Ed Wood

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Ed Wood
Ed Wood photo.jpg
BornEdward Davis Wood Jr.
(1924-10-10)October 10, 1924
Poughkeepsie, New York, U.S.
DiedDecember 10, 1978(1978-12-10) (aged 54)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Other namesDaniel Davis, Ann Gora, Edward D. Wood Jr., Adkov Telmig
OccupationFilmmaker, author, actor
Years active1947–1978
Spouse(s)
Norma McCarty (m. 1955–1956)
(annulled)
Kathy O'Hara (m. 1959–1978)
Military career
AllegianceUnited States
Service/branchUnited States Marine Corps
Years of service1942–46
RankCorporal
Battles/warsWorld War II:

Edward Davis Wood Jr. (October 10, 1924 – December 10, 1978) was an American filmmaker, actor, and author.

In the 1950s, Wood made a number of low-budget films in the science fiction, crime and horror genres, intercutting stock footage. In the 1960s and 1970s, he made sexploitation movies and wrote over 80 pulp crime, horror and sex novels. In 1975, he was awarded a Golden Turkey Award as Worst Director of All Time, renewing public interest in his work.[1] Wood's career and camp approach has earned him and his films a cult following.

Following the publication of Rudolph Grey's 1992 oral biography Nightmare of Ecstasy: The Life and Art of Edward D. Wood Jr., the public took a greater interest in Wood, leading up to director Tim Burton's biopic of Wood's life, Ed Wood (1994), a critically acclaimed film starring Johnny Depp as Wood that earned two Academy Awards.

Early years[edit]

Wood's father, Edward Sr., worked for the U.S. Postal Service as a custodian, and his family relocated numerous times around the United States. Eventually, they settled in Poughkeepsie, New York, where Ed Wood Jr. was born in 1924. According to Wood's second wife, Kathy O'Hara, Wood's mother Lillian would dress him in girl's clothing when he was a child because she had always wanted a daughter.[2] For the rest of his life, Wood crossdressed, infatuated with the feel of Angora on his skin.[3][4]

During his childhood, Wood was interested in the performing arts and pulp fiction. He collected comics and pulp magazines, and adored movies, most notably Westerns, serials, and anything involving the occult. Buck Jones and Bela Lugosi were two of his earliest childhood idols. He would often skip school in favor of watching pictures at the local movie theater, where stills from the day's movie would often be thrown in the trash by theater staff, allowing Wood to salvage them to add to his extensive collection.

On his 12th birthday, in 1936, Wood received as a gift his first movie camera, a Kodak "Cine Special". One of his first pieces of footage, and one that imbued him with pride, showed the airship Hindenburg passing over the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, shortly before its historic crash at Lakehurst, New Jersey. One of Wood's first paid jobs was as a cinema usher, and he also sang and played drums in a band. He later fronted a singing quartet called "Eddie Wood's Little Splinters", having learned to play a variety of string instruments.

Military service[edit]

In 1942, Wood enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, just months after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Assigned to the 2nd Defense Battalions, he reached the rank of corporal before he was discharged. He was involved in the Battle of Tarawa, among others, and during the war, he lost his two front teeth to a Japanese soldier's rifle butt and was shot several times in the leg by a machine gunner (shown false in The Unknown War of Edward D. Wood Jr.: 1942–1946 by James Pontolillo). Wood later claimed that he feared being wounded in battle more than he feared being killed.

Career[edit]

Directing and screenwriting[edit]

In 1947, Wood moved to Hollywood, California, where he wrote scripts and directed television pilots, commercials and several forgotten micro-budget westerns with names such as Crossroads of Laredo and Crossroad Avenger: The Legend of the Tucson Kid. In 1948, Wood wrote, produced, directed, and starred in Casual Company, a play derived from his unpublished novel, which was based on his service in the United States Marine Corps. It opened at the Village Playhouse to negative reviews on October 25.[5]

In 1952, Wood was introduced to actor Bela Lugosi by friend and fellow writer-producer Alex Gordon, Wood's roommate at the time, who went on to help create American International Pictures. Lugosi's son, Bela Lugosi Jr., has been among those who felt Wood exploited the senior Lugosi's stardom, taking advantage of the fading actor when he could not refuse any work,[6] while most documents and interviews with other Wood associates in Nightmare of Ecstasy suggest that Wood and Lugosi were genuine friends and that Wood helped Lugosi through the worst days of his depression and addiction. Lugosi had become dependent on morphine as a way of controlling his debilitating sciatica over the years, and was in a horrendous physical state.[7]

Wood billed himself under a number of different pseudonyms, including Ann Gora (in reference to Angora, his favorite female textile) and Akdov Telmig (the backwards form of his favorite drink, the vodka gimlet).

