the city settled in 2014 with the five defendants for $41 million. At a press conference in 2014, de Blasio made a public statement about the settlements.
An injustice was done and we have a moral obligation to respond to that injustice ... I think that the way we've proceeded was [with] an understanding that that had to be rectified, in a way that made sense and a way that was mindful and careful, but I think we're on the right track ... And I think the moral issue is quite clear and obviously was made clear by the court decisions in recent years.
In 2016, the five men received an award of $3.9 million against the State of New York for additional damages caused by the economic and emotional devastation caused by their incarceration.The original lawsuit had requested $51 million in addition to the previously awarded $41 million.
Under newly elected Mayor Bill de Blasio, New York City announced a settlement in June 2014 in the case for about $40 million. Santana, Salaam, McCray, and Richardson each received around $7.1 million from the city for their years in prison, while Wise received $12.2 million because he had served six additional years. The city did not admit to any wrongdoing in the settlement. The settlement averaged roughly $1 million for each year of imprisonment that each of the men had served.
As of December 2014, the five men were pursuing an additional $52 million in damages from New York State in the New York Court of Claims, before Judge Alan Marin. Speaking of the second suit, against the state, Santana said: "When you have a person who has been exonerated of a crime, the city provides no services to transition him back to society. The only thing left is something like this—so you can receive some type of money so you can survive." They received a total settlement of $3.9 million from the state in 2016, with varying amounts related to the period of time that each man had served in prison.
Trisha Meili publishes book
Meili returned to work at the investment bank. In April 2003, Meili confirmed her identity to the media when she published a memoir entitled I Am the Central Park Jogger. She began a career as an inspirational speaker. She also works with victims of sexual assault and brain injury in the Mount Sinai Hospital sexual assault and violence intervention program. She had resumed jogging in 1989 three or four months after the attack, and over the years added a variety of other exercise and yoga practice. She continues to manifest some after-effects of the assault, including memory loss.
Settlement and exonerations disputed
In 2014, after New York City had settled the wrongful conviction suit, some figures returned to the media to dispute the court's 2002 decision to vacate the convictions. Also retired New York City detective Edward Conlon, who had been involved with the case, in an article published in October 2014 in The Daily Beast, quoted incriminatory statements allegedly made by some of the youths after they had been taken into custody by police in April 1989.
Similarly, two doctors who had treated Meili after the attack said in 2014, after the settlement, that some of her injuries appeared to be inconsistent with Reyes's claim that he had acted alone. But a forensic pathologist who testified at the 1990 trial said that it was impossible to tell from the victim's injuries how many people had participated in the assault, as did New York City's chief medical examiner in 2002. Meili, who had no memory of what happened, said at the time of the settlement that she believed there had been more than one attacker and expressed her regret that the case had been settled.
Donald Trump also returned to the media, writing a 2014 opinion article for the New York Daily News. He said the settlement was "a disgrace", and that the men were likely guilty: "Settling doesn't mean innocence. ... Speak to the detectives on the case and try listening to the facts. These young men do not exactly have the pasts of angels." During his 2016 presidential campaign, Trump again said that the Central Park Five were guilty and that their convictions should not have been vacated. The men of the Central Park Five criticized Trump at the time for his statement, stating they had falsely confessed under police coercion. Other critics included U.S. Senator John McCain, who said that Trump's responses were "outrageous statements about the innocent men in the Central Park Five case". He cited this as among his reasons to retract his endorsement of the candidate. In June 2019 Trump stated he would not apologize, saying the Central Park Five "admitted their guilt".
Legislative and other justice reforms
Because of the great publicity surrounding the case, the exoneration of the Central Park Five highlighted the issue of false confession. The issue of false confessions has become a major topic of study and efforts at criminal justice reform, particularly for juveniles. Juveniles have been found to make false confessions and guilty pleas at a much higher rate than adults.
Advances in DNA analysis and the work of non-profit groups such as the Innocence Project have resulted in 343 people being exonerated of their crimes from as of July 31, 2016[update] due to DNA testing. This process has revealed the strong role of false confessions in wrongful convictions. According to a 2016 study by Craig J. Trocino, director of the Miami Law Innocence Clinic, 27 percent of those persons had "originally confessed to their crimes".
Members of the Five have been among activists who have advocated for videotaped interrogations and related reforms to try to prevent false confessions. Since 1989, New York and some 24 other states have passed laws requiring "electronic records of full interrogations". In some cases, this requirement is limited to certain types of crimes.
