Walmart's Official Headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas
|Founded||July 2, 1962
Rogers, Arkansas, U.S.
|Headquarters||Bentonville, Arkansas, U.S.|
Number of locations
|11,666 (December 31, 2016)|
|Revenue||US$482.13 billion (2015)|
|US$24.105 billion (2015)|
|US$14.694 billion (2015)|
|Total assets||US$199.581 billion (2015)|
|Total equity||US$80.546 billion (2015)|
|Owner||Walton family (51%)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (//), doing business as Walmart, is an American multinational retailing corporation that operates as a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores and grocery stores. Headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas, the company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962 and incorporated on October 31, 1969. As of December 31, 2016[update], Walmart has 11,666 stores and clubs in 28 countries, under a total of 63 banners. The company operates under the name Walmart in the United States and Canada. It operates as Walmart de México y Centroamérica in Mexico and Central America, as Asda in the United Kingdom, as the Seiyu Group in Japan, and as Best Price in India. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina, Brazil, and Canada. It also owns and operates the Sam's Club retail warehouses.
Walmart is the world's largest company by revenue, according to the Fortune Global 500 list in 2016, as well as the largest private employer in the world with 2.2 million employees. It is a family-owned business, as the company is controlled by the Walton family. Sam Walton's heirs own over 50 percent of Walmart through their holding company, Walton Enterprises, and through their individual holdings. It is also one of the world's most valuable companies by market value, and is also the largest grocery retailer in the U.S. In 2016, 62.3 percent of Walmart's US$478.614 billion sales came from its U.S. operations.
The company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. In the late-1980s and early-1990s, the company rose from a regional to a national giant. By 1988, Walmart was the most profitable retailer in the U.S., and by October 1989, it had become the largest in terms of revenue. Geographically limited to the South and lower Midwest up to the mid-1980s, by the early-1990s, the company's presence spanned from coast to coast—Sam's Club opened in New Jersey in November 1989 and the first California outlet opened in Lancaster in July 1990. A Walmart in York, Pennsylvania opened in October 1990, bringing the main store to the Northeast.
Walmart's investments outside North America have seen mixed results: its operations in the United Kingdom, South America, and China are highly successful, whereas ventures in Germany and South Korea failed.
- 1 History
- 2 Operating divisions
- 2.1 Walmart U.S.
- 2.2 Walmart International
- 2.3 Sam's Club
- 2.4 Global eCommerce
- 3 Subsidiaries
- 4 Corporate affairs
- 5 Charity
- 6 Economic impact
- 7 Labor relations
- 8 Animal welfare
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
1945–69: Early history
In 1945, a businessman and a former J. C. Penney employee, Sam Walton, purchased a branch of the Ben Franklin stores from the Butler Brothers. His primary focus was on selling products at low prices to get higher-volume sales at a lower profit margin, portraying it as a crusade for the consumer. He experienced setbacks, because the lease price and branch purchase were unusually high, but he was able to find lower-cost suppliers than those used by other stores. He passed on the savings in the product pricing. Sales increased 45 percent in his first year of ownership to US$105,000 in revenue, which increased to US$140,000 the next year and US$175,000 the year after that. Within the fifth year, the store was generating US$250,000 in revenue. When the lease for the location expired, Walton was unable to reach an agreement for renewal, so he opened up a new store at 105 N. Main Street in Bentonville, naming it "Walton's Five and Dime". That store is now the Walmart Museum.
On July 2, 1962, Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store at 719 W. Walnut Street in Rogers, Arkansas. The building is now occupied by a hardware store and an antique mall, while the company's "Store #1"—since relocated to a larger discount store and now expanded to a Supercenter—is located several blocks west at 2110 W. Walnut Street. Within its first five years, the company expanded to 24 stores across Arkansas and reached US$12.6 million in sales. In 1968, it opened its first stores outside Arkansas, in Sikeston, Missouri and Claremore, Oklahoma.
1969–90: Incorporation and growth as a regional power
The company was incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. on October 31, 1969. In 1970, it opened its home office and first distribution center in Bentonville, Arkansas. It had 38 stores operating with 1,500 employees and sales of US$44.2 million. It began trading stock as a publicly held company on October 1, 1970, and was soon listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The first stock split occurred in May 1971 at a price of US$47. By this time, Walmart was operating in five states: Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma; it entered Tennessee in 1973 and Kentucky and Mississippi in 1974. As it moved into Texas in 1975, there were 125 stores with 7,500 employees and total sales of US$340.3 million. Walmart opened its first Texas store in Mount Pleasant on November 11, 1975.
In the 1980s, Walmart continued to grow rapidly, and by its 25th anniversary in 1987, there were 1,198 stores with sales of US$15.9 billion and 200,000 associates. This year also marked the completion of the company's satellite network, a US$24 million investment linking all operating units with the Bentonville office via two-way voice and data transmission and one-way video communication. At the time, it was the largest private satellite network, allowing the corporate office to track inventory and sales and to instantly communicate to stores. In 1988, Walton stepped down as CEO and was replaced by David Glass. Walton remained as Chairman of the Board.
1990–2005: Retail rise to multinational status
While it was the No. 3 retailer in the U.S., Walmart was more profitable than rivals Kmart and Sears by the late 1980s. By 1990, it became the largest U.S. retailer by revenue.
Prior to the summer of 1990, Walmart had no presence on the West Coast or in the Northeast (except for a single Sam's Club in New Jersey which opened in November 1989), but in July and October that year, it opened its first stores in California and Pennsylvania, respectively. By the mid-1990s, it was far and away the most powerful retailer in the U.S. and expanded into Mexico in 1991 and Canada in 1994. Walmart stores opened throughout the rest of the U.S., with Vermont being the last state to get a store in 1995.
The company also opened stores outside North America, entering South America in 1995 with stores in Argentina and Brazil; and Europe in July 1999, buying Asda in the United Kingdom for US$10 billion.
In 1998, Walmart introduced the Neighborhood Market concept with three stores in Arkansas. By 2005, estimates indicate that the company controlled about 20 percent of the retail grocery and consumables business.
In 2000, H. Lee Scott became Walmart's President and CEO, as the company's sales increased to US$165 billion. In 2002, it was listed for the first time as America's largest corporation on the Fortune 500 list, with revenues of US$219.8 billion and profits of US$6.7 billion. It has remained there every year, except in 2006 and 2009.
In 2005, Walmart reported US$312.4 billion in sales, more than 6,200 facilities around the world – including 3,800 stores in the United States and 2,800 elsewhere, employing more than 1.6 million associates. Its U.S. presence grew so rapidly that only small pockets of the country remained more than 60 miles (97 kilometres) from the nearest store.
As Walmart rapidly expanded into the world's largest corporation, many critics worried about its effect on local communities, particularly small towns with many "mom and pop" stores. There have been several studies on the economic impact of Walmart on small towns and local businesses, jobs, and taxpayers. In one, Kenneth Stone, a Professor of Economics at Iowa State University, found that some small towns can lose almost half of their retail trade within ten years of a Walmart store opening. However, in another study, he compared the changes to what small town shops had faced in the past – including the development of the railroads, the advent of the Sears Roebuck catalog, as well as the arrival of shopping malls – and concluded that shop owners who adapt to changes in the retail market can thrive after Walmart arrives. A later study in collaboration with Mississippi State University showed that there are "both positive and negative impacts on existing stores in the area where the new supercenter locates."
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in September 2005, Walmart used its logistics network to organize a rapid response to the disaster, donating US$20 million in cash, 1,500 truckloads of merchandise, food for 100,000 meals, as well as the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers. An independent study by Steven Horwitz of St. Lawrence University found that Walmart, The Home Depot, and Lowe's made use of their local knowledge about supply chains, infrastructure, decision makers and other resources to provide emergency supplies and reopen stores well before FEMA began its response. While the company was overall lauded for its quick response – amidst criticism of the Federal Emergency Management Agency – several critics were nonetheless quick to point out that there still remained issues with the company's labor relations.
In October 2005, Walmart announced several environmental measures to increase energy efficiency. The primary goals included spending US$500 million a year to increase fuel efficiency in Walmart's truck fleet by 25 percent over three years and double it within ten, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent in seven years, reduce energy use at stores by 30 percent, and cut solid waste from U.S. stores and Sam's Clubs by 25 percent in three years. CEO Lee Scott said that Walmart's goal was to be a "good steward for the environment" and ultimately use only renewable energy sources and produce zero waste. The company also designed three new experimental stores with wind turbines, photovoltaic solar panels, biofuel-capable boilers, water-cooled refrigerators, and xeriscape gardens. Despite much criticism of its environmental record, Walmart took a few steps in what some viewed as a positive direction, which included becoming the biggest seller of organic milk and the biggest buyer of organic cotton in the world, as well as reducing packaging and energy costs. Walmart also spent nearly a year working with outside consultants to discover the company's total environmental impact and find areas for improvement. Walmart has also recently created its own electric company in Texas, Texas Retail Energy, and plans to supply its stores with cheap power purchased at wholesale prices. Through this new venture, the company expects to save US$15 million annually and also to lay the groundwork and infrastructure to sell electricity to Texas consumers in the future.
In March 2006, Walmart sought to appeal to a more affluent demographic. The company launched a new Supercenter concept in Plano, Texas, intended to compete against stores seen as more upscale and appealing, such as Target. The new store has wood floors, wider aisles, a sushi bar, a coffee/sandwich shop with free Wi-Fi Internet access, and more expensive beers, wines, electronics, and other goods. The exterior has a hunter green background behind the Walmart letters, similar to Neighborhood Market by Walmarts, instead of the blue previously used at its supercenters.
On September 12, 2007, Walmart introduced new advertising with the slogan, "Save money. Live better.", replacing "Always Low Prices, Always", which it had used for the previous 19 years. Global Insight, which conducted the research that supported the ads, found that Walmart's price level reduction resulted in savings for consumers of US$287 billion in 2006, which equated to US$957 per person or US$2,500 per household (up 7.3 percent from the 2004 savings estimate of US$2,329).
On June 30, 2008, Walmart removed the hyphen from its logo and replaced the star with a Spark symbol that resembles a sunburst, flower, or star. The new logo received mixed reviews from design critics, who questioned whether the new logo was as bold as those of competitors, such as the Target bullseye or as instantly recognizable as the previous company logo, which was used for 18 years. The new logo made its debut on the company's website on July 1, 2008. Walmart's U.S. locations were to update store logos in the fall of 2008, as part of an ongoing evolution of its brand. Walmart Canada started to adopt the logo for its stores in early 2009.
On March 20, 2009, Walmart announced that it was paying a combined US$933.6 million in bonuses to every full and part-time hourly worker. This was in addition to US$788.8 million in profit sharing, 401(k) pension contributions, hundreds of millions of dollars in merchandise discounts, and contributions to the employees' stock purchase plan. While the economy at large was in an ongoing recession, Walmart, the largest retailer in the U.S., reported solid financial figures for the most recent fiscal year (ending January 31, 2009), with US$401.2 billion in net sales, a gain of 7.2 percent from the prior year. Income from continuing operations increased 3 percent to US$13.3 billion, and earnings per share rose 6 percent to US$3.35.
