Comparative officer ranks of World War I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following table shows comparative officer ranks of several Allied and Central powers during World War I.

Table[edit]

Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Austro-Hungarian Army
[a][1][2]
Kuk FieldMarsh 1918.svg Kuk ColGen 1918.svg Kuk GenBranch 1918.svg Kuk Feldmarschall-Lt 1918.svg Kuk GenMaj 1918.svg Kuk Oberst.svg Kuk Oberstleutnant.svg Kuk Major.svg Kuk Hauptmann.svg Kuk Oberleutnant.svg Kuk Leutnant.svg
Feldmarschall
Tábornagy
Generaloberst
Vezérezredes
General der Waffengattung
Tábornok
Feldmarschall-Leutnant
Altábornagy
Generalmajor
Vezérőrnagy
Oberst
Ezredes
Oberstleutnant
Alezredes
Major
Őrnagy
Hauptmann / Rittmeister
Százados / Kapitány
Oberleutnant
Főhadnagy
Leutnant
Hadnagy
 Austro-Hungarian Navy
[a][3][4]
KUK-Navy-Großadmiral.svg KUK-Navy-Admiral.svg KUK-Navy-Vizeadmiral.svg KUK-Navy-Konteradmiral.svg KUK-Navy-Linienschiffskapitän.svg KUK-Navy-Fregattenkapitän.svg KUK-Navy-Korvettenkapitän.svg Generic-Navy-6.svg Generic-Navy-4.svg Generic-Navy-2.svg KUK-Navy-Seekadett.svg
Großadmiral
Főtengernagy
Admiral
Tengernagy
Vizeadmiral
Altengernagy
Kontreadmiral
Ellentengernagy
Linienschiffkapitän
Sorhajókapitány
Fregattenkapitän
Fregattkapitány
Korvettenkapitän
Korvettkapitány
Linienschiffsleutnant
Sorhajóhadnagy
Fregattenleutnant
Fregatthadnagy
Korvettenleutnant
Korvetthadnagy
Seekadett
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 British Army
[5][6]
British Army (1920-1953) OF-10.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-9.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-8.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-7.svg British Army (1920-1922) OF-6.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-5.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-4.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-3.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-2.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-1b.svg British Army (1902-1920) OF-1a.svg
Field marshal General Lieutenant-general Major-general Brigadier-general Colonel Lieutenant-colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second lieutenant
 Royal Navy
[7][8]
Generic-Navy-13.svg Generic-Navy-12.svg Generic-Navy-11.svg Generic-Navy-10.svg Generic-Navy-10.svg Generic-Navy-9b.svg Generic-Navy-8.svg Generic-Navy-6.svg Generic-Navy-5.svg Generic-Navy-4.svg Generic-Navy-2.svg Blank.svg Generic-Navy-1.svg
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice-admiral Rear-admiral Commodore 1st class[9] Commodore 2nd class Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Chief commissioned warrant officer Commissioned warrant officer/ Midshipman
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 French Army
[10][11][12][13]
French Army (sleeves) OF-10.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-8 (unofficial).svg French Army (sleeves) OF-7.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-6.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-5.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-4.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-3.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-2.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-1b.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-1a.svg French Army (sleeves) OF-D 1917.svg
Maréchal de France[b] Général de division ayant un commandement supérieur
(général)[c]
Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant Aspirant
 French Navy
[15][16][17]
France-Navy-OF-10 Sleeve (WWI).svg France-Navy-OF-7 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-7 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-6 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-5 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-4 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-3 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-2 Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-1b Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-1a Sleeve.svg France-Navy-OF-D Sleeve (World War I).svg
Amiral de France[b] Vice-amiral commandant
(amiralissime)[18]
Vice-amiral Contre-amiral Capitaine de vaisseau Capitaine de frégate Capitaine de corvette Lieutenant de vaisseau Enseigne de vaisseau de 1re classe Enseigne de vaisseau de 2e classe Aspirant
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Imperial German Army[19][20] DR Generalfeldmarschall 1918.gif Preußen OF10 GenOberst iRd GenFM 1832.png KHeer OF9 GenOberst (Bayern) 1918.gif General (Wurttenburg).gif Generalleutinant (Mecklenburg).gif KHeer OF6 GenMaj (Bayern) h 1918.gif Oberst (Prussia).gif Oberstleutnant (Hessen).gif Major (Sachsen).gif DR Hauptmann v 1918.png DR Oberleutnant v 1918.png DR Leutnant v 1918.png
