Fitness game, exergame, and gamercise (portmanteaus of "exercise" and "game") are terms used for video games that are also a form of exercise. Fitness games rely on technology that tracks body movement or reaction. The genre has been used to challenge the stereotype of gaming as a sedentary activity, and promoting an active lifestyle. Fitness games are seen as evolving from technology aimed at making exercise more fun.
The genre's roots can be found in game peripherals released in the eighties, including the Joyboard, a Atari 2600 peripheral developed by Amiga and released in 1982, the Power Pad (or Family Trainer) a peripheral for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), originally released by Bandai in 1986, and the Foot Craz released for the Atari 2600 in 1987, although all three had limited success. Konami's Dance Dance Revolution (1998) was cited as one of the first major fitness games; when it was ported from the arcade to PlayStation, it sold over three million copies. In the 2000s, a number of devices and games have used the exergame style to much success: the EyeToy camera has sold over ten million units, while Nintendo's Wii Fit has sold in excess of 21 million copies. By June 2009, health games were generating revenues of $2 billion, largely due to Wii Fit's 18.22 million sales at the time. The term exergaming entered the Collins English Dictionary in 2007.
The genre has been promoted as a way to improve users' health through exercise, but few studies have been undertaken to measure the health benefits. Smaller trials have yielded mixed results and have shown that the respective traditional methods of exercise are superior to their video game equivalents. Design considerations for fitness games include the need to balance the physical effectiveness of the exercise with the attractiveness of the gameplay, with both factors needed to be adapted to the abilities of the player, referred to as 'dual flow' 
Fitness games contain elements that were developed in the virtual reality community during the 1980s. The pioneer in this area was Autodesk, which developed two systems, the HighCycle and Virtual Racquetball. The HighCycle was an exercise bike that a user would pedal through a virtual landscape. If the user pedaled fast enough, the virtual bike would take off and fly over the landscape. Virtual Racquetball tracked the position and orientation of an actual racquet that was used to hit a virtual ball in a virtual environment. This environment was shared with another user equipped with another tracked racquet, allowing the two users to play each other over phone lines. In both systems, the users could wear the VPL eyephones, an early head-mounted display (HMD), that would provide more immersion for the user.
The first true attempt at what would later be called Exertainment was the Atari Puffer project (1982). This was an exercise bike that would hook up to an Atari 400/800 or 5200 system. Forward speed was controlled by pedaling while steering and additional gameplay was handled by a handlebar-mounted Gamepad. The machine was nearly ready for production with several games (Tumbleweeds and Jungle River Cruise) when Atari declared bankruptcy and the Puffer project was abandoned. The Joyboard for the Atari 2600 was also released in 1982, by the Amiga Corporation.
In Japan, Bandai dabbled in this space with the Family Trainer pad, released in 1986 for the Famicom (the Japanese version of the Nintendo Entertainment System). In 1988, Nintendo acquired the North American rights to the pad, and marketed it as the Power Pad in North America.
The first fitness game system released to the market was the 1986 Computrainer. Designed as a training aid and motivational tool, the Computrainer allowed users to ride through a virtual landscape generated on an NES, while monitoring data such as power output and pedaling cadence. The product had a price that was far too high to be considered as an entertainment product, but was affordable by dedicated athletes. The product continues to this day, where it now runs using Microsoft Windows compatible software with extensive graphic and physiological capabilities.
About the same time as the Computrainer, Concept II introduced a computer attachment for their rowing machine. This has become their eRow product and is used for both individual motivation as well as competition in "indoor rowing leagues".
During the 1990s, there was a surge of interest in the application of "virtual reality" technologies to high-end gym equipment. Life Fitness and Nintendo partnered to produce the Exertainment System; Precor had an LCD-based bike product, and Universal had several CRT-based systems. The Netpulse system provided users with the ability to browse the web while exercising. Fitlinxx introduced a system that used sensors attached to weight machines in order to provide automated feedback to users.
Three issues combined to ensure the failure of these systems in the marketplace. First, they were significantly more expensive than the equivalent models that did not have all the additional electronics. Second, they were harder to maintain, and were often left broken. Lastly the additional expertise required to operate the software was often intimidating to the users, who shied away from the machines out of fear that they would look foolish while trying to master the machine.