2011–present: Current developments
- Walmart's truck fleet logs millions of miles each year, and the company planned to double the fleet's efficiency between 2005 and 2015. The truck below is one of 15 based at Walmart's Buckeye, Arizona, distribution center that was converted to run on a type of biofuel made from reclaimed cooking grease produced during food preparation at Walmart stores.
- In January 2011 Walmart announced a program to improve the nutritional value of its store brands over five years, gradually reducing the amount of salt and sugar and eliminating trans fat. Walmart also promised to negotiate with suppliers with respect to nutritional issues, reduce prices for whole foods and vegetables, and open stores in low-income areas, so-called "food deserts", where there are no supermarkets.
- On April 23, 2011, the company announced that it was testing its new "Walmart To Go" home delivery system where customers will be able to order specific items offered on their website. The initial test was in San Jose, California, and the company has not yet said whether the delivery system will be rolled out nationwide. On November 14, 2012, Walmart launched its first mail subscription service called Goodies. Customers pay a US$7 monthly subscription for five to eight delivered food samples each month, so they can try new foods.
- In August 2013, the firm announced it was in talks to acquire a majority stake in the Kenya-based supermarket chain, Naivas.
- In June 2014, some Walmart employees went on strike in major U.S. cities demanding higher wages.
- In July 2014, American actor and comedian Tracy Morgan launched a lawsuit against Walmart seeking punitive damages over a multi-car pile-up which the suit alleges was caused by the driver of one of the firm's tractor-trailers who had not slept for 24 hours. Morgan's limousine was apparently hit by the trailer, injuring him and two fellow passengers and killing a fourth, fellow comedian James McNair. Walmart settled with the McNair family for $10 million, while admitting no liability. Morgan and Walmart reached a settlement in 2015 for an undisclosed amount, though Walmart later accused its insurers of "bad faith" in refusing to pay the settlement.
- In 2015, the company closed five stores on short notice for plumbing repairs. However, employees and the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union (UFCW) alleged some stores were closed in retaliation for strikes aimed at increasing wages and improving working conditions. The UFCW filed a complaint with the National Labor Relations Board. All five stores have since reopened.
- On October 14, 2015, Walmart saw its stock fall 10 percent.
- On January 15, 2016, Walmart announced it will close 269 stores in 2016, affecting 16,000 workers. 154 out of the 269 stores earmarked for closure are in the U.S. (150 Walmart U.S. stores, 115 Walmart International stores, and 4 Sam's Clubs). 95 percent of these U.S. stores are located, on average, 10 miles from another Walmart store. The 269 stores represent less than 1 percent of global square footage and revenue. Walmart Express, of which all 102 locations are included in the closures, had been in a pilot program since 2011. In light of these closings, Walmart plans to focus on "strengthening Supercenters, optimizing Neighborhood Markets, growing the e-commerce business and expanding pickup services for customers". In fiscal 2017, the company plans to open between 50 and 60 Supercenters, 85 to 95 Neighborhood Markets, 7 to 10 Sam's Clubs, and 200 to 240 international locations.
- In 2015, Walmart was the biggest US commercial producer of solar power with 142 MW capacity, and has 17 energy storage projects.
- On August 8, 2016, Walmart announced a deal to acquire e-commerce website Jet.com for US$3.3 billion Jet.com co-founder and CEO Marc Lore will stay on to run Jet.com in addition to Walmart's existing U.S. e-commerce operation. The acquisition is structured as a payout of $3 billion in cash, and an additional $300 million in Walmart stock vested over time as part of an incentive bonus plan for Jet.com executives.
- October 19, 2016, Walmart announced it would partner up with IBM (IBM) and Tsinghua University to track the pork supply chain in China using blockchain.
Growing crime problem
Police reports from dozens of Walmart stores suggest the number of petty crimes committed on Walmart properties nationwide in 2016 will be in the hundreds of thousands. Additionally, more than 200 violent crimes, including attempted kidnappings and multiple stabbings, shootings, and murders, have occurred at the nation’s 4,500 Walmarts as of August 2016, or about one a day, according to an analysis of media reports. The high crime rate is attributable to Walmart's cost-cutting measures. Walmart has taken steps to ameliorate the problem, but critics say that effective action will require it to spend more on security and employees.
Walmart's operations are organized into four divisions: Walmart U.S., Walmart International, Sam's Club and Global eCommerce. The company offers various retail formats throughout these divisions, including supercenters, supermarkets, hypermarkets, warehouse clubs, cash-and-carry stores, home improvement, specialty electronics, restaurants, apparel stores, drugstores, convenience stores and digital retail.
Walmart U.S. is the company's largest division, accounting for US$298.378 billion, or 62.3 percent of total sales, for fiscal 2016. It consists of three retail formats that have become commonplace in the United States: Supercenters, Discount Stores, Neighborhood Markets and other small formats. The discount stores sell a variety of mostly non-grocery products, though emphasis has now shifted towards supercenters, which include more groceries. As of December 31, 2016, there are a total of 4,665 Walmart U.S. stores.
The president and CEO of Walmart U.S. is Greg Foran.
Walmart Supercenters, simply branded as "Walmart", are hypermarkets with sizes varying from 69,000 to 260,000 square feet (6,400 to 24,200 square meters), but averaging about 187,000 square feet (17,400 square meters). These stock general merchandise and a full-service supermarket, including meat and poultry, baked goods, delicatessen, frozen foods, dairy products, garden produce, and fresh seafood. Many Walmart Supercenters also have a garden center, pet shop, pharmacy, Tire & Lube Express, optical center, one-hour photo processing lab, portrait studio, and numerous alcove shops, such as cellular phone stores, hair and nail salons, video rental stores, local bank branches (newer locations have Woodforest National Bank branches), and fast food outlets, those usually being Subway but sometimes Dunkin' Donuts, McDonald's, Wendy's, Checker's, Auntie Annes, Burger King, Tim Horton's or Blimpie. Many featured McDonald's restaurants, but in 2007, Walmart announced it would stop opening McDonald's restaurants at most of their newer stores. Most locations that opened up after the announcement had Subway as their restaurants, and some McDonald's inside the stores were replaced with Subways. In some Canadian locations, Tim Horton'ses were opened. Some[clarification needed] Some locations also have fuel stations which sell gasoline distributed by Murphy USA (which spun off from Murphy Oil in 2013), Sunoco, Inc. ("Optima"), the Tesoro Corporation ("Mirastar"), USA Gasoline, and even now Walmart-branded gas stations.
The first Supercenter opened in Washington, Missouri in 1988. A similar concept, Hypermart USA, had opened in Garland, Texas a year earlier. All Hypermart USA stores were later closed or converted into Supercenters.
As of December 31, 2016[update], there were 3,517 Walmart Supercenters in 49 of the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Hawaii is the only state to not have a Supercenter location. The largest Supercenter in the United States, covering 260,000 square feet (24,000 square meters) on two floors, is located in Crossgates Commons in Albany, New York. In 2006, the busiest in the world was the one in Rapid City, South Dakota.
The "Supercenter" portion of the name has since been phased out, with these stores now simply referred to as "Walmart", since the company introduced the new Walmart logo in 2008. The Supercentre name is still used in Canada, where the company opened its 100th Canadian store in 2010, some of them former Sam's Club locations.
Walmart Discount Store
Walmart Discount Stores, also branded as simply "Walmart", are discount department stores with sizes varying from 30,000 to 206,000 square feet (2,800 to 19,100 square meters), with the average store covering about 104,000 square feet (9,700 square meters). They carry general merchandise and limited groceries. Some newer and remodeled discount stores have an expanded grocery department, similar to Target's PFresh department. Many of these stores also feature a garden center, pharmacy, tire & Lube Express, optical center, one-hour photo processing lab, portrait studio, a bank branch, a cell phone store and a fast food outlet, usually Subway or McDonald's or Burger King. Some also have gasoline stations.
In 1990, Walmart opened its first Bud's Discount City location in Bentonville. Bud's operated as a closeout store, much like Big Lots. Many locations were opened to fulfill leases in shopping centers as Walmart stores left and moved into newly built Supercenters. All of the Bud's Discount City stores closed or converted into Walmart Discount Stores by 1997.
As of December 31, 2016[update], there were 419 Walmart Discount Stores in 41 states and Puerto Rico. Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, District of Columbia, West Virginia, and Wyoming are the only states and territories where a discount store does not operate.
Walmart Neighborhood Market
Walmart Neighborhood Market is a chain of grocery stores with sizes varying from 28,000 to 66,000 square feet (2,600 to 6,100 square meters), with an average size of 42,000 square feet (3,900 square meters). They are used to fill the gap between supercenters, infilling areas where another supermarket chain had closed all stores due to competition from Walmart Supercenters. These Markets offer a variety of products including full lines of groceries, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty aids, photo developing services, and a limited selection of general merchandise. The first store opened in 1998, in Bentonville, Arkansas. As of December 31, 2016[update], there were 695 Walmart Neighborhood Markets. Neighborhood Markets and other small formats operate in 31 states and Puerto Rico (under the Amigo banner). Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota,Vermont, District of Columbia, and Wyoming are the only states and territories where Neighborhood Markets and other small formats do not operate.
Former stores and concepts
Walmart opened "Supermercado de Walmart" locations to appeal to Hispanic communities in the United States. The first one, a 39,000 square feet (3,600 square meters) store in the Spring Branch area of Houston, opened on April 29, 2009. The store was a conversion of an existing Walmart Neighborhood Market. The opening was Walmart's first entry in the Hispanic grocery market in Houston. In 2009, another Supermercado de Walmart opened in Phoenix, Arizona. Both the two Supermercado de Walmart locations have closed in 2014. In 2009, Walmart opened "Mas Club", a warehouse retail operation patterned after Sam's Club. It closed its doors in 2014 with only one store[clarification needed].
Walmart Express was a chain of smaller discount stores, with a range of services, from groceries to check cashing and gasoline service. The concept was focused on small towns deemed not able to support a larger store, and large cities where space was at a premium. Walmart planned to build 15 to 20 Walmart Express stores, focusing on Arkansas, North Carolina and Chicago, by the end of its fiscal year in January 2012. As of September 8, 2014, Walmart re-branded all of its Express format stores to Neighborhood Markets in an effort to streamline its retail offer. It continued to open new Express stores under the Neighborhood Market name. As of November 30, 2016[update], there were 34 small format stores in the United States. These include Amigo (19 locations), Walmart on Campus (14 locations), and the first and only Walmart To Go, a gas station/convenience store. As of January 15, 2016, Walmart announced that it will be closing 269 stores globally, including all 102 U.S. Walmart Express stores, including those branded as Neighborhood Markets.