Glen or Glenda[edit]

In 1953 Wood wrote and directed the exploitation semi-documentary film Glen or Glenda (originally titled I Changed My Sex!) with producer George Weiss. The film starred Wood (under the alias "Daniel Davis"), his girlfriend Dolores Fuller, and Lugosi (in voiceover) as the god-like narrator. The film, loosely based on transgender woman Christine Jorgensen, was panned by critics (then and now), and considered one of Wood's worst films, though many others have praised its camp qualities. It is notable for its emphatic and groundbreaking portrayal of LGBT issues at a time when the media was very hostile to such ideas.

Jail Bait[edit]

In 1954, Wood directed and produced a crime film, Jail Bait (originally titled The Hidden Face), along with co-writer Alex Gordon, which starred Lyle Talbot and Steve Reeves (in one of his first acting jobs). Bela Lugosi was supposed to play the lead role of the plastic surgeon, but was busy working on another film project when filming started and had to bow out.

Bride of the Monster[edit]

In 1955 Wood produced and directed the horror film Bride of the Monster (originally titled Bride of the Atom), based on an original story idea by Alex Gordon which he called The Atomic Monster.[8] It starred Bela Lugosi, Swedish wrestler Tor Johnson, and Loretta King.

Following the making of the film, Lugosi admitted himself to the state hospital for treatment of his drug addiction.

Plan 9 from Outer Space[edit]

In 1956 Wood produced, wrote, and directed the science fiction film Plan 9 from Outer Space (originally titled Grave Robbers from Outer Space), which starred Lugosi (in his final film role; Lugosi died during production), Tor Johnson, Vampira (Maila Nurmi), Tom Mason (who doubled for Lugosi in several scenes), and the Amazing Criswell as the film's narrator. Plan 9 premiered (as Grave Robbers) at a very small screening in 1957, was only released theatrically under the title Plan Nine from Outer Space in 1959, and was finally sold to late night television in 1961, thereby finding its audience over the years.

It became Wood's best-known film and received a cult following after 1980, when Michael Medved declared this film "the worst film ever made" in his book The Golden Turkey Awards.

The Violent Years[edit]

In 1956 Wood wrote and produced the exploitation film The Violent Years (originally titled Teenage Girl Gang) with director William M. Morgan, starring Playboy model Jean Moorhead.

Night of the Ghouls[edit]

In 1958 Wood wrote, produced, and directed Night of the Ghouls (originally titled Revenge of the Dead), starring Kenne Duncan, Tor Johnson (as "Lobo" from Bride of the Monster), Criswell, Duke Moore, and Valda Hansen. The film may have been released marginally in March 1959, and then promptly vanished from sight for nearly three decades. For many years, it was thought to be a lost film but it was rediscovered and finally released on home video in 1984. (In 1958, Wood also co-wrote the screenplay for The Bride and the Beast (1958), which was directed by Adrian Weiss.)

The Sinister Urge[edit]

In 1960[9], Wood wrote and directed the exploitation film The Sinister Urge (originally titled Racket Queen), starring Kenne Duncan, Duke Moore, and Carl Anthony. Filmed in just five days, this is the last mainstream film Wood directed, although it has grindhouse elements. The film contains an "eerily prescient"[10] scene, in which Carl Anthony's character states, "I look at this slush, and I try to remember, at one time, I made good movies". Wood's own career soon spiraled downward into a blur of "smut racket" nudie cutie flicks, softcore pornography and X-rated novels and films.