Lives of the men after vacated judgment
Antron McCray was the first to move away from New York. He is married, has six children, and lives and works in Georgia.
Kevin Richardson is married and lives with his family in New Jersey. According to the Innocence Project, he has acted as an advocate with Santana and Salaam to reform New York State's criminal justice practices, advocating methods to prevent false confessions and eyewitness misidentifications. Among their goals was required videotaping of interrogations by law enforcement; such a law was passed by the New York State legislature and went into effect on April 1, 2018.
Yusef Salaam has been an advocate for reform in the criminal justice system and prisons, particularly for juveniles. He has spoken against practices leading to false confessions and eyewitness misidentifications, which can lead to wrongful convictions. He also works as a motivational speaker. Living in Georgia, he is married with ten children. He serves as a board member of the Innocence Project. As noted, Salaam was an advocate for the law passed in New York in 2018 requiring videotaping of accused subjects in all custodial interrogations for serious crimes. In 2016, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award from President Barack Obama.
Raymond Santana had been out of prison for six months before he was found guilty of possession of crack cocaine in 1998 and reincarcerated for a term of 3.5 to 7 years. He was released in 2002 when the prosecutor, agreeing that his sentence had been higher due to his subsequently vacated conviction for raping Meili, reduced it to the 18–48 months that would typically have been given to a first-time offender. He currently lives in Georgia, not far from McCray. He serves as a criminal justice advocate with the Innocence Project and spoke in New York to audiences with Richardson and Salaam to advocate passage of the New York State justice reform law that passed in 2017. He has also appeared with other involved men in presentations at local schools and colleges. In 2018 he started a clothing company, Park Madison NYC, named for the avenues near his former home in New York. Some of his merchandise commemorates the men of the Central Park Five.
Korey Wise (who changed his first name from Kharey after being released from prison) still lives in New York City, where he works as a speaker and justice reform activist. He donated $190,000 of his 2014 settlement to the chapter of the Innocence Project at the University of Colorado Law School, to aid other wrongfully convicted people to gain exoneration. They renamed the project in his honor as the Korey Wise Innocence Project.
Contemporaneous cases compared by the media
The Central Park events, which were attributed at the time to members of the large group of youths who attacked numerous persons in the park, including whites, blacks and Hispanics, were covered as an extreme example of the violence that was occurring in the city, including assaults and robberies, rapes and homicides. Focusing on rapes in the same week as the one in Central Park, The New York Times reported on April 29, 1990, on the "28 other first-degree rapes or attempted rapes reported across New York City". The fourth one, on April 17, took place during the day in the park and is now tied to Reyes.
Later after the Central Park rape, when public attention was on the theory of a gang of young suspects, a brutal attack took place in Brooklyn on May 3, 1989. A 30-year-old black woman was robbed, raped and thrown from the roof of a four-story building by three young men. She fell 50 feet, suffering severe injuries. The incident received little media coverage in May 1989, when the focus was on the Central Park case. The woman's injuries required extensive hospitalization and rehabilitation.
The New York Times continued to report on the case, and followed up on prosecution of suspects. Tyrone Prescott, 17, Kelvin Furman, 22, and another young man, Darren Decotea (name corrected a few days later as Darron Decoteau), 17, were apprehended within two weeks and prosecuted for the crimes. They arranged plea deals with the prosecution in October 1990 before trial; the first two were sentenced to 6 to 18 years in prison. Decoteau had made a plea deal in February in which he agreed to testify against the other two. He was sentenced on October 10, 1990, to four to twelve years in prison. Social justice activists and critics have pointed to the lack of extensive coverage of the attack of the woman in Brooklyn as showing the media's racial bias; they have accused it of overlooking violence against minority women.
Representation in other media
- Ken Burns, Sarah Burns and her husband David McMahon premiered their The Central Park Five, a documentary film about the case, at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2012. Documentarian Ken Burns said he hoped the material of the film would push the city to settle the men's case against it. On September 12, 2012, attorneys for New York City subpoenaed the production company for access to the original footage in connection with its defense of the 2003 federal civil lawsuit brought against the city by three of the convicted youths. Celeste Koeleveld, the city's executive assistant corporation counsel for public safety, justified the subpoena on the grounds that the film had "crossed the line from journalism to advocacy" for the wrongfully convicted men. In February 2013, U.S. Judge Ronald L. Ellis quashed the city's subpoena.