In September 2006, Walmart announced a pilot program to sell generic drugs at US$4 per prescription. The program was launched at stores in the Tampa, Florida, area, and by January 2007 had been expanded to all stores in Florida. While the average price of generics is US$29 per prescription, compared to US$102 for name-brand drugs, Walmart maintains that it is not selling at a loss, or providing them as an act of charity—instead, they are using the same mechanisms of mass distribution that it uses to bring lower prices to other products. Many of Walmart's low cost generics are imported from India, where they are made by drug makers that include Ranbaxy and Cipla.
On February 6, 2007, the company launched a "beta" version of a movie download service, which sold about 3,000 films and television episodes from all major studios and television networks. The service was discontinued on December 21, 2007, due to low sales.
From 2008 through 2011, Walmart operated a pilot program in the small grocery store concept called Marketside in the metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, area. The company plans to incorporate what it has learned from this concept into its Walmart Express stores.
In 2015, Walmart began testing a free grocery pickup service, allowing customers to select products online and choose their pickup time. At the store, a Walmart employee loads the groceries into the customer's car. As of September 2015, the program has expanded to 13 U.S. cities, and the company expects more stores to begin offering this service.
In May 2016, Walmart announced a change to ShippingPass, its three-day shipping service, and that it will move from a three-day delivery to two-day delivery to remain competitive with Amazon. Walmart priced it at 49 dollars per year, compared to Amazon Prime's 99 dollar per year price. If you are already a subscriber you get one month free.
In June 2016, Walmart and Sam's Club announced they will begin testing last-mile grocery delivery that uses services including Uber, Lyft and Deliv, to bring customers' orders to their homes. Walmart customers will be able to shop using the company's online grocery service at grocery.walmart.com, then request delivery at checkout for a small fee. The first tests will go live in Denver and Phoenix.
As of December 31, 2016[update], Walmart's international operations comprised 6,345 stores and 800,000 workers in 26 countries outside the United States. There are wholly owned operations in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and the UK. With 2.2 million employees worldwide, the company is the largest private employer in the U.S. and Mexico, and one of the largest in Canada. In fiscal 2016, Walmart's international division sales were US$123.408 billion, or 25.8 percent of total sales. International retail units range from 4,000 to 185,000 square feet (370 to 17,190 square metres), wholesale units range from 35,000 to 70,000 square feet (3,300 to 6,500 square metres) and other units (including drugstores and convenience stores) range up to 2,400 square feet (220 square metres).
As of December 31, 2016, there are a total of 4,097 locations in Latin America, which consists of locations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua.
Walmart Argentina was founded in 1995 and, as of November 30, 2016, operates 107 stores under the banners Walmart Supercenter (32 locations), Changomas (51 locations), Changomas Express (10 locations), Mi Changomas (8 locations), and Walmart Supermercado (6 locations).
In 2004, Walmart bought the 118 stores in the Bompreço supermarket chain in northeastern Brazil. In late 2005, it took control of the Brazilian operations of Sonae Distribution Group through its new subsidiary, WMS Supermercados do Brasil, thus acquiring control of the Nacional and Mercadorama supermarket chains, the leaders in the Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states, respectively. None of these stores were rebranded. As of January 2014[update], Walmart operated 61 Super-Bompreço stores, 39 Hiper-Bompreço stores. It also ran 57 Walmart Supercenters, 27 Sam's Clubs, and 174 Todo Dia stores. With the acquisition of Bompreço and Sonae, by 2010, Walmart was the third largest supermarket chain in Brazil, behind Carrefour and Pão de Açúcar. Walmart Brasil, the operating company, has its head office in Barueri, São Paulo State, and regional offices in Curitiba, Paraná; Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul; Recife, Pernambuco; and Salvador, Bahia. As of December 31, 2016, Walmart Brasil operates 498 stores under the banners Walmart Supercenter (55 locations), Sam's Club (27 locations), Todo Dia (150 locations), Supermercado Todo Dia (3 locations), Hypermarket (Bompreço) (38 locations), Supermarket (Bompreço) (59 locations), Mercadorama (Sonae) (13 locations), BIG (Sonae) (37 locations), Maxxi Atacado (Sonae) (44 locations), Nacional (Sonae) (55 locations), Walmart Posto (Gas Station) (14 locations), and Hiper Todo Dia (3 locations).
Walmart also owns 51 percent of the Central American Retail Holding Company (CARHCO), which as of December 31, 2016, consists of 222 stores in Guatemala (under the Paiz (26 locations), Walmart Supercenter (10 locations), Despensa Familiar (154 locations), and Maxi Dispensa (32 locations) banners), 90 stores in El Salvador (under the Despensa Familiar (60 locations), La Despensa de Don Juan (17 locations), Walmart Supercenter (4 locations), and Maxi Despensa (9 locations) banners), 91 stores in Honduras (including the Paiz (7 locations), Walmart Supercenter (3 locations), Dispensa Familiar (61 locations), and Maxi Despensa (20 locations) banners), 92 stores in Nicaragua (including the Pali (65 locations), La Unión (8 locations), Maxi Pali (18 locations), and Walmart Supercenter (1 location) banners), and 234 stores in Costa Rica (including the Maxi Pali (38 locations), Mas X Menos (34 locations), Walmart Supercenter (9 locations), and Pali (153 locations) banners).
In January 2009, the company acquired a controlling interest in the largest grocer in Chile, Distribución y Servicio D&S SA. and In 2010, the company was renamed Walmart Chile. As of November 30, 2016, Walmart Chile operates 361 stores under the banners Lider Hiper (83 locations), Lider Express (81 locations), Superbodega Acuenta (105 locations), Ekono (88 locations), and Central Mayorista (4 locations).
Walmart's Mexico division, the largest outside the U.S., as of December 31, 2016, consists of 2,402 stores. Walmart in Mexico operates Walmart Supercenter (259 locations), Sam's Club (160 locations), Bodega Aurrera (487 locations), Mi Bodega Aurrera (329 locations), Bodega Aurrera Express (939 locations), Superama (96 locations), Suburbia (17 locations), Medimart Farmacia de Walmart (10 locations), and Zona Suburbia (5 locations).
Canada and EMEA
As of December 31, 2016 there are a total of 1,451 stores in Canada and Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), which the latter consists of locations in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.
Walmart has operated in Canada since it acquired 122 stores comprising the Woolco division of Woolworth Canada, Inc in 1994. As of December 31, 2016[update], it operates 409 locations (including 328 supercentres and 81 discount stores) and, as of June 2015, it employs 89,358 people, with a local home office in Mississauga, Ontario. Walmart Canada's first three Supercentres (spelled as in Canadian English) opened in November 2006 in Hamilton, London, and Aurora, Ontario. The 100th Canadian Supercentre opened in July 2010, in Victoria, British Columbia.
In 2010, Walmart Canada Bank was introduced with the launch of the Walmart Rewards MasterCard.
Walmart's UK subsidiary Asda (which retained its name after being acquired by Walmart) accounted for 42.7 percent of 2006 sales of Walmart's international division. In contrast to the U.S. operations, Asda was originally and still remains primarily a grocery chain, but with a stronger focus on non-food items than most UK supermarket chains other than Tesco. As of December 31, 2016[update], Asda had 630 stores, including 147 from the 2010 acquisition of Netto UK. In addition to small suburban Asda Supermarkets, which has 206 locations, larger stores are branded Supercentres, which has 32 locations. Other banners include Asda Superstores (339 locations), Asda Living (33 locations) and Asda Petrol Fueling Station (20 locations). In July 2015, Asda updated its logo featuring the Walmart Asterisks behind the first 'A' in the Logo.
On September 28, 2010, Walmart announced it would buy Massmart Holdings Ltd. of Johannesburg, South Africa in a deal worth over US$4 billion giving the company its first footprint in Africa. As of December 31, 2016, it has 373 stores in South Africa (under the banners Game Foodco (69 locations), CBW (47 locations), Game (50 locations), Builders Express (43 locations), Builders Warehouse (33 locations), Cambridge (37 locations), Dion Wired (24 locations), Rhino (20 locations), Makro (20 locations), Builders Trade Depot (15 locations), Jumbo (7 locations), and Builders Superstore (8 locations)), 11 stores in Botswana (under the banners CBW (7 locations), Game Foodco (2 locations), and Builders Warehouse (2 locations)), 1 store in Ghana (under the Game banner), 1 store in Kenya (under the Game Foodco banner), 3 stores in Lesotho (under the banners CBW (2 locations) and Game (1 location)), 2 stores in Malawi (under the Game banner), 5 stores in Mozambique (under the banners Builders Warehouse (2 locations), Game Foodco (2 locations), and CBW (1 location)), 4 stores in Namibia (under the banners Game Foodco (2 locations), Game (1 location), and CBW (1 location)), 5 stores in Nigeria (under the banners Game (4 locations) and Game Foodco (1 location), 1 store in Swaziland (under the CBW banner), 1 store in Tanzania (under the Game banner), 1 store in Uganda (under the Game banner), and 4 stores in Zambia (under the banners Game (3 locations) and Builders Warehouse (1 location)).
As of December 31, 2016, there are currently a total of 797 stores in three Asian countries: China, Japan, and India.
Walmart has joint ventures in China and several majority-owned subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2016, Walmart China (沃尔玛 Wò'ērmǎ) operates 435 stores under the Walmart Supercenter (399 locations), Sam's Club (14 locations), Neighborhood Market (2 locations), Smart Choice (1 location), and Hypermarket (19 locations) banners. In Japan, Walmart owns 100 percent of Seiyu (西友 Seiyū) as of 2008. As of December 31, 2016, there are 342 stores under the Seiyu (Hypermarket) (94 locations), Seiyu (Supermarket) (238 locations), Seiyu (General Merchandise) (1 location), and Livin (9 locations) banners.
In February 2012, Walmart announced that the company raises its stake to 51 percent in Chinese online supermarket Yihaodian to tap rising consumer wealth and help the company offer more products. Walmart took full ownership in July 2015. In November 2006, the company announced a joint venture with Bharti Enterprises to operate in India. As foreign corporations were not allowed to enter the retail sector directly, Walmart operated through franchises and handled the wholesale end of the business. The partnership involves two joint ventures – Bharti manages the front end, involving opening of retail outlets, while Walmart takes care of the back end, such as cold chains and logistics. Walmart operates stores in India under the name Best Price Modern Wholesale. The first store opened in Amritsar on 30 May 2009. On September 14, 2012, the Government of India approved 51 percent FDI in multi-brand retails, subject to approval by individual states, effective September 20, 2012. Scott Price, Walmart's president and CEO for Asia, told The Wall Street Journal that the company would be able to start opening Walmart stores in India within two years. Expansion into India faced some significant problems. In November 2012, Walmart admitted to spending US$25 million lobbying the Indian National Congress;—lobbying is conventionally considered bribery in India. Walmart is conducting an internal investigation into potential violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Bharti Walmart suspended a number of employees, rumored to include its CFO and legal team, to ensure "a complete and thorough investigation". As of December 31, 2016, there are 20 Best Price locations. In October 2013, Bharti and Walmart separated to pursue businesses independently.