The scenes of teenagers at a pizza place had been shot in 1956 for Wood's unfinished juvenile delinquency film Rock and Roll Hell (a.k.a. Hellborn). This includes a fight scene performed by Ed Wood (uncredited) and actor Conrad Brooks.

Orgy of the Dead[edit]

In 1963 Wood wrote the screenplay for Shotgun Wedding (an exploitation film about hillbillies marrying child brides) and his 1965 transitional film Orgy of the Dead (originally titled Nudie Ghoulies), combining the horror and grindhouse skin-flick genres. Wood handled various production details while Stephen C. Apostolof directed under the pseudonym A. C. Stephen. The film begins with a recreation of the opening scene from the then-unreleased Night of the Ghouls. Criswell, wearing one of Lugosi's old capes, rises from his coffin to deliver an introduction taken almost word-for-word from the previous film. Set in a misty graveyard, the Lord of the Dead (Criswell) and his sexy consort, the Black Ghoul (a Vampira look-alike), preside over a series of macabre performances by topless dancers from beyond the grave (recruited by Wood from local strip clubs). The film also features a Wolf Man and a Mummy. Together, Wood and Apostolof went on to make a string of sexploitation films up to 1977. Wood co-wrote the screenplays and occasionally acted. Venus Flytrap (1970) aka The Revenge of Dr. X, a US/Japan horror film, was based on an unproduced Ed Wood screenplay from the 1950s.[11]

Necromania[edit]

In 1969, Wood appeared in The Photographer (a.k.a. Love Feast or Pretty Models All in a Row), the first of two films produced by a Marine buddy, Joseph F. Robertson, portraying a photographer using his position to engage in sexual antics with models. He had a smaller role in Robertson's second film, Mrs. Stone's Thing, as a transvestite who spends his time at a party trying on lingerie in a bedroom.

In 1970, Wood made his own pornographic film, Take It Out in Trade, a softcore take on Philip Marlowe detective films. The following year, he produced, wrote, and directed Necromania (sometimes subtitled A Tale of Weird Love) under the pseudonym "Don Miller". The film was an early entry to the new subgenre of hardcore pornographic film. Thought lost for years, it resurfaced in edited form on Mike Vraney's Something Weird imprint in the late 1980s, then was re-released on DVD by Fleshbot Films in 2005.

Throughout the 1970s, Wood worked with friend Stephen C. Apostolof, usually co-writing scripts, but also serving as an assistant director and associate producer. (Together they had made Wood's Orgy of the Dead in 1965.) His last known on-screen appearance was in Apostolof's Fugitive Girls (a.k.a. Five Loose Women) in 1974, where he played both a gas station attendant called "Pops" and a sheriff on the women's trail.

Books and novels[edit]

Beginning in the early 1960s up until his death, Wood wrote at least 80 lurid crime and sex novels in addition to hundreds of short stories and non-fiction pieces for magazines and daily newspapers. Thirty-two stories known to be written by Wood (he sometimes wrote under pseudonyms such as "Ann Gora" and "Dr. T.K. Peters") are collected in Blood Splatters Quickly, published by OR Books in 2014. Novels include Black Lace Drag (1963) (reissued in 1965 as Killer in Drag), Orgy of the Dead (1965), Devil Girls (1967), Death of a Transvestite (1967), The Sexecutives (1968), The Photographer (1969), Take It Out in Trade (1970), The Only House in Town (1970), Necromania (1971), The Undergraduate (1972), A Study of Fetishes and Fantasies (1973) and Fugitive Girls (1974).

In Nightmare of Ecstasy, Maila Nurmi said she declined Wood's offer to do a nude scene sitting in a coffin for the film version of his Necromania, claiming she was recovering from a major stroke at the time.[12]

In 1965, Wood wrote the quasi-memoir Hollywood Rat Race, which was eventually published in 1998. In it, Wood advises new writers to "just keep on writing. Even if your story gets worse, you'll get better", and also recounts tales of dubious authenticity, such as how he and Bela Lugosi entered the world of nightclub cabaret.