- On May 31, 2019, When They See Us, a four-episode miniseries, was released on Netflix. Ava DuVernay co-wrote and directed the drama. Its release and wide viewing on Netflix prompted renewed discussion of the case, the criminal justice system, and of the lives of the five men.
- An opera, also called The Central Park Five, premiered in Long Beach, California, performed by the Long Beach Opera Company, on June 15, 2019. The music is by composer Anthony Davis and the libretto by Richard Wesley. Davis won the 2020 Pulitzer Prize for Music for this work. An earlier version, Five, had premiered in Newark, New Jersey, by the Trilogy Company.
- An episode of the TLC series, American Justice, featured the Central Park Five and aired in 1999, which was before the Five were officially cleared of any wrongdoing in the case. It attempts to get viewers to sympathize with the victim and portrays the Five as the actual attackers. It was not until five years after this episode aired that Reyes confessed to the crime (and was proven guilty through DNA evidence). The episode is now on YouTube but the series has not been aired on TV since the mid-2000s at least.
- List of wrongful convictions in the United States
- Scottsboro Boys
- Martinsville Seven
- Willie McGee (convict)
- "The Jogger and the Wolf Pack". The New York Times. April 26, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (May 1, 1989). "Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return Of the Death Penalty". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Chancer, Lynn (August 2005). "Before and After the Central Park Jogger: When legal cases become social causes". Contexts. American Sociological Association. 4 (3): 38–42. doi:10.1525/ctx.2005.4.3.38. S2CID 61900884.
- Pitt, David E. (April 22, 1989). "Jogger's Attackers Terrorized at Least 9 in 2 Hours". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "Women Under Assault". Newsweek. July 15, 1990. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Dwyer, Jim; Flynn, Kevin (December 1, 2002). "New Light on Jogger's Rape Calls Evidence Into Question". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Nancy E. Ryan (December 5, 2002). "Affirmation in Response to Motion to Vacate Judgment of Conviction: The People of the State of New York -against- Kharey Wise, Kevin Richardson, Antron McCray, Yusef Salaam, and Raymond Santana, Defendants" (PDF). Robert M. Morgenthau, District Attorney, New York County. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
- Nancy E Ryan (December 5, 2002). "Affirmation in response to motion to vacate judgment of conviction" (PDF). Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York.
- Smith, Chris (October 21, 2002). "Central Park Revisited". New York. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- "Three Men Assaulted on Evening of 'Wilding'". The Beaver County Times. Associated Press. October 12, 1989. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Farber, M. A. (July 17, 1990). "'Smart, Driven' Woman Overcomes Reluctance". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Youths Rape and Beat Central Park Jogger". The New York Times. April 21, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331.
Nancy E Ryan (December 5, 2002). "Affirmation in response to motion to vacate judgment of conviction" (PDF). Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
Beginning at the edge of the roadway was a visible path of flattened vegetation, measuring from sixteen to eighteen inches wide, which extended to the treeline that began forty feet to the north. Within the wooded area where that vegetation ended, a trail continued to be visible for some distance in the dead leaves and other matter covering the ground.
- Robinson, Stephen (April 27, 2003). "She was so badly beaten, the priest administered last rites". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022.
- Meili, Trisha (May 3, 2003). "CNN Larry King Weekend; Encore Presentation: Interview With Trisha Meili". CNN (Interview). Interviewed by Larry King. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
- Carpenter, Mackenzie (March 29, 2003). "Central Park jogger writes book about her life since attack; 'How the hell did I survive?'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014.
- "There's a recipe for resilience". USA Today.
- "Victim in 'Central Park Jogger' case brings her lessons to high school". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- "Raped N.Y. Jogger Still in Coma Woman Was Stabbed 5 Times in Head Fighting Teen Attackers". Philadelphia Daily News.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (April 20, 2009). "Central Park Jogger Still Running 20 Years Later". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Oprah Talks to the Central Park Jogger". O, The Oprah Magazine.
- O'Shaughnessy, Patrice (April 11, 2009). "Central Park Jogger recalls nothing of attack, but is now 'happy and okay'". Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- "Central Park Jogger Tells of 'Wilding' Attack Injuries". Los Angeles Times. July 17, 1990. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Didion, Joan (January 17, 1991). "Sentimental Journeys". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved June 21, 2007. This essay has also been published in Didion's non-fiction collection After Henry (1992).