Generalfeldmarschall Generaloberst mit dem Rang als Generalfeldmarschall Generaloberst General der Waffengattung Generalleutnant Generalmajor Oberst Oberstleutnant Major Hauptmann / Rittmeister Oberleutnant Leutnant
 Imperial German Navy
[21][22]
Kaiserliche Marine-Großadmiral.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Admiral.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Vizeadmiral.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Konteradmiral.svg Blank.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Kapitän zur See.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Fregattenkapitän.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Korvettenkapitän.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Kapitänleutnant.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Oberleutnant zur See.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Leutnant zur See.svg Kaiserliche Marine-Seekadett.svg
Großadmiral Admiral Vizeadmiral Konteradmiral Kommodore Kapitän zur See Fregattenkapitän Korvettenkapitän Kapitänleutnant Oberleutnant zur See Leutnant zur See Seekadett
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Royal Italian Army
[23][24]
Rank insignia of Generale d'Esercito for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Tenente Generale di Divisione for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Maggior Generale di Brigata for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Brigadier Generale for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Colonello for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Tenente Colonello for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Maggiore for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Capitano for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Tenente for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Sottotenente for the Royal Italian Army.svg Rank insignia of Aspirante for the Royal Italian Army.svg
Generale d'esercito Tenente generale
  • capo di stato maggiore esercito
  • in comando d'armata
Tenente Generale
  • in comando di corpo d'armata
  • in comando di divisione
Maggior Generale
  • in comando di divisione
  • in comando di brigata
Brigadier generale Colonello Tenente colonello Maggiore Capitano Tenente Sottotenente Aspirante
 Royal Italian Navy[25][26] Rank insignia of ammiraglio d'armata of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of ammiraglio di divisione of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of contrammiraglio of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of sotto ammiraglio of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of capitano di vascello of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of capitano di fregata of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of capitano di corvetta of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of tenente di vascello of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of sottotenente di vascello of the Regia Marina.svg Rank insignia of guardiamarina of the Regia Marina.svg
Ammiraglio Vice ammiraglio Contrammiraglio Sottoammiraglio Capitano di vascello Capitano di frigata Capitano di corvetta Tenente di vascello Sottotenent di vascello Guardiamarina Aspirante guardiamarina
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Imperial Japanese Army
[27][28]
Generalissimo rank insignia (Japan).png 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大将.svg元帥徽章.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―准尉.svg
大元帥陸軍大将
Daigensui-Rikugun-Taishō
元帥陸軍大将
Gensui-Rikugun-Taishō
陸軍大将
Rikugun-Taishō
陸軍中将
Rikugun-Chūjō
陸軍少将
Rikugun-Shōshō
陸軍大佐
Rikugun-Taisa
陸軍中佐
Rikugun-Chūsa
陸軍少佐
Rikugun-Shōsa
陸軍大尉
Rikugun-Tai-i
陸軍中尉
Rikugun-Chūi
陸軍少尉
Rikugun-Shōi
准尉
Jun-i
 Imperial Japanese Navy
[29][30]
Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-10-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-9-sleeve.svg
元帥徽章.svg
Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-9-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-8-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-7-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-8.svg Generic-Navy-6.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-3-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-4.svg Generic-Navy-3.svg Generic-Navy-2.svg Generic-Navy-1.svg
大元帥海軍大将
Daigensui-Kaigun-Taishō
元帥海軍大将
Gensui-kaigun-Taishō
海軍大将
Kaigun-Taishō
海軍中将
Kaigun-Chūjō
海軍少将
Kaigun-Shōshō
海軍大佐
Kaigun-Daisa
海軍中佐
Kaigun-Chūsa
海軍少佐
Kaigun-Shōsa
海軍大尉
Kaigun-Dai-i
海軍中尉
Kaigun-Chūi
海軍少尉
Kaigun-Shōi
兵曹長
Hēsōchō
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Ottoman Army
[31]