Until 1998, nothing significant happened in the field of videogame exercise. Hardware was still too expensive for the average home consumer, and the health clubs were gun-shy about adopting any new technology. As high-performance game console capabilities improved and prices fell, manufacturers once more started to explore the fitness market.
In 2000, UK startup Exertris introduced an interactive gaming bike to the commercial fitness market.
Fitness games came to the mass media attention at the Consumer Electronics Show when Bill Gates showcased the Exertris Interactive Gaming Bike in 2003, and the following year the same show hosted a pavilion dedicated to video game technology that also worked as sports and exercise equipment.
The 2005 release of the EyeToy: Kinetic brought the first multi-function fitness game hardware into the home market. Making the players physical movements into the game's controller. 2006 saw the launch of Gamercize, combining traditional fitness equipment with game consoles. The minimalist approach allows game play to continue only when exercising, turning all game titles into potential fitness games.
Nintendo's Wii in 2006 brought acceleration detection with the Wii Remote. In late 2007, Nintendo released Wii Fit, which utilized a new peripheral, the Wii Balance Board. The popularity of the Wii lead to it being used in hospital "Wiihab" rehabilitation programs.
The PCGamerBike appeared at CES in 2007 where it received an Honoree Award. It differs from other fitness game devices in that its pedal motion can be mapped to any key on the keyboard. It also has an optical encoder which detects forward and reverse pedal motion. The Fisher-Price Smart Cycle was another entry in the field.
Other examples of fitness game products include: Positive Gaming iDANCE, iSTEP, Cobalt Flux Blufit, Cyber coach, NeoRacer, Gymkids exercise equipment with interactive technology, some Wii titles such as EA Sports Active, Cybex TRAZER, Powergrid Fitness Kilowatt, Lightspace Play Floor, PlayMotion, Yourself!Fitness, Expresso Fitness S2, i.play, Cyber ExerCycle, VEQTOR Sport Trainer and Sportwall.
Microsoft's Kinect (2010) was the first major consumer-focused body motion tracking hardware. Games such as Just Dance and Nike+ Kinect Training (2012) used Kinect to make physical body motion into a method of control for games. The trend within consoles that started with the Wii peaked with the pedometer-pairing Wii Fit U (2013). These were followed up in the eighth generation by a fitness game push by Microsoft with the Xbox One launch day Xbox Fitness service (2013), which tracked metrics such as heart rate and correct form while synchronising these metrics with the Microsoft Health. By 2017, Microsoft had pivoted away from Kinect and fitness games on consoles. In 2019, Nintendo released Fitness Boxing, and Ring Fit Adventure for the Nintendo Switch, which take advantage of the Joy-Con controllers, acting as motion detectors in multiple areas of the body.
Fitness games gained in popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ring Fit Adventure (2019) sold-out at most retailers worldwide and saw a price increase from $80 to $300 on reselling websites. Nintendo also released Jump Rope Challenge (2020) for free and for a limited time in an effort to keep Nintendo Switch owners active while in quarantine. However, Nintendo later announced that the game would remain on the Nintendo eShop until further notice. As of September 30, 2020, players of the game had recorded 2.5 billion jumps in total.
The COVID-19 pandemic also caused delays in the industry. One reason Ring Fit Adventure (2019) did not have enough supply to meet demand was that China was hit early by the pandemic, leading to manufacturing shortages. The pandemic also delayed several VR products, such as the Valve Index, and titles such as Marvel's Iron Man VR and Little Witch Academia: VR Broom Racing.
Fitness games also proved to be especially helpful during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they were a great motivator for physical activity, which fought the sedentary lifestyle lockdowns caused. Physical fitness is known to aid in disease prognosis, as it boosts the immune system, shortened the recovery period from COVID-19, and reduced the negative effects of stress from living in isolation.
Overwhelmed medical centers also turned to therapeutic fitness games during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they proved to be more socially distant, required less direct supervision, and used less personal protective equipment. These games can be adjusted for each patients' exercise needs, making them suitable for the COVID-19 patients whose mobility became limited, or elderly patients, who were affected by COVID-19 at an increased rate.
Recreational fitness games can also be useful for rehabilitation. While they are not always as adjustable as therapeutic fitness games, recreational fitness games can still help maintain an adequate amount of physical activity, can help those without access to traditional rehabilitation, and can prolong the benefits of in-hospital rehabilitation. However, recreational fitness games might require more supervision, as they are less likely to exercise the correct muscles as therapeutic fitness games.