Personal life[edit]

Relationships and marriages[edit]

Wood had a long-term relationship with actress and songwriter Dolores Fuller, whom he met in late 1952. The two lived together for a time and Wood cast Fuller in three of his films: Glen or Glenda, Jail Bait, and Bride of the Monster. Fuller later said she initially had no idea that Wood was a crossdresser and was mortified when she saw Wood dressed as a woman in Glen or Glenda. The couple broke up in 1955 after Wood cast another actress in the lead role of Bride of the Monster (Wood originally wrote the part for Fuller and reduced her part to a 1-minute cameo) and because of Wood's excessive drinking.[13]

While making Bride of the Monster in late 1955, Wood married Norma McCarty. McCarty appeared as Edie, the airplane stewardess in Plan 9 from Outer Space. The marriage was annulled in 1956.[14]

Wood married his second wife, Kathy O'Hara, in 1959. They remained married until Wood's death in 1978.[15] Kathy died on June 26, 2006, having never remarried.[15]

Cross-dressing[edit]

In Wood's 1992 biography Nightmare of Ecstasy: The Life and Art of Edward D. Wood Jr., Wood's wife Kathy recalls that Wood told her that his mother dressed him in girls' clothing as a child.[2] Kathy stated that Wood's transvestism was not a sexual inclination, but rather a neomaternal comfort derived mainly from angora fabric (angora is featured in many of Wood's films).[16] Even in his later years, Wood was not shy about going out in public dressed in drag as Shirley, his female alter ego (who also appeared in many of his screenplays and stories).[17]

Death[edit]

By 1978, Wood's depression had worsened, and he and his wife Kathy had both become alcoholics. They were evicted from their Hollywood apartment on Yucca Street on Thursday, December 7, 1978 in total poverty. The couple moved into the North Hollywood apartment of their friend, actor Peter Coe. Wood spent the weekend drinking vodka. Around noon on Sunday, December 10, Wood felt ill and went to lie down in Coe's bedroom. From the bedroom, he asked Kathy to bring him a drink, which she refused to do. A few minutes later he yelled out, "Kathy, I can't breathe!", a plea Kathy ignored as she later said she was tired of Wood's bossing her around. After hearing no movement in the bedroom for 20 minutes, Kathy sent a friend to check on Wood, who discovered him dead from a heart attack. Kathy later said, "I still remember when I went into that room that afternoon and he was dead, his eyes and mouth were wide open. I'll never forget the look in his eyes. He clutched at the sheets. It looked like he'd seen hell".[18]

Wood was cremated, and his ashes were scattered at sea.[19]

Legacy and homages[edit]

In 1986 in an essay paying homage to Wood in Incredibly Strange Films, Jim Morton wrote: "Eccentric and individualistic, Edward D. Wood Jr. was a man born to film. Lesser men, if forced to make movies under the conditions Wood faced, would have thrown up their hands in defeat".[20]

In 1994 director Tim Burton released the biopic Ed Wood, starring Johnny Depp in the title role and Martin Landau, who won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Bela Lugosi. It also won an Academy Award for Best Makeup for Rick Baker. Conrad Brooks appeared in the movie, in a cameo role of Barman. The film received mass critical acclaim, but did poorly at the box office. It has since developed a cult following.

In 1996 Reverend Steve Galindo of Seminole, Oklahoma, created a legally recognized religion with Wood as its official savior.[21] Founded as a joke, the Church of Ed Wood now boasts more than 3,500 baptized followers. Woodites, as Steve's followers are called, celebrate "Woodmas" on October 10, which is Ed's birthday. Numerous parties and concerts are held worldwide to celebrate Woodmas. On October 4[22]–5, 2003,[23] horror host Mr. Lobo was canonized as the "Patron Saint of late night movie hosts and insomniacs" in the Church of Ed Wood.[22][23]

In 1997 the University of Southern California began holding an annual Ed Wood Film Festival, in which student teams are challenged to write, film, and edit an Ed Wood-inspired short film based on a preassigned theme. Past themes have included Rebel Without a Bra (2004), What's That in Your Pocket? (2005), and Slippery When Wet (2006).[24]

In popular culture[edit]

From 1993 to 1994, three of Wood's films (Bride of the Monster, The Violent Years, and The Sinister Urge) were featured on the television series Mystery Science Theater 3000, which gave those works wider exposure. Producers of MST3K considered including Plan 9, but found it had too much dialogue for the show's format.