Ottoman-Army-OF-10.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-9.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-8.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-7.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-5.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-4.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-3.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-2b.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-2a.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-1b.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-1a.svg
Müşir Birinci Ferik Ferik Mirliva Miralay Kaymakam Binbaşı Kolağası Yüzbaşı Mülazım-ı evvel Mülazım-ı sani
 Ottoman Navy
[32]
Blank.svg Generic-Navy-O11.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg
Müşir Amiral Birinci Ferik Amiral Ferik Amiral Liva Amiral Kalyon Kaptanı Fırkateyn Kaptanı Korvet Kaptanı Yüzbaşı Mülazım
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Portuguese Army
[33]
Army-POR-OF-10.svg Army-POR-OF-08.svg Army-POR-OF-07.svg Army-POR-OF-05b.svg Army-POR-OF-04.svg Army-POR-OF-03.svg Army-POR-OF-02.svg Army-POR-OF-01a.svg Army-POR-OF-01b.svg Army-POR-OF-00a.svg
Marechal[d] General[e] Brigadeiro Coronel Tenente-coronel Major Capitão Tenente Alferes Aspirante
 Portuguese Navy
[33]
Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg
Almirante[d] Vice-almirante Contra-almirante Capitão de mar e guerra Capitão de fragata Capitão-tenente Primeiro-tenente Segundo-tenente Guarda-marinha Aspirante
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Imperial Russian Army[f]
[34][35]
1904ic-p11.png Imperial Russian Army 1904ic-p10.png 1904ic-p09.png 1904ic-p08.png 1904ic-p07.png 1904ic-p06.png 1904ic-p05.png 1904ic-p04.png 1904ic-p03.png 1904ic-p02.png 1904ic-p01.png
Генерал-фельдмаршал
General-fel'dmarshal
Генерал рода войск
General roda voysk
Генерал-лейтенант
General-leytenant
Генерал-майор
General-mayor
Полковник
Polkovnik
Подполковник
Podpolkovnik
Капитан
Kapitan[g]
Штабс-капитан
Shtabs-kapitan[h]
Поручик
Poruchik
Подпоручик
Podporuchik[i]
Прапорщик
Praporshik
 Imperial Russian Navy 1904mor-21.png 1904mor-20.png 1904mor-19.png 1904mor-18.png 1904mor-17.png 1904mor-16.png 1909mor-14.png 1904mor-13.png 1909mor-12.png
Генерал-адмирал
General-admiral
Адмирал
Admiral
Вице-адмирал
Vitse-admiral
Контр-адмирал
Kontr-admiral
Капитан I ранга
Kapitan 1-go ranga
Капитан II ранга
Kapitan 2-go ranga
Старший лейтенант
Starshiy-leytenant
Лейтенант
Leytenant
Мичман
Michman
Provisional Russian Navy
(from 1917)
[36][37]
Russia-Navy-OF-9 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-8 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-7 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-5 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-4 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-2 (Provisional).svg Russia-Navy-OF-1b (Provisional).svg Generic-Navy-2.svg
Адмирал
Admiral
Вице-адмирал
Vitse-admiral
Контр-адмирал
Kontr-admiral
Капитан I ранга
Kapitan 1-go ranga
Капитан II ранга
Kapitan 2-go ranga
Старший лейтенант
Starshiy-leytenant
Лейтенант
Leytenant
Мичман
Michman
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Royal Serbian Army
[38]
KoS-Field Marshal.svg KoS-KoY-Army-Main Branch-General.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Colonel.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Lieutenant Colonel.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Major.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Captain, 1st class.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Captain, 2nd class.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Lieutenant.svg KoS-Army-Infantry-Sub-Lieutenant.svg KoS-Military Academy-Cadet.svg
Bojni Vojvoda[j] General[k] Pukovnik Potpukovnik Major Kapetan 1. klase Kapetan 2. klase Poručnik Potporučnik Pitomac
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 United States Army
[39]
US-O10 insignia.svg US-O10 insignia.svg US-O9 insignia.svg US-O8 insignia.svg US-O7 insignia.svg US-O6 insignia.svg US-O5 insignia.svg US-O4 insignia.svg US-O3 insignia.svg US-O2 insignia.svg US-O1 insignia.svg
General of the Armies[l] General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
 United States Navy
[40]
US Admiral of Navy insignia.svg US Navy O10 insignia.svg US Navy O9 insignia.svg US Navy O8 insignia.svg US Navy O7 insignia.svg US Navy O6 insignia.svg US Navy O5 insignia.svg U.S. Navy O-4 insignia.svg US Navy O3 insignia.svg US Navy O2 insignia.svg US Navy O1 insignia.svg Various
Admiral of the Navy[l] Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant (junior grade) Ensign Midshipman
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Austro-Hungarian ranks are shown in both German and Hungarian, as would have been contemporary practice.