Exercise games have also proven to be an effective supplement for rehabilitation programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, including balance rehabilitation for the elderly. Children are oftentimes more receptive to the idea of fitness games, making it an especially helpful tool in motivating ill children in their rehabilitation efforts.
A 2021 systematic review found that exercise games could reduce BMI, and improve body fat percentage and cardiorespiratory fitness.
A 2020 systematic review found that fitness games can be utilized to augment treatment for a variety of patient populations such as geriatrics, and those with Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.
A 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis found that fitness games are effective for improving muscle tension, muscle strength, activities of daily living (ADL), joint range of motion, gait, balance, and kinematics. The review also suggested that fitness games may be more effective at improving dynamic balance control and preventing falls in subacute and chronic stroke patients when compared to current treatment methods.
A 2018 systematic review in the Journal of Medical Internet Research of 10 randomized trials studying the "Social Effects of Exergames on Older Adults" found that "the majority of exergame studies demonstrated promising results for enhanced social well-being, such as reduction of loneliness, increased social connection, and positive attitudes towards others".
As of 2016, fitness games for those with neurological disabilities had been studied in around 140 small clinical trials in people of all ages, to see if it can help this group get enough physical exercise to maintain their health. This mode of getting exercise appears attractive in this population from a public health perspective because of its low cost and accessibility. Fitness games have the potential to provide moderate intensity exercises in this population, but the evidence was too weak on long-term follow-up to draw strong conclusions.
There is significant evidence across multiple random controlled trials relating fitness games to improved cognitive functioning in healthy older adults (with a mean age of 69), and attenuated deterioration or improvement in adults with cognitive impairment from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
In addition, studies investigated if fitness games can lead to improvements in cognitive performance in clinical and non-clinical populations such as those who have ADHD and depression. There are first encouraging results, but the empirical evidence still is limited.
Studies have shown that fitness games help manage anxiety in several ways. Fitness games help lower anxiety levels in various clinical populations such as patients with Parkinson's disease, enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation, with fibromyalgia, and with systemic lupus erythematosus by introducing more permanent positive physiological changes than methods that do not involve exercise do.
Fitness games are accessible to many disabled patients, as some have settings that allow the game to remember a person's range of motion, whether they have any assistive devices, and general physical ability.
Fitness games have been shown to be safe and cost effective when used for stroke rehabilitation. Virtual environments allow patients to practice skills that would otherwise be unsafe in real world scenarios. A stroke patient with compromised balance, for example, could practice crossing the street in a simulated environment, something that would be risky and unsafe in real time. Fitness games can also make typical rehab exercises safer. Implementing virtual obstacles instead of physical obstacles in balance training exercises, for example, mitigates the risk of falls while increasing a patient's confidence.
When making a fitness game system, the manufacturer of a consumer product must make the decision as to whether the system will be usable with off-the-shelf games or if custom software must be written for it. Because it takes longer for a user to move their entire body in response to stimulation from the game, it is often the case that dedicated software must be written for the game to playable. An example of this is Konami's Dance Dance Revolution. Though designed to be played by users moving about on a specially designed dancepad, that game can alternatively be played by pushing buttons with one's fingers using a standard hand-held gamepad. When played with the dancepad at higher levels the game can be quite challenging (and physically exhausting), but if the game is played using the buttons on the hand controller, none of the sequences are physically limited.
Newer systems such as Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Wii use alternative input devices such as the Kinect and PlayStation Move. The Move uses image analysis to extract the motion of the user against a background and uses these motions to control the character in the game. A specifically designed exercise game Kinect, superimposes animated objects to be punched, kicked, or otherwise interacted with over a video image of the user. The Wii and PlayStation 3 both incorporate motion sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes into the hand-held controllers that are used to direct behaviors within the game.
Research projects such as exertion interfaces that investigate the design aspects of these games explore how the technological augmentation that comes with the digital gameplay component can be nurtured for additional benefits, such as utilizing the social power of exercising together even though players are connected only over a network or scaling the number of players, enabling novel exercise experiences not available without the technological augmentation.