- Burns, Sarah (2012). The Central Park Five: The Untold Story Behind One of New York City's Most Infamous Crimes. ISBN 9780307387981.
- "Lived a dream life". New York Daily News.
- "Jogger Reluctantly Surrenders Privacy in Court". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 17, 1990.
- Lee, Linda (April 27, 2003). "A Night Out With/Trisha Meili – Something to Celebrate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Carpenter, Mackenzie (March 29, 2003). "Central Park jogger writes book about her life since attack". Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- Kriegel, Mark (April 1, 2013). "Lived a dream life". New York Daily News.
- "I am the Central Park Jogger". MSNBC. December 10, 2003.
- Hinckley, David (May 27, 2012). "Black radio, despite what ratings say, continues as a vital resource". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- "'When They See Us' Transforms Its Victims Into Heroes". The New York Times. May 30, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- Sullivan, Ronald (January 31, 1991). "Plea Bargain Is Accepted for Final Jogger-Case Defendant". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- Kunen, James S.; Balfour, Victoria (May 22, 1989). "Madness in the Heart of the City". People. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- https://nyccpjstorage.blob.core.windows.net/original-investigation-and-prosecution/Audios%20and%20Videos/NYCLDVideo_004_Video%20Statement%20of%20Steven%20Lopez_4-21-1989.mp4[bare URL AV media file]
- Conlon, Edward (October 19, 2014). "The Myth of the Central Park Five". The Daily Beast.
- "Donald Trump and the Central Park Five: the racially charged rise of a demagogue". The Guardian. February 17, 2016.
- Pitt, David E. (April 22, 1989). "Jogger's Attackers Terrorized at Least 9 in 2 Hours". The New York Times.
The youths who raped and savagely beat a young investment banker as she jogged in Central Park Wednesday night were part of a loosely organized gang of 32 schoolboys whose random, motiveless assaults terrorized at least eight other people over nearly two hours, senior police investigators said yesterday. Chief of Detectives Robert Colangelo, who said the attacks appeared unrelated to money, race, drugs or alcohol, said that some of the 20 youths brought in for questioning had told investigators that the crime spree was the product of a pastime called wilding.
- Cooper, Barry Michael (May 9, 1989) "The Central Park Rape" in The Village Voice.
- Goldblatt, Mark (December 16, 2002). "Guest Comment: Certainties and Unlikelihoods: The Central Park Jogger, 2002". National Review. Archived from the original on December 22, 2002. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
in their holding cells, the teens launched into a raucous rendition of Tone Loc's sexually charged hip-hop anthem, 'Wild Thing'. It was this phrase, misheard by a police reporter as 'wilding', which is the genesis of the now-infamous verb.
- Smith, Valerie (1998). Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings. Routledge. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-415-90325-4.
- Wilson, Michael (October 23, 2002). "Trump Draws Criticism for Ad He Ran After Jogger Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Bring Back The Death Penalty. Bring Back Our Police!". Open Letter from Donald J. Trump. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016 – via New York Daily News.
- "Tweet". Twitter. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- Delmont, Matthew F. (2019). "Black Quotidian: Everyday History in African-American Newspapers". blackquotidian.org. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- Laughland, Oliver (February 17, 2016). "Donald Trump and the Central Park Five: the racially charged rise of a demagogue". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- Allah, Dasun (November 5, 2002). "Marked as the Enemy". Village Voice. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- Burns, Sarah (June 17, 2011). "Excerpt: The Central Park Five". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "The Central Park Five: Interview". TimesTalks. The New York Times. April 26, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Hunter, Charlayne (December 18, 1974). "Housing Is Dedicated at Schomburg Plaza". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "The True Story of How a City in Fear Brutalized the Central Park Five". The New York Times. May 30, 2019. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Nancy E Ryan (December 5, 2002). "Affirmation in response to motion to vacate judgment of conviction" (PDF). Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York. p. 47.
- Schanberg, Sydney (November 26, 2002). "A Journey Through the Tangled Case of the Central Park Jogger". The Village Voice. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
Every now and again, we get a look, usually no more than a glimpse, at how the justice system works. What we see before the sanitizing curtain is drawn abruptly down is a process full of human fallibility and error, sometimes noble, more often unfair, rarely evil but frequently unequal, and through it all inevitably influenced by issues of race and class and economic status. In short, it's a lot like other big, unwieldy institutions. Such a moment of clear sight emerges from the mess we know as the case of the Central Park jogger.