  2. ^ a b Maréchal de France and Amiral de France were as much a dignity of state as a military title. Thus British Field Marshals consulted with French Generals in 1914. The elevation of Joffre to Maréchal in 1916 actually marked a diminution of his powers of command. There was no Amiral de France alive during World War I.
  3. ^ Unofficial rank insignia.[14]
  4. ^ a b Almirante and Marechal were only honorary ranks, not held by anyone during World War I.
  5. ^ The Portuguese Army had the particularity of having only a single rank of General Officer. A Portuguese General could be assigned to command from a brigade to the entire Army.
  6. ^ Army/cavalry ranks shown. The cossack cavalry had distinct ranks.
  7. ^ Cavalry rank: Rotmistr (Russian: Ротмистр)
  8. ^ Cavalry rank: Shtabs-rotmistr (Russian: Штабс-ротмистр)
  9. ^ Cavalry rank: Kornet (Russian: Корнет)
  10. ^ Field Marshal of Serbia (Voivode) was the highest rank in the army of the Kingdom of Serbia. Radomir Putnik held title from beginning of the war since he was promoted in 1912.
  11. ^ Like the Portuguese Army, the Serbian Army had only a single rank of General Officer. A Serbian General could be assigned to command from a division to the entire Army.
  12. ^ a b The US rank Admiral of the Navy was a unique rank created for Admiral George Dewey after the Spanish–American War; it has never been held by any other person and debate still goes on over whether it was a "five-star" or "six-star" rank. General of the Armies is similarly ambiguous; it was granted to General Pershing at the end of the war, and previously had been held (or a rank of the same name had been held) by Generals Grant and Sherman after the Civil War, but its equivalency to modern ranks is disputed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 187–189.
  2. ^ Williams 1918, p. 264.
  3. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 190–192.
  4. ^ Williams 1918, p. 268.
  5. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 145.
  6. ^ Williams 1918, pp. 228–229.
  7. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 151.
  8. ^ Williams 1918, pp. 218–220.
  9. ^ "Royal Navy Ranks and Badges, World War 1".
  10. ^ Jouineau 2009, p. 7.
  11. ^ Almanach Hachette 1917, p. 77.
  12. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 161.
  13. ^ Williams 1918, p. 237.
  14. ^ Champeaux 2014, pp. 123–124.
  15. ^ Funcken & Funcken 1966, pp. 144–145.
  16. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 167.
  17. ^ Williams 1918, p. 242.
  18. ^ Le Hunsec 2012, pp. 91–107.
  19. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 171–172.
  20. ^ Williams 1918, p. 282.
  21. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 174–175.
  22. ^ Williams 1918, p. 274.
  23. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 177–180.
  24. ^ Williams 1918, p. 246.
  25. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 181–183.
  26. ^ Williams 1918, p. 249.
  27. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 196–198.
  28. ^ Williams 1918, p. 260.
  29. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 201.
  30. ^ Williams 1918, p. 262.
  31. ^ "1909 TILL 1918 OTTOMAN RANK INSIGNIA". ottoman-uniforms.com. Ottoman Uniforms. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  32. ^ "1916 TILL 1918 OTTOMAN NAVY". ottoman-uniforms.com. Ottoman Uniforms. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  33. ^ a b Over the Front. "Portuguese Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  34. ^ Bunkley 1918, p. 203.
  35. ^ Williams 1918, p. 254.
  36. ^ Bunkley 1918, pp. 204–205.
  37. ^ Williams 1918, p. 256.
  38. ^ Over the Front. "Serbian Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  39. ^ Williams 1918, pp. 82–83.
  40. ^ Williams 1918, pp. 118–119.