In 1998, Wood's previously unfilmed script I Woke Up Early the Day I Died was finally produced, starring Billy Zane and Christina Ricci, with appearances by Tippi Hedren, Bud Cort, Sandra Bernhard, Karen Black, John Ritter and many others. Outside of a brief New York theatrical engagement, the film did not receive a commercial release in the United States, and was only available on video in Germany due to contractual difficulties.

In 2001, horror film director and heavy metal musician Rob Zombie released The Sinister Urge, which is titled after Wood's film.

In 2002, American horror-punk supergroup Murderdolls released the album Beyond the Valley of the Murderdolls, which features the single "Dead in Hollywood" and makes a reference to Wood with the lyrics, "You can knock on Ed Wood, but it won't do you no good/Cause all of my heroes are dead in Hollywood."

In 2005, the Plan 9 cast were lampooned in an episode of the television series Deadly Cinema; the following year, clips of this episode were featured in the documentary Vampira: The Movie.[25]

In 2006, MST3K head writer and host Michael J. Nelson recorded an audio commentary track for a DVD release of a colorized version of Plan 9 from Outer Space.[26] In 2009, Nelson and fellow MST3K alums Kevin Murphy and Bill Corbett mocked Plan 9 again in their very first RiffTrax Live event, coinciding with the film's 50th anniversary.

In 2012, director John Johnson announced plans to film a remake of Plan 9 From Outer Space, released straight-to-DVD in 2015.

In 2017 "Dreamer- the Ed Wood musical" was produced by award-winning composer Rick Tell.

Documentaries[edit]

  • Flying Saucers Over Hollywood: The Plan 9 Companion, was released in 1992. This exhaustive two-hour documentary by Mark Patrick Carducci chronicles the making of Plan 9 from Outer Space and features interviews with Maila Nurmi (Vampira), Paul Marco, Conrad Brooks, et al. In 2000, Image Entertainment included the documentary on the DVD reissue of Plan 9 from Outer Space (in a two-disc set with Robot Monster).
  • Ed Wood: Look Back in Angora, released in 1994 by Rhino Home Video, is a one-hour documentary on Wood's life and films. This includes rare outtakes and interviews with Dolores Fuller, Kathy Wood, Stephen Apostolof, and Conrad Brooks. Gary Owens narrates; Ted Newsom wrote and directed.
  • The Haunted World of Edward D. Wood Jr., written and directed by Brett Thompson, came out in 1995. This documentary about the life and films of Ed Wood features interviews with Wood's friends and co-workers and closely resembles Wood's own style, albeit with slightly better miniatures.
  • The Incredibly Strange Film Show presented by Jonathan Ross.

Lost films[edit]

Wood's 1972 film The Undergraduate is considered to be a lost film, as was his 1970 film Take It Out in Trade. An 80-minute print of Take It Out In Trade was later discovered and publicly exhibited at Anthology Film Archives in New York City in September 2014.[27][28] Silent outtakes from the film were released by Something Weird Video.[1]

Wood's 1971 film Necromania was also believed lost for years, until an edited version resurfaced, at a yard sale in 1992, followed by a complete unedited print in 2001. A complete print of the previously lost Wood pornographic film, The Young Marrieds, was discovered in 2004. It was released as a part of the four DVD set, The Lost Sex Films of Ed Wood Jr., by Alpha Blue Archives in July 2014.[28]

Collaborations[edit]

Actors[edit]

Glen or
Glenda
Crossroad
Avenger
Jail Bait Bride of
the Monster
Final
Curtain
Plan 9 from
Outer Space
Night of
the Ghouls
The
Sinister
Urge
Take It Out
in Trade
Crossroads of
Laredo
Total
Criswell
NoN
NoN
2
Carl Anthony
NoN
NoN
2
Conrad Brooks
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
6
Kenne Duncan
NoN
NoN
NoN
3
Harvey B. Dunn
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
4
Timothy Farrell
NoN
NoN
2
Dolores Fuller
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
4
Tor Johnson
NoN
NoN
NoN
3
Tom Keene
NoN
NoN
2
Bela Lugosi
NoN
NoN
NoN
3
Dudley Manlove
NoN
NoN
2
Paul Marco
NoN
NoN
NoN
3
Tom Mason
NoN
NoN
2
Duke Moore
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
6
Bud Osborne
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
4
Lyle Talbot
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
4
Ed Wood
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
NoN
6