- Kirk Johnson (January 6, 1986). "New York Courts Begin One-Case, One-Judge System Today". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
The second tenet of the new system, which will affect most state courts, is that the assignment of the cases is to be at random, in order to discourage what judges and lawyers refer to as judge shopping - in which lawyers maneuver, through pleas and other tactics, to get the judges they believe will be most sympathetic to their cases.
- Ronald Sullivan (August 7, 1989). "Critics Fault Selection Of Judge in Jogger Case". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- "Judge Denies Defense Motion in Central Park Jogger Case". The New York Times. December 21, 1990.
- "The Case of the Central Park Jogger". The New York Times. August 19, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- "Detective Cites Coercion of Teen". Albany Times Union. Associated Press. July 24, 1990. p. B6.
Justice Thomas B. Galligan allowed the statements as evidence [at the trial] because Salaam had given police a student transit pass with a false birth date written in. The false birth date indicated Salaam was a year older than he was.
- Cook, Lauren (June 5, 2019). "Central Park Five: What to know about the jogger rape case". amNewYork. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "Jury in Jogger Case Deliberates for 9th Day". The New York Times. August 18, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- "Jurors in Jogger Trial Remember A Relentless Period of Testing". The New York Times. August 20, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- "3 Found Guilty in Central Park Jogger Attacks". Los Angeles Times. August 19, 1990. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- Mauli (AP), Steve (October 22, 1990). "In 2d Trial in N.Y. Jogger Attack, Defendants' Admissions are at Issue". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Shouts of 'Lie' Stun 2d Trial in Jogger Rape". The New York Times. October 23, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Lawyer for Defense Questions Central Park Jogger". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press.
- Cantwell, Alice; McNamara, Joseph; Mooshil, Maria (April 9, 2013). "2 guilty in jog case". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Sullivan, Ronald (November 8, 1990). "Witness Says Defendant Said He Held Jogger". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- "Jogger Trial Jury Relied on Physical Evidence, Not Tapes". The New York Times. December 13, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "A Crime Revisited: The Decision; 13 Years Later, Official Reversal in Jogger Attack". The New York Times. December 6, 2002. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Waxman, Olivia B. (May 31, 2019). "President Trump Played a Key Role in the Central Park Five Case. Here's the Real History Behind When They See Us". Time. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- Cristina Costantini, "Film Gives Voice to Men Falsely Convicted in Central Park Jogger Case", ABC News, December 21, 2012
- Mauli, Samuel (March 14, 1991). "6th teen gets jail in N.Y. jogger case". Philadelphia Inquirer. AP. pp. A04. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
The last of six teenagers charged in the near-fatal rape and assault of the woman known as the Central Park jogger was sentenced yesterday to 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years as part of a plea bargain. Steven Lopez, 17, pleaded guilty to robbery in the mugging of a male jogger. Charges in the woman's attack were dropped.
- Cook, Lauren; Brown, Nicole (June 13, 2019). "'Central Park 5': Where are they now?". AM New York. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Debnath, Neela (June 22, 2020). "What really happened to Korey Wise in prison?". Daily Express. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
- Ross, Barbara; Brown, Stephen Rex (December 7, 2014). "Exclusive: Central Park Five seek an additional $52 million after reaching $41 million settlement for wrongful imprisonment in 1989 rape of jogger". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Weinman, Sarah (June 3, 2019). "Before, and After, the Jogger". The Cut. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Armstrong, Michael (January 2003). "NYPD Review of the Central Park Jogger Case" (PDF). New York Police Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Buettner, Russ (October 3, 2012). "City Subpoenas Film Outtakes as It Defends Suit by Men Cleared in '89 Rape". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Finn, Heather (September 20, 2019). "Korey Wise's Story in 'When They See Us' Hit Viewers Especially Hard". Good Housekeeping. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "'A Pure Psychopath,' Who Was Actually Guilty Of Rape In The Central Park Jogger Case?". Oxygen Official Site. May 31, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Finn, Heather (September 20, 2019). "Matias Reyes's Confession Exonerated the Central Park Five — But Not Until 2002". Good Housekeeping. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "Portrait of a Serial Rapist". ABC News. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Griffin, Annaliese. "A Profile of Matias Reyes". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Lemire, Jonathan (June 20, 2014). "$40M settlement reported in Central Park rape case". Associated Press. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Griffin, Annaliese (April 5, 2013). "A Profile of Matias Reyes". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Finn, Heather (September 20, 2019). "Matias Reyes: The Truth About the Real Attacker in the Central Park Five Case". Good Housekeeping Online.