In the mid-1990s, Walmart tried with a large financial investment to get a foothold in the German retail market. In 1997, Walmart took over the supermarket chain Wertkauf with its 21 stores for DEM750 million and in 1998 Walmart acquired 74 Interspar stores for DEM1.3 billion.
The German market at this point was an oligopoly with high competition among companies which used a similar low price strategy as Walmart. As a result, Walmart's low price strategy yielded no competitive advantage. Also, Walmart's corporate culture was not viewed positively among employees and customers, particularly Walmart's "statement of ethics", which restricted relationships between employees and led to a public discussion in the media, resulting in a bad reputation among customers.
In July 2006, Walmart announced its withdrawal from Germany due to sustained losses. The stores were sold to the German company Metro during Walmart's fiscal third quarter. Walmart did not disclose its losses from its German investment, but they were estimated to be around €3 billion.
An April 2012 investigative report by The New York Times reported the allegations of a former executive of Walmart de Mexico that, in September 2005, the company had paid bribes via local fixers to officials throughout Mexico in exchange for construction permits, information, and other favors, which gave Walmart a substantial advantage over competitors. Walmart investigators found credible evidence that Mexican and American laws had been broken. Concerns were also raised that Walmart executives in the United States had "hushed up" the allegations. A follow-up investigation by The New York Times, published December 17, 2012, revealed evidence that regulatory permission for siting, construction, and operation of nineteen stores had been obtained through bribery. There was evidence that a bribe of US$52,000 was paid to change a zoning map, which enabled the opening of a Walmart store a mile from a historical site in San Juan Teotihuacán in 2004. After the initial article was released, Walmart released a statement denying the allegations and describing its anti-corruption policy. While an official Walmart report states that it had found no evidence of corruption, the article alleges that previous internal reports had indeed turned up such evidence before the story became public. Forbes contributor Adam Hartung also commented that the bribery scandal was a reflection of Walmart's "serious management and strategy troubles", stating, "[s]candals are now commonplace ... [e]ach scandal points out that Walmart's strategy is harder to navigate and is running into big problems".
As of December 2012, internal investigations were ongoing into possible violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Walmart has invested US$99 million on internal investigations, which expanded beyond Mexico to implicate operations in China, Brazil, and India. The case has added fuel to the debate as to whether foreign investment will result in increased prosperity, or if it merely allows local retail trade and economic policy to be taken over by "foreign financial and corporate interests".
Sam's Club is a chain of warehouse clubs that sell groceries and general merchandise, often in bulk. They range from 71,000 to 168,000 square feet (6,600 to 15,600 square meters), with an average size of 134,000 square feet (12,400 square meters). Sam's Clubs are membership warehouse clubs where most customers buy annual memberships. There are three kinds of memberships of Sam's Club: Sam's Plus, Sam's Business and Sam's Savings. Each of these memberships provides customers various benefits and convenience. However, non-members can make purchases either by buying a one-day membership or paying a surcharge based on the price of the purchase. Some locations also sell gasoline. The first Sam's Club opened in 1983 in Midwest City, Oklahoma under the name "Sam's Wholesale Club".
Sam's Club has found a niche market in recent years as a supplier to small businesses. All Sam's Clubs are open early hours exclusively for business members and their old slogan was "We're in Business for Small Business." Their slogan has been "Savings Made Simple" since late 2009, as Sam's Club attempts to attract a more diverse member base. In March 2009, the company announced that it plans to enter the electronic medical records business by offering a software package to physicians in small practices for US$25,000. Walmart is partnering with Dell and eClinicalWorks.com in this new venture.
Sam's Club's sales were US$56.828 billion, or 11.9 percent of total Walmart sales, during fiscal 2016. As of December 31, 2016[update], there were 656 Sam's Clubs in 47 states and Puerto Rico. Oregon, Rhode Island (which that state's only location closed in 2016), Vermont, and the District of Columbia are the only states and territories where a Sam's Club does not operate. Walmart, through Walmart International, also operates 201 international Sam's Clubs, including 160 in Mexico, 27 in Brazil, and 14 in China.
Based in San Francisco, California, Walmart's Global eCommerce division provides online retailing for Walmart, Sam's Club, ASDA and all other international brands. There are several locations in the United States located in California and Oregon. They are San Bruno, Sunnyvale, Brisbane, and Portland. Locations outside of the United States include Shanghai (China), Leeds (United Kingdom) and Bangalore (India).
In February 2010, Walmart agreed to buy Vudu, a Silicon Valley start-up whose online movie service is being built into an increasing number of televisions and Blu-ray players. Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed, but a person briefed on the deal said the price for the company, which raised US$60 million in capital, was over US$100 million. It is the third most popular online movie service, with a market share of 5.3 percent.
Private label brands
About 40 percent of products sold in Walmart are private label store brands, which are produced for the company through contracts with manufacturers. Walmart began offering private label brands in 1991, with the launch of Sam's Choice, a line of drinks produced by Cott Beverages for Walmart. Sam's Choice quickly became popular and by 1993, was the third most popular beverage brand in the United States. Other Walmart brands include Great Value and Equate in the U.S. and Canada and Smart Price in Britain. A 2006 study talked of "the magnitude of mind-share Walmart appears to hold in the shoppers' minds when it comes to the awareness of private label brands and retailers."
In 2010, the company teamed with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project, two-hour family movies which featured the characters using Walmart and Procter & Gamble branded products. The Jensen Project also featured a preview of a product to be released in several months in Walmart stores. A third movie, A Walk in My Shoes, also aired in 2010 and a fourth is in production.[when?] Walmart's director of brand marketing also serves as co-chair of the Association of National Advertisers's Alliance for Family Entertainment.
Walmart is headquartered in the Walmart Home Office complex in Bentonville, Arkansas. The company's business model is based on selling a wide variety of general merchandise at low prices. Doug McMillon became Walmart's CEO on February 1, 2014. McMillon began his Walmart career in warehouses while in high school. He has also worked as the head of Sam's Club and Walmart International. The company refers to employees as "associates". All Walmart stores in the U.S. and Canada also have designated "greeters" at the entrance, a practice pioneered by Sam Walton and later imitated by other retailers. Greeters are trained to help shoppers find what they want and answer their questions.
For many years, associates were identified in the store by their signature blue vest, but this practice was discontinued in June 2007 and replaced with khaki pants and polo shirts. The wardrobe change was part of a larger corporate overhaul to increase sales and rejuvenate the company's stock price. In September 2014 the uniform was again updated to bring back a vest (paid for by the company) for store employees over the same polo's and khaki or black pants paid for by the employee. The vest is navy blue for Walmart employees at Supercenters and discount stores and lime green for Walmart Neighborhood Market employees, both state "Proud Walmart Associate" on the left breast and the "Spark" logo covering the back. Reportedly one of the main reasons the vest was reintroduced was because some customers had trouble identifying employees. By requiring employees to wear uniforms that are made up of standard "street wear" Walmart is not required to purchase or reimbursement employees which is required in some states, as long as that clothing can be worn elsewhere. Businesses are only legally required to pay for branded shirts and pants or clothes that would be difficult to wear outside of work.
Unlike many other retailers, Walmart does not charge slotting fees to suppliers for their products to appear in the store. Instead, it focuses on selling more popular products and provides incentives for store managers to drop unpopular products.
On September 14, 2006, the company announced that it would phase out its layaway program, citing declining use and increased costs. Layaway ceased on November 19, 2006, and required merchandise pickup by December 8, 2006. Walmart now focuses on other payment options, such as increased use of six- and twelve-month, zero-interest financing. The layaway location in most stores is now used for Walmart's Site-To-Store program, which was introduced in March 2007. This enables walmart.com customers to buy goods online with a free shipping option, and have goods shipped to the nearest store for pickup.
Finance and governance
For the fiscal year ending January 31, 2015, Walmart reported net income of US$17 billion on US$485.7 billion of revenue. The company's international operations accounted for US$197.7 billion, or 40.7 percent, of sales. Walmart is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000 list, and the largest public corporation when ranked by revenue.
Walmart is governed by a fifteen-member Board of Directors elected annually by shareholders. Gregory B. Penner, son-in-law of S. Robson Walton and the grandson-in-law of Sam Walton serves as Chairman of the Board. Doug McMillon serves as President and Chief Executive Officer. Members of the board include Aída Álvarez, Jim Breyer, M. Michele Burns, James Cash, Roger Corbett, Douglas Daft, David Glass, Marissa Mayer, Allen Questrom, Arne M. Sorenson, Jim Walton, S. Robson Walton, Christopher J. Williams, and Linda S. Wolf.
Notable former members of the board include Hillary Clinton (1985–1992) and Tom Coughlin (2003–2004), the latter having served as Vice Chairman. Clinton left the board before the 1992 U.S. Presidential Election, and Coughlin left in December 2005 after pleading guilty to wire fraud and tax evasion for stealing hundreds of thousands of dollars from Walmart. On August 11, 2006, he was sentenced to 27 months home confinement, five years of probation, and ordered to pay US$411,000 in restitution.
After Sam Walton's death in 1992, Don Soderquist, Chief Operating Officer and Senior Vice Chairman, became known as the "Keeper of the Culture."
In North America, Walmart's primary competitors include department stores like Kmart, Publix, Target, Shopko and Meijer, Canada's The Real Canadian Superstore and Giant Tiger, and Mexico's Comercial Mexicana and Soriana. Competitors of Walmart's Sam's Club division are Costco and the smaller BJ's Wholesale Club chain. Walmart's move into the grocery business in the late 1990s also set it against major supermarket chains in both the United States and Canada. Some retail analysts see regional grocery store chain WinCo Foods as serious competition for Walmart. Several smaller retailers, primarily dollar stores, such as Family Dollar and Dollar General, have been able to find a small niche market and compete successfully against Walmart. In 2004, Walmart responded by testing its own dollar store concept, a subsection of some stores called "Pennies-n-Cents."
Walmart also had to face fierce competition in some foreign markets. For example, in Germany it had captured just 2 percent of the German food market following its entry into the market in 1997 and remained "a secondary player" behind Aldi with 19 percent. Walmart continues to do well in the UK, where its Asda subsidiary is the second largest retailer.
In May 2006, after entering the South Korean market in 1998, Walmart sold all 16 of its South Korean outlets to Shinsegae, a local retailer, for US$882 million. Shinsegae re-branded the Walmarts as E-mart stores.
Walmart struggled to export its brand elsewhere as it rigidly tried to reproduce its model overseas. In China, Walmart hopes to succeed by adapting and doing things preferable to Chinese citizens. For example, it found that Chinese consumers preferred to select their own live fish and seafood; stores began displaying the meat uncovered and installed fish tanks, leading to higher sales.