One of the newest trends is using virtual reality immersion. VR systems have several potential advantages for athletic training; environments can be precisely controlled and scenarios standardized, augmented information can be incorporated to guide performance, and the environment can be dynamically altered to create different competitive situations. High frame rate display technologies for example Head-mounted display can be used to transform the user into any sporting situation e.g. a track cycling veledrome. Natural movements can also be incorporated into the games, for example utilizing an omnidirectional treadmill, such as the Infinadeck. Such a system allows the user to virtually be in the game while allowing 360 degrees of movement. While the technology is new, it is showing promising results in weight management as well as in high participation rates.
- Wii Fit 'Fitness game'. Nintendo. Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
- "Gamercising". BuzzFeed. December 4, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Gaming gets in shape. BBC Sport (2006-08-22). Retrieved on 2009-08-08.
- Benzing, Valentin; Schmidt, Mirko (2018-11-08). "Exergaming for Children and Adolescents: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 7 (11): 422. doi:10.3390/jcm7110422. PMC 6262613. PMID 30413016.
- van Aarem, Amy (January 10, 2008). "'Exergaming' helps jump-start sedentary children". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (October 4, 2005). "The PlayStation Workout: Videogames That Get Kids to Jump, Kick and Sweat". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Joel Johnson (May 15, 2008). "From Atari Joyboard to Wii Fit: 25 years of 'exergaming'". Boing Boing. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- Sween, Jennifer; et al. (May 2014). "The Role of Exergaming in Improving Physical Activity: A Review". Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (4): 864–870. doi:10.1123/jpah.2011-0425. PMC 4180490. PMID 25078529.
- Bogost, Ian (2005). The Rhetoric of Exergaming. Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2009-08-08.
- Bogost, Montfort 2009, p. 139.
- Star, Lawrence (2005-01-15). Exercise, Lose Weight With 'Exergaming'. Fox News. Retrieved on 2009-08-08.
- Armstrong, Rebecca (2007-07-17). Couch athletes: how to get fit from the comfort of your sofa. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-08-08.
- Kim, Tom (2008-11-06). In-Depth: Eye To Eye - The History Of EyeToy. Gamasutra. Retrieved on 2009-08-08.
- "Financial Results Briefing for the Three-Month Period Ended June 2009" (PDF). Nintendo. 2009-07-31. p. 8. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- Pigna, Kris (2009-06-28). "Health Games Generate $2 Billion in Worldwide Sales". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- "Wags and hoodies make dictionary". BBC News. July 4, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- Daley, Amanda J. (August 2009). "Can Exergaming Contribute to Improving Physical Activity Levels and Health Outcomes in Children?". Pediatrics. 124 (2): 763–771. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2357. PMID 19596728. S2CID 8744191. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- Sinclair, Jeff; Hingston, Philip; Masek, Martin (December 2007). "Considerations for the design of exergames". GRAPHITE '07: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australia and Southeast Asia: 289–295. doi:10.1145/1321261.1321313. ISBN 9781595939128. S2CID 12875601.
- Howard Rheingold. "Virtual Reality" pp188-189 Simon & Schuster. 1991. ISBN 0-671-77897-8.
- "AGH's Atari Project Puffer Page". Archived from the original on 2009-03-22.
- "What Was The Top-Secret "Puffer Project"?". Archived from the original on 2009-03-22.
- Rob Lammle (March 16, 2016). "10 Very Rare (and Very Expensive) Video Games". Mental Floss. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- "Hospitals Discover The Power Of 'Wiihab'". CBS News. 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
- Rosenberg, Michael (2014-01-29). "Sorry gamers, Wii Fit is no substitute for real exercise". The Conversation. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
- Roberton, Andy. "'Run An Empire' Is 'Pokémon GO' With Real Health Benefits". Forbes.
- Ma, Minhua; Jain, Lakhmi C.; Anderson, Paul, eds. (2014). Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 199. ISBN 9783642548161.
- Rettner, Rachael (July 12, 2016). "'Pokémon Go' Catches High Praise from Health Experts". LiveScience.com. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Olson, Mathew (February 21, 2020). "Coronavirus Outbreak Has Led to a Demand Surge and Shortages of Ring Fit Adventure". US Gamer.
- Klepek, Patrick (March 19, 2020). "People Are Charging $300 For Nintendo's Ring Fit During Quarantine". Vice.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (June 16, 2020). "Nintendo surprise-launches free Switch skipping exercise game Jump Rope Challenge". Eurogamer.