His confession exonerated the Central Park Five, as seen in Netflix's When They See Us.
- Parascandola, Rocco. "Central Park rapist wanted to burglarize victim's apartment after the attack". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Burns, Sarah (2012). The Central Park Five; The Untold Story Behind One of New York City's Most Infamous Crimes. New York: Vintage Books. p. 115. ISBN 9780307387981.
- Ryan, Nancy (December 5, 2002). "Affirmation in Response to Motion to Vacate Judgment of Conviction Indictment No. 4762/89". Supreme Court of the State of New York County of New York. 58.
- McFadden, Robert D.; Saulny, Susan (December 6, 2002). "A Crime Revisited: The Decision; 13 Years Later, Official Reversal in Jogger Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Stodghill, Ron (December 9, 2002). "True Confession of The Central Park Rapist". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Joyner, Alfred (June 4, 2019). "Who Is Matias Reyes? Serial Rapist and Murderer in Central Park Five Series 'When They See Us'". Newsweek. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Saul, Michael Howard; Sean Gardiner (June 20, 2014). "'Central Park Five' Agree to $40 Million Wrongful-Conviction Settlement (subscription)". The Wall Street Journal.
- Parascandola, Rocco. "Crisis of conscience: Matias Reyes took sole responsibility for Central Park jogger rape because 'it was the right thing to do': recording". mcall.com. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Schanberg, Sydney (November 26, 2002). "A Journey Through the Tangled Case of the Central Park Jogger". The Village Voice. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
Every now and again, we get a look, usually no more than a glimpse, at how the justice system works. What we see before the sanitizing curtain is drawn abruptly down is a process full of human fallibility and error, sometimes noble, more often unfair, rarely evil but frequently unequal, and through it all inevitably influenced by issues of race and class and economic status. In short, it's a lot like other big, unwieldy institutions. Such a moment of clear sight emerges from the mess we know as the case of the Central Park jogger.
- Saulny, Susan (December 20, 2002). "Convictions and Charges Voided In '89 Central Park Jogger Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
Thirteen years after an investment banker jogging in Central Park was savagely beaten, raped and left for dead, a Manhattan judge threw out the convictions yesterday of the five young men who had confessed to attacking the woman on a night of violence that stunned the city and the nation. In one final, extraordinary ruling that took about five minutes, Justice Charles J. Tejada of State Supreme Court in Manhattan granted recent motions made by defense lawyers and Robert M. Morgenthau, the Manhattan District Attorney, to vacate all convictions against the young men in connection with the jogger attack and a spree of robberies and assaults in the park that night.
- Eustachewich, Lia (June 11, 2019). "Linda Fairstein calls Netflix's 'When They See Us' an 'outright fabrication'". The New York Post. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
The lawyer-turned-New York Times bestselling author said she agreed with exonerations of the rape charges against the five — but said 'the other charges, for crimes against other victims, should not have been vacated.'
- Joyner, Alfred (July 22, 2019). "Robert Morgenthau and the Central Park Five: Manhattan DA Who Oversaw Conviction and Exoneration of Falsely Accused Black Teenagers Dies Aged 99". Newsweek.com. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Innocence Project: Salaam Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Richardson Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, McCray Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Santana Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Wise Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Barrett, Laurence I. "Robert Morgenthau, bane of rogue banks and scofflaws, dies at 99". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "'I so wish the case hadn't been settled': 1989 Central Park jogger believes more than 1 person attacked her". ABC News. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- McFadden, Robert D. (2003). "Boys' Guilt Likely in Rape of Jogger, Police Panel Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
A panel commissioned by the New York City Police Department concluded yesterday that there was no misconduct in the 1989 investigation of the Central Park jogger case, and said that five Harlem men whose convictions were thrown out by a judge last month had most likely participated in the beating and rape of the jogger. The panel also disputed the claim of Matias Reyes, a convicted killer and serial rapist, that he alone had raped the jogger. It was his confession last year that led to a sweeping re-examination of the infamous case by prosecutors, and to a reversal of all the original convictions against the five defendants.
- Hirschkorn, Phil (January 28, 2003). "Police panel slams decision to absolve men in Central Park jogger case". CNN.
