Eresoidea

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Eresoidea
Eresus fg03.jpg
male Eresus kollari
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Clade: Entelegynae
Superfamily: Eresoidea
Families

See text.

The Eresoidea or eresoids are a group of araneomorph spiders that have been treated as a superfamily. As usually circumscribed, the group contains three families: Eresidae, Hersiliidae and Oecobiidae.[1] Studies and reviews based on morphology have generally confirmed the monophyly of the group; more recent gene-based studies have found the Eresidae and Oecobiidae to fall into different clades, placing doubt on the acceptability of the taxon. Some researchers have grouped Hersiliidae and Oecobiidae into the separate superfamily Oecobioidea.

Phylogeny[edit]

Some largely morphology-based phylogenetic studies that included the three families assigned to the Eresoidea have confirmed their monophyly, with the internal structure of the clade being as shown below.[2][3]



Eresidae




Oecobidae



Hersiliidae




Eresoidea was placed as basal in the Entelegynae, with its precise position relative to the Palpimanoidea, also basal, varying. In 2015, Jonathan A. Coddington summarized this as a trichotomy:[2]

Entelegynae

Eresoidea



Palpimanoidea



"canoe tapetum clade" holding the remaining entelegynes



Another summary phylogeny groups Eresoidea and Palpimanoidea into a single clade, sister to the "canoe tapetum clade" holding the remaining entelegynes.[3]

Other studies, particularly those using genetic data, have presented conflicting views. A 2010 study of the phylogeny of entelegyne spiders separated Eresidae from Oecobidae and Hersiliidae, placing the latter two in a superfamily Oecobioidea.[4] In 2014, cladogram was presented in which Eresoidea is similarly paraphyletic (shading marks Eresoidea families):[5]

Entelegynae

Palpimanoidea




Eresidae





RTA clade




Hersiliidae



Oecobidae





Orbiculariae





A 2014 study based on a larger portion of the spider genome than any previous study also separates the Eresidae and the Oecobidae (Hersiliidae was not included) (eresoid families are again shaded):[6]

Entelegynae

Eresidae (Stegodyphus)




Araneoidea





Uloboridae (Philoponella)




Deinopidae (Deinopis)



Oecobiidae (Oecobius)





RTA Clade





References[edit]

  1. ^ Dunlop, Jason A. & Penney, David (2011), "Order Araneae Clerck, 1757" (PDF), in Zhang, Z.-Q., Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness, Zootaxa (3148), Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press, ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7, retrieved 2015-10-31 
  2. ^ a b Coddington, Jonathan A. & Levi, Herbert W. (1991), "Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae)", Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics: 565–592, JSTOR 2097274 
  3. ^ a b Nentwig, Wolfgang, ed. (2013), "Appendix : Spider Phylogeny" (PDF), Spider Ecophysiology, Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-33988-2, retrieved 2015-11-03 
  4. ^ Miller, Jeremy A.; Carmichael, Anthea; Ramírez, Martín J.; Spagna, Joseph C.; Haddad, Charles R.; Řezáč, Milan; Johannesen, Jes; Král, Jiří; Wang, Xin-Ping & Griswold, Charles E. (2010), "Phylogeny of entelegyne spiders: Affinities of the family Penestomidae (NEW RANK), generic phylogeny of Eresidae, and asymmetric rates of change in spinning organ evolution (Araneae, Araneoidea, Entelegynae)", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55 (3): 786–804, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.021 
  5. ^ Hormiga, Gustavo & Griswold, Charles E. (2014), "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Orb-Weaving Spiders", Annual Review of Entomology, 59 (1): 487–512, doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162046, PMID 24160416 
  6. ^ Bond, Jason E.; Garrison, Nicole L.; Hamilton, Chris A.; Godwin, Rebecca L.; Hedin, Marshal & Agnarsson, Ingi (2014), "Phylogenomics Resolves a Spider Backbone Phylogeny and Rejects a Prevailing Paradigm for Orb Web Evolution", Current Biology, 24 (15): 1765–1771, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.034