- Doolan, Liam (September 30, 2020). "Jump Rope Challenge Isn't Going Anywhere Just Yet, Will Now Be Available "Until Further Notice"". Nintendo Life.
- D'Anastasio, Cecilia (March 10, 2020). "Coronavirus Fears Spark a Run on Nintendo's Ring Fit Adventure". Wired.
- Nunneley, Stephany (February 21, 2020). "Coronavirus has affected the production schedule for Valve Index, fewer units to be made available". VG247.
- "Iron Man VR For PS4 Gets New Release Date".
- Romano, Sal (May 6, 2020). "Little Witch Academia: VR Broom Racing delayed to late 2020 for Oculus Quest, early 2021 for PlayStation VR, Oculus Rift, and SteamVR". Gematsu.
- Viana, Ricardo B.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Silva, Wellington F.; Morais, Naiane S.; Oliveira, Vinnycius N. de; Andrade, Marília S.; Lira, Claudio A. B. de (March 4, 2021). "Comment on: Problematic online gaming and the COVID-19 pandemic – The role of exergames". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. -1 (aop): 1–3. doi:10.1556/2006.2021.00014. PMC 8969849. PMID 33666566.
- Sultan, Nasir; Khushnood, Kiran; Malik Muhammad Ali Awan. "Exergaming: An Effective Way to Maintain Physical and Mental Health at Home during COVID-19 Pandemic". jcpsp.pk.
- Eddy, Lisa. "Gaming System Engages Patients in Rehabilitation in the Hospital, Home". Hopkins Medicine.
- Peng, W; Crouse, JC; Lin, JH (April 2013). "Using active video games for physical activity promotion: a systematic review of the current state of research". Health Education & Behavior. 40 (2): 171–92. doi:10.1177/1090198112444956. PMID 22773597. S2CID 17524879.
- Peng, W; Lin, JH; Crouse, J (November 2011). "Is playing exergames really exercising? A meta-analysis of energy expenditure in active video games". Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 14 (11): 681–8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.458.9060. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0578. PMID 21668370.
- De Biase, Sarah; Cook, Laura; Skelton, Dawn A.; Witham, Miles; ten Hove, Ruth (August 24, 2020). "The COVID-19 rehabilitation pandemic". Age and Ageing. 49 (5): 696–700. doi:10.1093/ageing/afaa118. PMC 7314277. PMID 32470131 – via academic.oup.com.
- "Elderly and Balance Rehabilitation: Current Dynamics and Future Possibilities for Pakistan". Foundation University Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences. 1 (1). January 2021 – via FUJRS.
- Demers, Marika; Martinie, Ophélie; Winstein, Carolee; Robert, Maxime T. (March 17, 2020). "Active Video Games and Low-Cost Virtual Reality: An Ideal Therapeutic Modality for Children With Physical Disabilities During a Global Pandemic". Frontiers in Neurology. 11: 601898. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.601898. PMC 7767913. PMID 33381077.
- Comeras-Chueca, Cristina; Marin-Puyalto, Jorge; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose Antonio; Gonzalez-Aguero, Alex (2021). "Effects of Active Video Games on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JMIR Serious Games. 9 (4): e29981. doi:10.2196/29981. PMC 8561411. PMID 34661549. S2CID 239018909.
- Qian, Jiali; McDonough, Daniel J.; Gao, Zan (2020). "The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exercise on Individual's Physiological, Psychological and Rehabilitative Outcomes: A Systematic Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (11): 4133. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114133. ISSN 1661-7827. PMC 7312871. PMID 32531906.
- Link to external site, this link will open in a new window; Link to external site, this link will open in a new window; Link to external site, this link will open in a new window (2019). Paci, Matteo (ed.). "The Effects of Virtual Reality Training on Function in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". BioMed Research International. 2019: 1–12. doi:10.1155/2019/7595639. PMC 6604476. PMID 31317037. ProQuest 2250538163.
- Li, J; Erdt, M; Chen, L; Cao, Y; Lee, SQ; Theng, YL (28 June 2018). "The Social Effects of Exergames on Older Adults: Systematic Review and Metric Analysis". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 20 (6): e10486. doi:10.2196/10486. PMC 6043731. PMID 29954727.