- Ross, Jeffrey Ian (2013). Encyclopedia of Street Crime in America. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781452274454.
- Dwyer, Jim; Flynn, Kevin (November 2, 2002). "2 Prominent Lawyers to Review Police Inquiry into Central Park Jogger Case". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- McFadden, Robert D. (January 28, 2003). "Boys' Guilt Likely in Rape of Jogger, Police Panel Says". The New York Times.
- Ax, Joseph (June 20, 2014). "N.Y. City to pay $40 million to end 'Central Park Jogger' lawsuit: source". Reuters. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Saulny, Susan (December 20, 2002). "Convictions and Charges Voided In '89 Central Park Jogger Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- The Central Park 5 Want to Settle Lawsuit[permanent dead link] October 14, 2009
- Eligon, John (April 19, 2011). "New York Won't Settle Suits in Central Park Jogger Case". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Oh, Inae (June 24, 2014). "NYC Mayor: Central Park Five Settlement A 'Moral Obligation'". HuffPost. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- "New York City Pays $41 Million for Wrongful Convictions in Central Park Jogger Rape Case | Prison Legal News". www.prisonlegalnews.org. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Dwyer, Jim (June 24, 2014). "Suit in Jogger Case May Be Settled, but Questions Aren't". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Weiser, Benjamin (June 19, 2014). "5 Exonerated in Central Park Jogger Case Agree to Settle Suit for $40 Million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "U.S. judge approves $41 million settlement of 'Central Park Jogger' suit". Reuters. September 5, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Brown, Stephen Rex. "Central Park Five received additional $3.9 million from the state in 2016". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Brown, Barbara Ross, Stephen Rex. "Exclusive: Central Park Five seek an additional $52 million after reaching $41 million settlement for wrongful imprisonment in 1989 rape of jogger". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- "5 Exonerated in Central Park Jogger Case Agree to Settle Suit for $40 Million". The New York Times. June 19, 2014. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Sanchez, Ray; Allie Malloy (June 26, 2014). "New York City comptroller approves $40 million settlement for Central Park Five". CNN.
- Barry, Andrew (November 12, 2013). "Central Park Five Lawsuit: New York City Mayor-Elect Bill De Blasio Agrees To Settle Decade-Long Case Over Wrongful Convictions". International Business Times.
- "Judge Officially OKs Central Park Five's $41 Million Settlement". Gothamist. Archived from the original on September 8, 2014.
- "New York close to settling Central Park jogger case, reportedly for $40 million". Los Angeles Times. June 20, 2014.
- Fuster, Jeremy (June 9, 2019). "Central Park 5 Received Additional $3.9 Million Settlement From New York in 2016 (Report)". The Wrap. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Meili, Trisha (2003). I Am the Central Park Jogger. Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-4437-0.
- Fioti, Camille (May 28, 2010). "LCCC grads hear healing story from Central Park jogger". Times Leader. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (April 20, 2009). "Well blog: Central Park Jogger Still Running 20 Years Later". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Conlon, Edward (October 10, 2014). "The myth of the Central Park Five". Daily Beast. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- "New York Reaches $40M Settlement in Central Park Jogger Case". NBC News.
- Dwyer, Jim (June 24, 2014). "Suit in Jogger Case May Be Settled, but Questions Aren't". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- Welsh, Susan (May 23, 2019). "'I so wish the case hadn't been settled': 1989 Central Park jogger believes more than 1 person attacked her". ABC News. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- Trump, Donald (June 21, 2014). "Donald Trump: Central Park Five settlement is a 'disgrace'". Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Holmes, Steven A. (October 7, 2016). "Reality Check: Donald Trump and the Central Park 5". CNN. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- Salaam, Yusef (October 12, 2016). "I'm one of the Central Park Five. Donald Trump won't leave me alone". Chicago Tribune.
- Patters, Brandon Ellington (October 7, 2016). "Exclusive: Central Park Five Members Blast Trump for Insisting They're Guilty". Mother Jones.
- Fuller, Matt (October 8, 2016). "John McCain Unendorses Donald Trump". Huffington Post.
- Ransom, Jan (June 18, 2019). "Trump Will Not Apologize for Calling for Death Penalty Over Central Park Five". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- "Trump digs in on Central Park 5: 'They admitted their guilt'". NBC News. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- Morin, Rebecca. "'They admitted their guilt': 30 years of Trump's comments about the Central Park Five". USA Today. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- Starr, Douglas (December 9, 2013). "The Interview: Do police interrogation techniques produce false confessions?". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
Of the three hundred and eleven people exonerated through post-conviction DNA testing, more than a quarter had given false confessions—including those convicted in such notorious cases as the Central Park Five.