Walmart customers cite low prices as the most important reason for shopping there. The average U.S. Walmart customer's income is below the national average, and analysts estimated that more than one-fifth of them lack a bank account; twice the national rate. A 2006 Walmart report also indicated that Walmart customers are sensitive to higher utility costs and gas prices. A poll indicated that after the 2004 US Presidential Election, 76 percent of voters who shopped at Walmart once a week voted for George W. Bush, while only 23 percent supported senator John Kerry. When measured against similar retailers in the U.S., frequent Walmart shoppers were rated the most politically conservative. Thus, as of 2014, the "majority (54 percent) [of] Americans who prefer shopping at Walmart report that they oppose same-sex marriage, while 40 percent are in favor of it."
Due to its prominence in the Bible Belt, Walmart is known for its "tradition of tailoring its service to churchgoing customers". Walmart only carries clean versions of hip-hop audio CDs and in cooperation with The Timothy Plan, places "plastic sheathes over suggestive women's periodicals and banned 'lad mags' such as Maxim" magazine. In addition, Walmart also caters to its Christian customer base by selling Christian books and media, "such as VeggieTales videos and The Purpose-Driven Life", which earns the company over US$1 billion annually.
In 2006, Walmart took steps to expand its U.S. customer base, announcing a modification in its U.S. stores from a "one-size-fits-all" merchandising strategy to one designed to "reflect each of six demographic groups – African-Americans, the affluent, empty-nesters, Hispanics, suburbanites and rural residents." Around six months later, it unveiled a new slogan: "Saving people money so they can live better lives". This reflects the three main groups into which Walmart categorizes its 200 million customers: "brand aspirationals" (people with low incomes who are obsessed with names like KitchenAid), "price-sensitive affluents" (wealthier shoppers who love deals), and "value-price shoppers" (people who like low prices and cannot afford much more). Walmart has also made steps to appeal to more liberal customers, for example, by rejecting the American Family Association's recommendations and carrying the DVD Brokeback Mountain, a love story between two gay cowboys in Wyoming.
Open Source Software
Many Walmart technology projects are coded in the open and available through the Walmart Labs GitHub repository as Open Source software under the OSI approved Apache V2.0 license. At the time of writing (November 2016), 141 public Github projects are listed.
During a migration of the walmart.com retail platform to Facebook React and Node.js, the Electrode project was created to power the e-commerce platform which serves 80 million visitors per month and 15 million items.
Electrode provides various developer enhancements and tools for the developer including Node.js configuration and feature management.
Big data analytics
As the largest retailer in the U.S., Walmart collects and analyzes a large amount of consumer data. The big data sets are mined for use in predictive analytics, which allow the company to optimize operations by predicting customer's habits. Walmart's datacenter is unofficially referred to as Area 71.
Sam Walton believed that the company's contribution to society was the fact that it operated efficiently, thereby lowering the cost of living for customers, and therefore in that sense was a "powerful force for good", despite his refusal to contribute cash to philanthropic causes. Having begun to feel that his wealth attracted people who wanted nothing more than a "handout", he explained that while he believed his family had been fortunate and wished to use his wealth to aid worthy causes like education, they could not be expected to "solve every personal problem that comes to [their] attention". He explained later in his autobiography, "We feel very strongly that Wal-Mart really is not, and should not be, in the charity business," stating "any debit has to be passed along to somebody—either shareholders or our customers." Since Sam Walton's death in 1992, however, Walmart and the Walmart Foundation dramatically increased charitable giving. For example, in 2005, Walmart donated US$20 million in cash and merchandise for Hurricane Katrina relief. Today, Walmart's charitable donations approach US$1 billion each year.
Kenneth Stone, Professor of Economics at Iowa State University, in a paper published in Farm Foundation in 1997, found that some small towns can lose almost half of their retail trade within ten years of a Walmart store opening. He compared the changes to previous competitors small town shops have faced in the past—from the development of the railroads and the Sears Roebuck catalog to shopping malls. He concludes that small towns are more affected by "discount mass merchandiser stores" than larger towns and that shop owners who adapt to the ever-changing retail market can "co-exist and even thrive in this type of environment."
One study found Walmart's entry into a new market has a profound impact on its competition. When a Walmart opens in a new market, median sales drop 40 percent at similar high-volume stores, 17 percent at supermarkets and 6 percent at drugstores, according to a June 2009 study by researchers at several universities and led by the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. A Loyola University Chicago study suggested that the impact a Walmart store has on a local business is correlated to its distance from that store. The leader of that study admits that this factor is stronger in smaller towns and doesn't apply to more urban areas saying "It'd be so tough to nail down what's up with Wal-Mart". These findings are underscored by another study conducted in 2009 by the National Bureau of Economics that showed "large, negative effects" for competing businesses within five to ten miles of the new opening big box retailer. This same study also found that the local retailers experience virtually no benefit. This particularly contrasts with studies that find that local firms re-invest nearly 63% more of profits in other local businesses compared to chain retailers, as found by the Maine Center of Economic Policy in 2011.
Walmart has been subject to criticism from various groups and individuals, including labor unions, community groups, grassroots organizations, religious organizations, environmental groups, and the company's own customers and employees. They have protested against the company's policies and business practices, including charges of racial and gender discrimination. Other areas of criticism include the company's foreign product sourcing, treatment of suppliers, employee compensation and working conditions, environmental practices, the use of public subsidies, the company's security policies and slavery. Walmart denies doing anything wrong and maintains that low prices are the result of efficiency.
- A 2001 McKinsey Global Institute study of U.S. labor productivity growth between 1995 and 2000 concluded that "Wal-Mart directly and indirectly caused the bulk of the productivity acceleration" in the retail sector. Robert Solow, a Nobel laureate in economics and an adviser to the study, stated that "[b]y far the most important factor in that [growth] is Wal-Mart."
- The Economic Policy Institute estimates that between 2001 and 2006, Wal-Mart's trade deficit with China alone eliminated nearly 200,000 U.S. jobs. Another study at the University of Missouri found that a new store increases net retail employment in the county by 100 jobs in the short term, half of which disappear over five years as other retail establishments close.
- A 2004 paper by two professors at Pennsylvania State University found that U.S. counties with Walmart stores suffered increased poverty compared with counties without Wal-Marts. They hypothesized that this could be due to the displacement of workers from higher-paid jobs in the retailers customers no longer choose to patronize, Wal-Mart providing less local charity than the replaced businesses, or a shrinking pool of local leadership and reduced social capital due to a reduced number of local independent businesses. Dr Raj Patel, author of "Stuffed and Starved: Markets, Power and the Hidden Battle for the World Food System", said in a lecture at the University of Melbourne on September 18, 2007, that a study in Nebraska looked at two different Wal-Marts, the first of which had just arrived and "was in the process of driving everyone else out of business but, to do that, they cut their prices to the bone, very, very low prices". In the other Wal-Mart, "they had successfully destroyed the local economy, there was a sort of economic crater with Wal-Mart in the middle; and, in that community, the prices were 17 percent higher".
- A 2005 story in The Washington Post reported that "Wal-Mart's discounting on food alone boosts the welfare of American shoppers by at least US$50 billion per year." A study in 2005 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) measured the effect on consumer welfare and found that the poorest segment of the population benefits the most from the existence of discount retailers.
- A June 2006 article published by the libertarian Ludwig von Mises Institute suggested that Wal-Mart has a positive impact on small business. It argued that while Wal-Mart's low prices caused some existing businesses to close, the chain also created new opportunities for other small business, and so "the process of creative destruction unleashed by Wal-Mart has no statistically significant impact on the overall size of the small business sector in the United States."
- In 2006, American newspaper columnist George Will named Wal-Mart "the most prodigious job-creator in the history of the private sector in this galaxy" and that "[b]y lowering consumer prices, Wal-Mart costs about 50 retail jobs among competitors for every 100 jobs Wal-Mart creates". In terms of economic effects, Will states that "Wal-Mart and its effects save shoppers more than US$200 billion a year, dwarfing such government programs as food stamps (US$28.6 billion) and the earned income tax credit US$34.6 billion)".
- A 2014 story in The Guardian reported that the Wal-Mart Foundation was boosting its efforts to work with U.S. manufacturers. In February 2014, the Walmart Foundation pledged US$10 billion to support domestic manufacturers and announced plans to buy US$250 billion worth of American-made products in the next decade.
With over 2.2 million employees worldwide, Walmart has faced a torrent of lawsuits and issues with regards to its workforce. These issues involve low wages, poor working conditions, inadequate health care, as well as issues involving the company's strong anti-union policies. In November 2013 the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) announced that it had found that in 13 U.S. states Wal-Mart had pressured employees not to engage in strikes on Black Friday, and had illegally disciplined workers who had engaged in strikes. Critics point to Walmart's high turnover rate as evidence of an unhappy workforce, although other factors may be involved. Approximately 70 percent of its employees leave within the first year. Despite this turnover rate, the company is still able to affect unemployment rates. This was found in a study by Oklahoma State University which states, "Walmart is found to have substantially lowered the relative unemployment rates of blacks in those counties where it is present, but to have had only a limited impact on relative incomes after the influences of other socio-economic variables were taken into account."
Walmart is the largest private employer in the United States, employing almost five times as many people as IBM, the second largest employer. Walmart employs more African Americans than any other private employer in the United States.
On February 23, 2015, Walmart announced that it is bumping its minimum wage to US$10 an hour by February 2016.
Gender and sexual orientation
In 2007, a gender discrimination lawsuit, Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., was filed against Walmart, alleging that female employees were discriminated against in matters regarding pay and promotions. A class action suit was sought, which would have been the nation's largest in history, covering 1.5 million past and current employees. On June 20, 2011, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Wal-Mart's favor, stating that the plaintiffs did not have enough in common to constitute a class. The court ruled unanimously that because of the variability of the plaintiffs' circumstances, the class action could not proceed as presented, and furthermore, in a 5–4 decision that it could not proceed as any kind of class action suit. Several plaintiffs, including the lead plaintiff, Betty Dukes, expressed their intent to file individual discrimination lawsuits separately.
According to a consultant hired by plaintiffs in a sex discrimination lawsuit, in 2001, Wal-Mart's EEOC filings showed that female employees made up 65 percent of Wal-Mart's hourly paid workforce, but only 33 percent of its management. Just 35 percent of its store managers were women, compared to 57 percent at similar retailers. Wal-Mart says comparisons with other retailers are unfair, because it classifies employees differently; if department managers were included in the totals, women would make up 60 percent of the managerial ranks. Others have criticized the lawsuit as without basis in the law and as an abuse of the class action mechanism. In 2007, Wal-Mart was named by the National Association for Female Executives as one of the top 35 companies for Executive Women.
Wal-Mart's rating on the Human Rights Campaign's Corporate Equality Index, a measure of how companies treat LGBT employees and customers, has increased greatly during the past decade. The company was praised for expanding its anti-discrimination policy protecting gay and lesbian employees, as well as for a new definition of "family" that included same-sex partners. However, they have been criticized by the HRC in other areas, such as not renewing its membership in the National Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce.