- Ameryoun, Ahmad; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G. (2018). "Impact of Game-Based Health Promotion Programs on Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Childhood Obesity. 14 (2): 67–80. doi:10.1089/chi.2017.0250. PMID 29185787.
- Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Davis Oam, Glen M.; Husain, Ruby; Hasnan, Nazirah (2016-04-25). "Exergaming for individuals with neurological disability: a systematic review". Disability and Rehabilitation. 39 (8): 727–735. doi:10.3109/09638288.2016.1161086. ISSN 1464-5165. PMID 27108475. S2CID 3575227.
- Stanmore, Emma; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; de Bruin, Eling; Firth, Joseph (2017). "The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 78: 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.011. PMID 28442405.
- Benzing, Valentin; Schmidt, Mirko (2017-01-10). "Cognitively and physically demanding exergaming to improve executive functions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised clinical trial". BMC Pediatrics. 17 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0757-9. ISSN 1471-2431. PMC 5223426. PMID 28068954.
- Benzing, Valentin; Chang, Yu-Kai; Schmidt, Mirko (2018-08-17). "Acute Physical Activity Enhances Executive Functions in Children with ADHD". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 12382. Bibcode:2018NatSR...812382B. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30067-8. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6098027. PMID 30120283.
- Stanmore, Emma; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; de Bruin, Eling D.; Firth, Joseph (July 2017). "The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 78: 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.011. ISSN 0149-7634. PMID 28442405.
- Viana, Ricardo Borges; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa (May 4, 2020). "Exergames as Coping Strategies for Anxiety Disorders During the COVID-19 Quarantine Period". Games for Health Journal. 9 (3): 147–149. doi:10.1089/g4h.2020.0060. PMID 32375011.
- Laver, Kate E; Lange, Belinda; George, Stacey; Deutsch, Judith E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Crotty, Maria (2017-11-20). "Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017 (11): CD008349. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008349.pub4. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6485957. PMID 29156493.
- Mueller, Florian; Agamanolis, Stefan; Picard, Rosalind (April 2003). "Exertion Interfaces: Sports over a Distance for Social Bonding and Fun" (PDF). CHI '03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Mueller, Florian; Gibbs, Martin R.; Vetere, Frank (April 2009). "Design Influence on Social Play in Distributed Exertion Games" (PDF). CHI '09 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 1539–48. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Breakout for Two. Exertion Interfaces. Retrieved on 2010-03-03.
- Table Tennis for Three. Exertion Interfaces. Retrieved on 2010-03-03.
- Shepherd, J., Carter, L., Pepping, G.-J., & Potter, L.-E. (2018). Towards an Operational Framework for Designing Training Based Sports Virtual Reality Performance Simulators. Proceedings, 2(6), 214. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2060214
- "Infinadeck". Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Christison, Amy (April 2012). "Exergaming for Health: A Community-Based Pediatric Weight Management Program Using Active Video Gaming". Clinical Pediatrics. 51 (4): 382–388. doi:10.1177/0009922811429480. PMID 22157430. S2CID 24481969.
- Sinclair, J., Hingston, P., & Masek, M. (2007). Considerations for the design of exergames. GRAPHITE '07: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques in Australia and Southeast Asia, December 2007 Pages 289–295 https://doi.org/10.1145/1321261.1321313
- JMIR e-collection on Exergames, Active Games and Gamification of Physical Activity
- Eyetoy Kinetic – Thin AG, Howey D, Murdoch L & Crozier A (July 2007). Evaluation of physical exertion required to play the body movement controlled Eyetoy Kinetic video game. Life Sciences 2007, SECC, Glasgow, Scotland.
- IJsselsteijn, W. A., de Kort, Y. A. W., Westerink, J., de Jager, M., & Bonants, R. (2006). Virtual Fitness: Stimulating Exercise Behaviour through Media Technology. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15, 688–698. Virtual Fitness: Stimulating Exercise Behavior through Media Technology
- Wii Sports – Professor Tim Cable (February 2007). School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, John Moores University, Liverpool, England.
- Shepherd, J., Carter, L., Pepping, G.-J., & Potter, L.-E. (2018). Towards an Operational Framework for Designing Training Based Sports Virtual Reality Performance Simulators. Proceedings, 2(6), 214. Towards an Operational Framework for Designing Training Based Sports Virtual Reality Performance Simulators.