- Storey, Kate (June 1, 2019). "'When They See Us' Shows The Disturbing Truth About How False Confessions Happen". Esquire. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Fattal, Ayleen Barbel (October 17, 2013). "Interrogations can lead to false confessions by juveniles, study finds". Medical XPress. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
- "Wrongful Convictions and DNA Exonerations: Understanding the Role of Forensic Science". National Institute of Justice. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Innocence Staff (April 5, 2018). "New York State Law Requiring Video Recording of Interrogations Takes Effect". Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "About: Board of Directors". Innocence Project. 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Dwyer, Jim (December 24, 2002). "Man Cleared in Jogger Case Goes Free at the Age of 28 (Published 2002)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- Finn, Heather (June 5, 2019). "'When They See Us' Reveals the Heartbreaking Truth About Korey Wise". Good Housekeeping. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Woman Is Raped and Thrown From a Roof". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 4, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
The woman told investigators that she was approached by three men, who forced her onto the building's roof, raped and sodomized her and threw her off the roof
- "Community Rallies to Support Victim of Brutal Brooklyn Rape". Chicago Tribune. New York Daily News. June 26, 1989. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
slashed her lip before he and Prescott shoved the woman into an air shaft, authorities said. There she lay, half naked, moaning and crying for help until a neighbor heard her.
- "2 Men Get 6 to 18 Years for Rape in Brooklyn". The New York Times. October 2, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Youth Gets Prison Sentence for Rape on Brooklyn Roof". The New York Times. October 11, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- "NYC is pressed to settle Central Park jogger case". USA Today. April 6, 2013.
- Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2012). "City Subpoenas Film Outtakes as It Defends Suit by Men Cleared in '89 Rape". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Gardner, Eriq (February 19, 2013). "Ken Burns Wins Fight Against New York City Over 'Central Park Five' Research". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Anne Midgette, "'The Central Park Five,' in song: Composer Anthony Davis on his new opera", The Washington Post, June 23, 2019
- The Central Park Five, by Anthony Davis The Pulitzer Prizes
- "'Central Park Five' composer Anthony Davis wins the Pulitzer Prize for music". news.yahoo.com.
- Cooper, Michael (May 30, 2019). "This Summer, Opera Grapples With Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Michael F. Armstrong, et al. (January 27, 2003) "NYPD Review of the Central Park Jogger Case"
- Burns, Sarah (2011). The Central Park Five: A Chronicle of a City Wilding. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26614-9.
- Byfield, Natalie P. (2014). Savage Portrayals: Race, Media, and the Central Park Jogger Story. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Conlon, Edward (October 10, 2014). "The myth of the Central Park Five". Daily Beast., opinion article by NYPD retired detective who disagreed with the exoneration and settlement
- Connor, Tracy (December 12, 2004). "Crime File – 48 hours: Twisting trail to teens' confessions". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on December 12, 2004.
- Gray, Madison (January 8, 2013). "Q&A: The Wrongly Convicted Central Park Five on Their Documentary, Delayed Justice and Why They're Not Bitter". Time.
- Kassin, Saul (November 1, 2002). "Opinion: False confessions and the jogger case". The New York Times. p. A31.
- O'Shaughnessy, Patrice (April 12, 2009). "Central Park Jogger case forever changed innocent victims & the city". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- Ryan, Nancy E. (December 5, 2002) "Affirmation in Response to Motion to Vacate Judgement of Conviction". Prosecution's detailed summary of the case after investigation following confession by Matias Reyes.
- Sullivan, Timothy (1992). Unequal Verdicts: The Central Park Jogger Trials. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-74237-X.
- McKenna, Thomas (1996). Manhattan North Homicide: Detective First Grade. St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-14010-X.
- "11 Years is Too Long to Wait for Resolution". The Buffalo News. April 9, 2013. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
- "New York City Law Department"., court records including videos of confessions
- Case docket: In re McRay, Richardson, Santana, Wise and Salaam Litigation, December 2003 filing of lawsuit against NYC
- "Interview: The Central Park Five". Times Talks. The New York Times. April 26, 2013., 1 hr, 28 minutes