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Craig 2009, p. 276.
  2. ^ a b Grey 1994, p. 16.
  3. ^ Benshoff 1997, p. 157.
  4. ^ Weaver 2004, p. 358.
  5. ^ Grey 1994, pp. 23–24.
  6. ^ Thompson, Brett (1996). The Haunted World of Edward D. Wood Jr (Documentary). Wood-Thomas Pictures.
  7. ^ "10 Absurd Facts About the Worst Director of All Time". Retrieved 2016-08-14.
  8. ^ "Alex Gordon". Autry.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  9. ^ Craig, Rob (2009), "The Sinister Urge (1960)", Ed Wood, Mad Genius: A Critical Study of the Films, McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0786454235
  10. ^ Craig 2009, p. 208.
  11. ^ Weldon 1996, p. 464.
  12. ^ Grey 1994, p. 135.
  13. ^ McLellan, Dennis (May 11, 2011). "Dolores Fuller dies at 88; actress dated director Ed Wood". latimes.com. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  14. ^ Holman, Jordyn (August 18, 2014). "Norma McCarty, Actress and Wife of Ed Wood, Dies at 93". variety.com. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Kathy Wood". Variety. July 16, 2006. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  16. ^ Grey 1994, p. 141.
  17. ^ Craig 2009, p. 108.
  18. ^ Ford 1999, p. 81.
  19. ^ Grey 1994, p. 160.
  20. ^ Morton 1986, p. 158.
  21. ^ "Oh My God?: God Is the Producer of Our Lives But We Are the Directors". Huffpost Entertainment. November 18, 2009.
  22. ^ a b "ABOUT MR. LOBO". Cinema Insomnia. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
  23. ^ a b Reverend Steve Galindo (December 23, 2003). "Lesson 19: The First Saints of Woodism". Church of Ed Wood. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
  24. ^ "USC Events Calendar". Web-app.usc.edu. Archived from the original on December 15, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  25. ^ "Cast of Vampira: The Movie". Vampirathemovie.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  26. ^ "Plan 9 from Outer Space: In Color (with Mike Nelson Commentary) : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  27. ^ "Film Screenings/Film Calendar (September 2014)". anthologyfilmarchives.org.
  28. ^ a b Piepenburg, Erik (August 28, 2014). "Wild Rides to Inner Space". nytimes.com. Retrieved March 3, 2015.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Benshoff, Harry M. (1997). Monsters in the Closet: Homosexuality and the Horror Film. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4473-1.
  • Craig, Rob (2009). Ed Wood, Mad Genius: A Critical Study of the Films. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-5423-7.
  • Ford, Luke (1999). A History of X: 100 Years of Sex in Film. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-61592-631-3.
  • Gerstner, David A., ed. (2006). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30651-5.
  • Grey, Rudolph (1994). Nightmare Of Ecstasy: The Life and Art Of Edward D. Wood Jr. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-24-5.
  • Hoberman, J.; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (2009). Midnight Movies. Basic Books. ISBN 0-7867-4700-5.
  • Morton, Jim (1986). Juno, Andrea; Vale, V., eds. Incredibly Strange Films (1 ed.). San Francisco, California: RE/Search. ISBN 0-940642-09-3.
  • Weaver, Tom, ed. (2004). It Came From Horrorwood: Interviews With Moviemakers In The Science Fiction And Horror Tradition. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2069-3.
  • Weldon, Michael (1996). The Psychotronic Video Guide. Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-770-1.

Further reading[edit]

  • Conway, Rob (2009). Ed Wood, Mad Genius: A Critical Study of the Films. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3955-3.
  • Medved, Harry and Michael (1975). The Golden Turkey Awards. Perigree Books. ISBN 0-399-50463-X. p. 168, 169, 176-181, 204-208, 211, 217

External links[edit]