In January 2006, Wal-Mart announced that "diversity efforts include new groups of minority, female and gay employees that meet at Wal-Mart headquarters in Bentonville to advise the company on marketing and internal promotion. There are seven Business Resource Groups: women, African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, Gays and Lesbians, and a disabled group."
In April 2016, Walmart announced that it plans to eliminate eggs from battery cages from its supply chain by 2025. The decision was particularly important because of Walmart's large market share and influence on the rest of the industry. The move was praised by major animal welfare groups and heralded as an "end of an era" by HSUS president Wayne Pacelle, but a poultry trade group representative expressed skepticism about the decision's impact. Walmart's cage-free eggs will not come from free range producers, but rather industrial-scale farms where the birds will be allotted between 1 and 1.5 square feet each, a stressful arrangement which can cause cannibalism. Unlike battery cages, the systems Walmart's suppliers will use allow the hens to move around, but relative to battery cages they have higher hen mortality rates and present distinct environmental and worker health problems.
- Criticism of Walmart
- "Something Wall-Mart This Way Comes" – a 2004 episode of Comedy Central's South Park
- Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price – a 2005 documentary film by director Robert Greenwald
- Wal-Mart camel – a bone fossil of a prehistoric camel found at a future Wal-Mart store in Mesa, Arizona
- Wal-Mart First Tee Open at Pebble Beach – former name of a golf tournament
- Walmarting – a neologism
- Why Wal-Mart Works; and Why That Drives Some People C-R-A-Z-Y – a 2005 rebuttal to the Greenwald documentary
- "Information for Walmart Investors: Unit Counts & Square Footage". Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- "Unit Counts by Country December 31, 2016" (PDF). Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- "Wal Mart Stores Inc 2016 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 21, 2016.
- "Walmart Locations Around the World – United States".
- "Wal-Mart Form 10K: Portions of Annual Report to Shareholders". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
- "Walmart Corporate: Our Business". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Walmart Corporate: United Kingdom". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Form 8K - Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.". NASDAQ. June 20, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- "Walmart 2016 Annual Report" (PDF). stock.walmart.com (PDF). Walmart. p. 19. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- "Walmart 2015 Annual Report" (PDF). stock.walmart.com (PDF). Walmart. p. 19. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "Walmart Corporate: Locations". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Share Ownership". Wal Mart 2013 Proxy statement. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- "Market Cap Rankings". Ycharts. Zacks Investment Research. April 8, 2012. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- "Walmart 2016 Annual Report" (PDF). stock.walmart.com (PDF). Walmart. p. 20. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- Hayes, Thomas C. (February 28, 1990). "COMPANY NEWS; Wal-Mart Net Jumps By 31.8%". The New York Times.
- 1990 Sales Lift Wal-mart Into Top Spot – Sun Sentinel. Articles.sun-sentinel.com (February 15, 1991). Retrieved on December 6, 2013.
- Warner, Susan (October 1, 1990). "A New Battle On The Eastern Front Rivals Are Bracing As Wal-mart Today Opens The First Of Nine Stores Planned For Pennsylvania And New Jersey". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Walton, Sam; Huey, John (1993). Sam Walton: Made in America: My Story. New York: Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-56283-5.
- Richard S. Tedlow (July 23, 2001). "Sam Walton: Great From the Start – HBS Working Knowledge".
- Frank, T.A. (April 1, 2006). "A Brief History of Wal-Mart". Washington Monthly. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
- "The Walmart Museum".
- "Our History". walmart.com. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- "The Rise of Walmart". Frontline: Is Wal-Mart Good for America?. November 16, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- "The Wal-Mart Timeline". Wal-Mart. Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
- Halkias, Maria (October 30, 2005). "Living with Walmart 30 years later, Texas both cheers and fears discount behemoth Lone Star State has been changed, as has giant retailer". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- Ranade, Sudhanshu (July 17, 2005). "Satellite Adds Speed to Wal-Mart". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
- "David Glass Named CEO of Wal-Mart Inc.". Los Angeles Times. February 2, 1988. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Krieg, Katherine (2014). Sam Walton: Founder of the Walmart Empire. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-61783-898-9.
- Byrnes, Nanette; Eidam, Michael (March 29, 2004). "Toys 'R' Us: Beaten at its own game". BusinessWeek. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Hayes, Thomas C. (February 28, 1990). "Wal-Mart Net Jumps By 31.8%". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- Jacques, Peter. (January 1, 1970) Wal-Mart or World-Mart? A Teaching Case Study | Peter Jacques. Academia.edu. Retrieved on December 6, 2013.
- "Timeline: An Overview of Wal-Mart". PBS. August 20, 2004. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- Buerkle, Tom (June 15, 1999). "$10 Billion Gamble in U.K. Doubles Its International Business: Wal-Mart Takes Big Leap into Europe". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- "Wal-Mart Neighborhood Market Locations in Arkansas". Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Mitchell, Stacy (November 7, 2012). "WALMART'S GREENWASH: WHY THE RETAIL GIANT IS STILL UNSUSTAINABLE". Grist.org. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Walmart Annual Report 2000" (PDF). p. 18. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- "Fortune 500 2007". Fortune. April 16, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "Fortune 500 2006". Fortune. April 17, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "Fortune 500 2008". Fortune.
- "Fortune 500 2009". Fortune.
- "Fortune 500 2010". Fortune.
- "Fortune 500 2011". Fortune.
- Zook, Matthew; Graham, Mark (2006). "Wal-Mart Nation: Mapping the Reach of a Retail Colossus". In Brunn, Stanley D. Wal-Mart World: The World's Biggest Corporation in the Global Economy. Routledge. pp. 15–25. ISBN 978-0-415-95137-1.
- Stone, Kenneth E. (1997). "Impact of the Wal-Mart Phenomenon on Rural Communities". (Published in Proceedings: Increased Understanding of Public Problems and Policies – 1997. Chicago, Illinois: Farm Foundation). Iowa State University. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Kenneth E. Stone, Georgeanne Artz and Albert Myles. "The economic impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on existing businesses in Mississippi" (PDF). Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Barbaro, Michael; Gillis, Justin (September 6, 2005). "Wal-Mart at Forefront of Hurricane Relief". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- Kouzes, James; Posner, Barry (July 6, 2010). The Challenge Continues, Participant Workbook: Enable Others to Act. Mark Huffman, ConsumerAffairs.com. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-470-40284-9.
- Bhatnagar, Parija (September 9, 2005). "Wal-Mart redeems itself, but what's next". CNN. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- "Is Wal-Mart Going Green?". MSNBC. October 25, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- Berner, Robert (September 22, 2005). "Can Wal-Mart Wear a White Hat?". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
- Gunther, Mark (July 27, 2006). "Wal-Mart sees green". CNN. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- Souder, Elizabeth (January 28, 2007). "Will Wal-Mart Sell Electricity One Day?". RedOrbit. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Koenig, David (March 22, 2006). "Wal-Mart Targeting Upscale Shoppers". ABC News.
- "Wal-Mart turns attention to upscale shoppers". MSNBC. March 23, 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
- "Wal-Mart rolling out new company slogan". Reuters. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Armin (June 30, 2008). "Less Hyphen, More Burst for Walmart". Brand New. UnderConsideration LLC. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Jana, Reena (July 2, 2008). "Wal-Mart Gets a Facelift". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved July 7, 2008.
- "Walmart Canada changes logo, slashes prices". Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Wal-Mart gives $933 mn bonus to workers". The Economic Times. New York City: Bennett, Coleman & Co. March 20, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
- Maestri, Nicole (March 19, 2009). "Wal-Mart awards $2 billion to U.S. hourly employees". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Updates, advisories and surprises". The Wall Street Journal. January 20, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Bustillo, Miguel (February 22, 2010). "Walmart Re-Enters Digital Downloading of Movies With Purchase of Vudu". The Wall Street Journal.
- Nishimoto, Alex (March 10, 2014). "Walmart Debuts Turbine-Powered WAVE Semi Truck Prototype". Motor Trend.
- "Wal-Mart To Test Hybrid Trucks". Sustainable Business. February 3, 2009.
- Sheryl Gay Stolberg (January 20, 2011). "Walmart Shifts Strategy to Promote Healthy Foods". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- "Wal-Mart tests online grocery delivery in California". Los Angeles Times. April 23, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Wal-Mart launches food subscription service". USA Today. November 14, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Wal-Mart unit seeks stake in Kenyan supermarket Naivas, International: Reuters, August 13, 2013
- Sheridan, Patrick M. (June 4, 2014). "Wal-Mart workers strike in major cities". CNN Money. CNN. Archived from the original on January 26, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
How can you save money if you're not making enough money?
- "Tracy Morgan sues Walmart over New Jersey turnpike crash". New York Statesman. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- McCarthy, Craig (20 March 2015). "Walmart paid out $10M to family of comedian killed in Tracy Morgan crash, reports say". NJ.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Griffith, Janelle; Zambito, Thomas (7 August 2015). "Tracy Morgan, Wal-Mart reach settlement in lawsuit regarding NJ Turnpike accident". NJ.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Sherman, Ted (14 October 2015). "Wal-Mart insurers accused of 'bad faith' in Tracy Morgan case". NJ.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Wal-Mart workers allege layoffs, store closings were retaliatory". Msn.com. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- Zillman, Claire (20 April 2015). "Wal-Mart workers: Store closings due to plumbing are 'retaliatory'". Forbes. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Halkias, Maria (3 September 2015). "Wal-Mart to reopen 5 stores closed for plumbing issues that became a labor dispute". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Verhage, Julie. "Wal-Mart's Stock Got Crushed and Wall Street Has a Few Things to Say About It". Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo!. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
- "Walmart will close 269 stores this year, affecting 16,000 workers". CNN.com. January 16, 2016.
- "Walmart Closing 269 Stores; To Exit Walmart Express – CoStar Group". www.costar.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- "Wal-Mart Leads the Nation in Corporate Solar Deployments. What Will It Do With Storage?". Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "Solar Means Business 2015: Top U.S. Corporate Solar Users". SEIA. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- Hadley Malcolm (August 8, 2016). "Why Walmart is spending $3B for online seller Jet.com". USA Today. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
- Rey, Jason Del (2016-08-08). "Walmart is buying Jet.com for $3 billion". Recode. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
- Roberts, Daniel (19 October 2016). "Walmart to team with IBM (IBM) and Tsinghua University to track the pork supply chain in China using blockchain". Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Pettypiece, Shannon (2016-08-17). "Walmart's Out-of-Control Crime Problem is Driving Police Crazy". Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- ""13.4 MB". 13.4 MB." Walmart. 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- Corporate.walmart.com, (2014). Greg Foran. [online] Available at: http://corporate.walmart.com/our-story/leadership/executive-management/greg-foran [Accessed October 31, 2014].
- Kung, Michelle (September 13, 2007). "Walmart Dumps McDonald's For Subway As In-Store Restaurateur". Huffington Post.
- Welch, David (August 29, 2012). "Walmart to Offer Customers Discount Gas As Prices Rise". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Largest Walmart Supercenter In US Finds Home In Albany NY". Albany.com. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- "Walmart Canada – Corporate Information". Walmartcanada.ca. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- "Wal-Mart shuttering 7-year old Bud's chain". DSN Retailing Today. August 4, 1997. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Walmart woos Hispanics with new Supermercado". Reuters. July 8, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Moreno, Jenalia (April 30, 2009). "Walmart gives Supermercado concept a local tryout". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Wollam, Allison (March 20, 2009). "Walmart chooses Houston as test market for Supermercado de Walmart". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Walsh, Robb (June 8, 2009). "Wal-Mart goes Tex-Mex". Houston Press. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Burwell, Sloane (June 17, 2009). "Viva El Mercado Supermercado De Walmart". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Supermercado de Walmart, America's First and Last Latino-Themed Walmart Grocery Store, Has Closed Down for Good". Swamplot. January 21, 2016.
- Sarah Nassauer and Kate Davidson (January 16, 2016). "Wal-Mart Makes Rare Retreat on Home Turf". WSJ. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Silberner, Joanne (September 21, 2006). "Walmart to Sell Generic Drugs for $4". All Things Considered (NPR). Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- "Pharma firms boost Walmart revenues". Business Standard. June 16, 2008. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
- "Walmart Launches Online Movie Download Service". Fox News Channel. February 6, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Matt Richtel; Brad Stone (January 1, 2008). "Walmart's movie download service passes into ignominy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
- Jarman, Max (October 16, 2011). "Walmart closes its 4 Marketside stores in the Phoenix area.". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Garcia, Tonya. "Wal-Mart expands grocery pickup service to 8 more cities". marketwatch.com. MarketWatch. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Sarah Perez, TechCrunch. "Walmart begins testing 2-day shipping service to take on Amazon Prime." May 12, 2016. May 13, 2016.
- Sarah Halzack (June 29, 2016). "Walmart amps up campaign to take on Amazon Prime". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
- Chang, Lulu (11 July 2016). "Walmart Competes with Amazon.com". Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Sarah Perez, TechCrunch. "Walmart will test last-mile grocery delivery via Uber, Lyft and Deliv." June 2, 2016. June 3, 2016.
- "Walmart International". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Walmart Corporate: Brazil". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "No Brasil." Walmart Brasil. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- "Walmart SEC Form 10-K." U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. January 31, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- Stanford, Duane D. (January 11, 2013). "Wal-Mart names Chile head Ostale chief of Latin America". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Bustillo, Miguel (December 22, 2008). "Wal-Mart offers to acquire Chile's largest grocery chain". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "D&S cambia su razón social por Wal Mart Chile". Diario Financiero. October 28, 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Walmart Canada: Corporate Information". Walmart. Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Walmart Canada Bank launches Walmart Rewards MasterCard". newswire.ca. June 15, 2010. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
- ASDA Careers: All about ASDA Stores. Retrieved August 7, 2011 Archived August 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Daniel, Fran (September 29, 2010). "Head of Walmart tells WFU audience of plans for growth over next 20 years". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Walmart China – Official website". www.wal-martchina.com. Walmart. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Boyle, Matthew (October 13, 2009). "Wal-Mart's painful lessons". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Walmart Corporate – Japan". Walmart. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Jourdan, Adam (July 23, 2015). "Wal-Mart buys out China e-commerce firm Yihaodian in online push". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Giridharadas A., Rai S. "Walmart to Open Hundreds of Stores in India". The New York Times. November 27, 2006. Retrieved November 27, 2006.
- Mathew, Jerin (October 9, 2013). "Wal-Mart to run India wholesale business single-handedly". International Business Times. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Govt allows FDI in multi-brand retail, aviation". The Times Of India. Reuters. September 14, 2012. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012.
- "Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (FC-I Section), Press Note No.5 (2012 Series) – multi brand retail" (PDF). Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. September 20, 2012.
- "Walmart hopes to open first India store in 18 months: Report". The Times of India. September 21, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- "Probe Walmart 'bribe', says opposition". The Times of India. December 11, 2012.
- "US defends Walmart India lobbying". BBC News India. December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Cilfford, Stephanie; Barstow, David (November 15, 2012). "Walmart Inquiry Reflects Alarm on Corruption". New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Bajaj, Vikas (November 23, 2012). "India Unit of Walmart Suspends Employees". New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Bharti, Wal-Mart end joint venture". October 10, 2013.
- "Metro übernimmt Walmart". (in German). ka-news. August 3, 2006
- "Schnitte". (in German). Die Zeit.
- "In Deutschland ein Zwerg". (in German). Stern. February 18, 2005.
- "Auch Walmart-Mitarbeiter dürfen lieben". Stern (in German). November 15, 2005.
- "Walmart-Mitarbeiter dürfen flirten" (in German). Die Welt. November 15, 2005.
- "Walmart Abandons German Venture". BBC News. July 28, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- "Spiegel: "Warum der US-Titan scheiterte" (in German). Der Spiegel. July 28, 2006.
- David Barstow (April 21, 2012). "Vast Mexican Bribery Case Hushed Up by Walmart After High-Level Struggle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- James C. McKinley, Jr. (September 28, 2004). "No, the Conquistadors Are Not Back. It's Just Walmart.". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Lydia Dishman (April 22, 2012). "What Walmart Might Do With Allegations of Bribery in Mexico". Forbes. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- Hartung, Adam. "WalMart's Mexican Bribery Scandal Will Sink It Like an Iceberg Sank the Titanic". Forbes. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Barstow, David; von Bertrab, Alejandra Xanic (December 17, 2012). "The Bribery Aisle: How Wal-Mart Got Its Way in Mexico". New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- Clifford, Stephanie; Barnstow, David (November 15, 2012). "Wal-Mart inquiry relects alarm on corruption". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Brown, Abram (November 15, 2012). "Wal-Mart bribery probe expands past Mexico to Brazil, China and India". Forbes. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Sharma, Malavika (December 5, 2012). "India government agency probes Wal-Mart investments". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Thirani, Neha; Kumar, Hari (December 7, 2012). "Fact-Checking the F.D.I. Debates". New York Times / International Herald Tribune. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Dotcomol". www.dotcomol.com. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "About Sam's Club". Sam's Club. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- Lohr, Steve (March 10, 2009). "Walmart Plans to Market Digital Health Records System". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Stone, Brad (February 22, 2010). "Walmart Buying Vudu Movie Service". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- Bustillo, Miguel; Talley, Karen (August 29, 2011). "For Walmart, a Rare Online Success". The Wall Street Journal. p. B1.
- "Sam's Choice Climbs Beverage Brand List – Walmart's Sam's American Choice Beverage Brand". Discount Store News. October 4, 1993. Retrieved April 20, 2007.[dead link]
- Reyes, Sonia (August 21, 2006). "Study: Walmart Private Brands Are Catching On". Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Walmart Pushing Limited $199 Kinect Pre-Order Bundle". PCWorld. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- McNamara, Mary (July 16, 2010). "Television review: 'The Jensen Project'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Kiesewette, John. "Second P&G Family Friendly Movie Airs July 16 On NBC". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Stanley, T.L. (June 22, 2010). "Advertisers earmark $10 million for family-friendly TV". Los Angeles Times.
- O'Keefe, Brian (June 4, 2015). "The man who's reinventing Walmart". Fortune magazine. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- Kendall, Gerald I. (1998). Securing the future: strategies for exponential growth using the theory of constraints. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 106. ISBN 1-57444-197-3. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- "Wal-Mart Replaces Blue Vests". ABC News. June 18, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- SANCHEZ, KARIZZA (September 2, 2014). "Walmart Employees Are Pissed About the Company's Swagless New Dress Code". Complex. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- Lanning, Curt (September 5, 2014). "Walmart Changes Up Dress Code For Employees". 5 News Online. KFSM. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- Berman, Jillian (September 10, 2014). "Walmart Workers Complain They Can't Afford New Dress Code". The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- Nelson, Emily (April 20, 2001). "Too Many Choices – Nine Kinds of Kleenex Tissue, Eggo Waffles in 16 Flavors: Blame Brand Managers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- Staff Writer. Wal-Mart Will Phase Out Layaway Program", Wal-Mart. September 14, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
- "Minnesota-Based Mississippi Valley Fruit Company Teams with Wal-Mart to Celebrate America's Farmers". Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- McCarthy, Caroline (March 6, 2007). "Free Shipping from Walmart.com ... with Store Pickup". CNET. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "The World's Biggest Public Companies". Forbes. April 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- Sorkin, Andrew R.; Rusli, Evelyn M. (July 16, 2012). "A Yahoo Search Calls Up a Chief From Google.". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Harkavy, Ward (May 24, 2000). "Wal-Mart's First Lady". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on March 1, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
- Boulden, Jennifer (January 31, 2006). "Wal-Mart Former Vice Chairman Coughlin Admits Fraud". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
- Samedi. "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.". Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Soderquist, Donald (April 19, 2005). "The Wal-mart Way: The Inside Story of the Success of the World's Largest Company" (2nd ed.). Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-0-7852-6119-3.
- Tuttle, Brad (August 7, 2013). "Meet the Low-Key, Low-Cost Grocery Chain Being Called 'Walmart's Worst Nightmare'". TIME. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Stilgoe, John (November 23, 2003). "Wal-Mart Giant Can Be Tamed". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 11, 2006.
- Berner, Robert (May 10, 2004). "Out-Discounting the Discounter". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012.
- Ewing, Jack (April 11, 2005). "Wal-Mart: Struggling in Germany". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2006.
- Fairlamb, David; Laura Cohn (October 6, 2003). "A Bumpy Ride in Europe =". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2006.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (May 23, 2006). "Wal-Mart Selling Stores and Leaving South Korea". The New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- Ann, Carrie. "Walmart: Low Prices, Big Numbers". IndustryLeaders. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Barbaro, Michael (March 2, 2007). "It's Not Only about Price at Wal-Mart". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- "Wal Mart De Mexico, S.A. De C.V. Business Information, Profile, and History". Jrank. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Gardner, Sheldon. "Group protests at local Walmart". Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Birchall, Jonathan; Yeager, Holly (August 17, 2006). "A Purchase on Psephology" (US ed.). Financial Times. p. 9.
- Cox, Daniel (August 7, 2014). "Target's Support for Same-sex Marriage Mirrors Customers' Views". Public Religion Research Institute. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Gilgoff, Dan (July 24, 2012). "9 religious companies (besides Chick-fil-A)". CNN. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
And the company's Arkansas roots helped sensitize it to the shopping habits of churchgoers. It helps explain why Walmart long carries the kind of Christian books that were once the exclusive province of Christian bookstores. "You don't find those kinds of things in J.C. Penney," Lambert says. But Walmart has been so successful with such material that it's now become a business threat to Christian booksellers.
- Sellers, Jeff M. (April 22, 2005). "Deliver Us from Wal-Mart?". Christianity Today. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
Indeed, based in the Bible Belt town of Bentonville, Arkansas, Wal-Mart has a tradition of tailoring its service to churchgoing customers. It sells only the sanitized versions of hip-hop cds bearing warnings of objectionable content. Responding to a campaign by the largest evangelical mutual fund group, The Timothy Plan, to keep Cosmopolitan magazine covers out of view of Wal-Mart customers, the company slapped plastic sheathes over suggestive women's periodicals and banned "lad mags" such as Maxim.
- Coolidge, Carrie (September 15, 2012). "David Vs. Goliath". Forbes. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
Wal-Mart Stores has seen the light. The world's biggest retailer has discovered Christian-themed merchandise is one of the fastest-growing categories around. With offerings ranging from best-selling books and videos including The Purpose Driven Life and Veggie Tales, Wal-Mart's annual sales from Christian-themed merchandise, which is estimated to already exceed $1 billion annually, is growing at a rapid pace. On a company-wide basis, Wal-Mart now offers 550 different Christian music titles and more than 1,200 Christian book titles.
- Sellers, Jeff M. (April 22, 2005). "Deliver Us from Wal-Mart?". Christianity Today. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
In addition, according to Forbes magazine, Wal-Mart has become the largest retailer of Christian-themed merchandise, with well over $1 billion in sales of such items as VeggieTales videos and The Purpose-Driven Life books.
- "Report: Wal-Mart to adopt new custom-fit retail approach". Reuters. September 7, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Wal-Mart Hit by 'Brokeback' Protest". Imdb. Archived from the original on March 21, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Alex Grigoryan. "Walmart Labs - Github". Github. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- "Introducing Electrode, an open source release from @WalmartLabs". Retrieved 4 November 2016.
Electrode is a platform for building universal React/Node.js applications with standardized structure, best practices, and modern technologies baked in. Electrode focuses on performance, component reusability, and simple deployment to multiple cloud providers—so you can focus on what makes your app unique.
- Grigoryan, Alex. "Alex Grigoryan - Medium". Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- "Introducing Electrode, an open source release from @WalmartLabs". Medium. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
In less than one year, Walmart.com has completed its migration to React/Node.js and we are proud of that accomplishment! The goal was to build a new application platform to help @WalmartLabs and its engineers scale for the future.
- Chris V. Nicholson, The New York Times. "Wal-Mart Buys Social Media Firm Kosmix." Apr 19, 2011. Retrieved Dec 7, 2016.
- HAYS, CONSTANCE L. (November 14, 2004). "What Wal-Mart Knows About Customers' Habits". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "A CASE STUDY OF WALMART" (PDF). Center for Media Justice. November 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Berman, Jillian (November 26, 2013). "Walmart Now Possesses Info On An Estimated 145 Million Americans: Analysis". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Lichtenstein, Nelson (July 21, 2009). The Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Created a Brave New World of Business. Macmillan. p. 279. ISBN 9781429989718. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Walton, Sam (September 12, 2012). Sam Walton: Made In America. Random House LLC. pp. 299–306. ISBN 9780307763693. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Featherstone, Liza (November 21, 2005). "Wal-Mart Charity Evaluated: Critics question company's motives". The Nation. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Julie Wernau (July 4, 2010). "Wal-Mart Impact: Pop Price War Warns of Wal-Mart Impact for Chicago". Chicago Tribune.
- Mui, Ylan Q. (June 23, 2008). "When Wal-Mart Moves In, Neighborhood Businesses Suffer. Right?". The Washington Post.
- Haltiwanger, John. "Mom-And-Pop Meet Big Box: Compliments or Substitutes?" (PDF). National Bureau of Economics. National Bureau of Economics. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- Patel, Amar. "Going Local" (PDF). Maine Center for Economic Policy. Maine Center for Economic Policy. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- Kabel, Marcus. "Wal-Mart, Critics Slam Each Other on Web". The Washington Post. July 18, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- Sellers, Jeff M. (April 22, 2005). "Women Against Wal-Mart". Christianity Today. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- Sellers, Jeff M. (April 22, 2005). "Deliver Us from Wal-Mart?". Christianity Today. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- Norman, Al (2004). The Case Against Wal-Mart. Raphel Marketing, p. 7. ISBN 0-9711542-3-6.
- Hodal, Kate; Chris Kelly; Felicity Lawrence (June 10, 2014). "Revealed: Asian slave labour producing prawns for supermarkets in US, UK". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
Charoen Pokphand (CP) Foods, buys fishmeal, which it feeds to its farmed prawns, from some suppliers that own, operate or buy from fishing boats manned with slaves. … CP Foods admits that slave labour is part of its supply chain.
- Copeland, Larry. (March 13, 2006). "Wal-Mart's hired advocate takes flak". USA Today. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- Rodino Associates. (October 28, 2003). "Final Report on Research for Big Box Retail/Superstore Ordinance". Los Angeles City Council. Retrieved July 31, 2006. Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Smith, Hedrick. "Who Calls the Shots in the Global Economy?" PBS. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
- "US productivity growth, 1995–2000". McKinsey Global Institute. October 2001. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012.
- Ghemawat, Pankaj; Ken A. Mark (August 23, 2006). "The Real Wal-Mart Effect". Harvard Business School. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012.
- Clark, Robert E. (June 26, 2007). "The Wal-Mart effect: Its Chinese imports have displaced nearly 200,000 U.S. jobs". Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- Basker, Emek (2002). "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion" (PDF). University of Missouri. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Goetz, Stephan J.; Hema Swaminathan (October 18, 2004). "Wal-Mart and County-Wide Poverty". Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Patel, R. (September 18, 2007). "Food Glorious Food". Radio National. Retrieved April 10, 2009.
- Mallaby, Sebastian (November 28, 2005). "Progressive Wal-Mart. Really". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Hausman, Jerry; Ephraim Leibtag (October 2005). "Consumer Benefits from Increased Competition in Shopping Outlets: Measuring the Effect of Wal-Mart". MIT/United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Kirklin, Paul. (June 28, 2006). "The Ultimate pro-WalMart Article". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
- Sobel, Russell S.; Andrea M. Dean. "Has Wal-Mart Buried Mom and Pop?: The Impact of Wal-Mart on Self Employment and Small Establishments in the United States." West Virginia University. Retrieved August 4, 2006. SSRN 986362
- Will, George (September 14, 2006). "Democrats Vs. Wal-Mart". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 24, 2012.
- D G McCullough. "Is 'made in the USA' really the most sustainable way to manufacture? | Guardian Sustainable Business". Theguardian.com. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- Semuels, Alana (November 19, 2013). "Fully staffed NLRB investigates complaints against Wal-Mart". latimes.com. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "Store Wars: When Wal-Mart Comes to Town". PBS. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Keil, Stanley R., Spector, Lee C. The Impact of Walmart on Income and Unemployment Differentials in Alabama. Review of Regional Studies; Winter 2005, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p336-355, 20p.
- U.S. Largest Employers. Retrieved: August 5, 2013.
- Hiroko Tabuchi and Michael Barbaro (April 1, 2015). "Walmart Emerges as Unlikely Social Force". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
the nation's largest private sector employer of African-American workers.
- Investors brace for more 'Walmart raises'. Retrieved: February 23, 2015.
- Greenhouse, Steven (February 7, 2007). "Court approves class-action suit against Wal-Mart". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Petitioner v. Betty Dukes et al." (PDF). United States Supreme Court. June 20, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Lennard, Natasha (June 20, 2011). "The Supreme Court sides with Wal-Mart". Salon. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Clifford, Stephanie (June 20, 2011). "Despite Setback, Plaintiffs to Pursue Wal-Mart Cases". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Conlin, Michelle (July 16, 2001). "Is Wal-Mart hostile to women?". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Zellner, Wendy (March 3, 2003). "No way to treat a lady?". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- Malanga, Steven. "The Tort Plague Hits Wal-Mart". City Journal. Retrieved February 23, 2009.
- Moller, Mark (Summer 2007). "The Anti- Constitutional Culture of Class Action Law" (PDF). Regulation. pp. 50–58. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- Dreiband, Eric S. (January 7, 2006). "Willie Sutton Was a Piker". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- "Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Recognized As Top Company For Executive Women by the National Association For Female Executives" (Press release). Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. April 3, 2007.
- Kershaw, Sarah (July 2, 2003). "Wal-Mart Sets a New Policy That Protects Gay Workers". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- "HRC Applauds Wal-Mart's Inclusive Family Policy (press release)". Human Rights Campaign. January 27, 2005. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
- "Corporate Equality Index". Human Rights Campaign. 2006. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved November 2, 2006.
- "Corporate Equality Index 2016: Rating American Workplaces on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Equality" (PDF) (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. p. 69. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
- "Whoopi Defends Sudan Over Muhammad Teddy". Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Carlisle, John. "Wal-Mart Embraces Controversial Causes" (PDF). National Legal and Policy Center. p. 23. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Chan, Melissa. "Walmart Will Sell Completely Cage-Free Eggs by 2025". TIME. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Kell, John. "Walmart Is the Latest Retailer to Make a Cage-Free Egg Vow". Fortune. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Turner, Nick (5 April 2016). "Wal-Mart Will Switch to All Cage-Free Eggs by 2025". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Amelinckx, Andrew. "Walmart Vows to Purchase All Eggs from Cage-Free Sources By 2025". Modern Farmer. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Pacelle, Wayne. "Walmart's Decision to Switch to Cage-Free Eggs Signals End of Era of Extreme Confinement for Hens". AlterNet. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Gelles, David. "Eggs That Clear the Cages, but Maybe Not the Conscience". New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Barstow, Davie (December 18, 2012). "Wal-Mart Abroad". The New York Times. New York: The New York Times Company.
- Fishman, Charles (2006). The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World's Most Powerful Company Really Works—and How It's Transforming the American Economy. New York: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-076-2.
- Gereffi, Gary; Michelle, Christian (2009). "The Impacts of Wal-Mart: The Rise and Consequences of the World's Dominant Retailer". Annual Review of Sociology. 35: 573–591. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115947.
- Ingram, Paul; Yue, Lori Qingyuan; Rao, Hayagreeva (July 2010). "Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal‐Mart, 1998–2007". American Journal of Sociology. University of Chicago Press. 116 (1): 53–92. doi:10.1086/653596. JSTOR 653596.
- Lichtenstein, Nelson (2009). The Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Created a Brave New World of Business. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-7966-1.
- Vance, Sandra Stringer; Scott, Roy V. (1997). Wal-Mart: A History of Sam Walton's Retail Phenomenon. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9832-6.
- Peled, Micha (2001). Store Wars: When Wal-Mart Comes to Town.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wal-Mart.|
|Wikinews has related news: Wal-Mart|