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Iranian Fajr-5 Rocket by tasnimnews.jpg
A Fajr-5C GPS guided surface-to-surface missile, seen in front of the Fajr-5 MLRS on a Mercedes Benz 2631 chassis
TypeRocket artillery
Place of originIran
Service history
Used bySee Operators
WarsIsraeli–Palestinian conflict
Syrian Civil War
Production history
No. builtsomewhere around 100 systems[1]
Mass15,000 kg (launcher, empty)[2]
90 kg (HE content)
175 kg (warhead)
915 kg (rocket)[3]
Length10.00 m (launcher)[a]
6.485 m (rocket)[2]
Width2.5 m (launcher)[2]
Height3.34 m (launcher)[3]

Caliber333 mm
Elevation0 to 57 degrees[3]
Traverse45 degrees left and right[3]
Rate of fire4–8 seconds[3]
Effective firing range68–75 km

Maximum speed 1,100 m/s (max)[2]

The Fajr-5 (rarely Fadjr-5, Persian: فجر-۵, "Dawn") is an Iranian 333 mm long-range multiple launch rocket system (MLRS). The Fajr-5 was developed during the 1990s and has since been exported to various armed actors in the Middle East.

The Fajr-5 launcher fires four 6.48 meter long, 333 millimeter-calibre Fajr-5 artillery rockets, with a range of 75 kilometers (50 mi), weighing 915 kilograms each and carrying 175-kg fragmentation warheads with 90 kg of high explosive (HE). Most Fajr-5 rockets are unguided; in 2017 Iran introduced a variant, the Fajr-5C, which adds GPS guidance.

The Fajr-5 is primarily used by the Iranian Army Ground Force to attack large, fixed, high-value targets, like airfields and military bases.[2] In addition, the system is also used by militant groups to target Israel. Finally, the system has a niche role in use by the IRGC-N as an unguided anti-ship rocket system for the Persian Gulf.



An older Fajr-5 launcher in 2013.

The Fajr-5 artillery rocket system is installed on a Mercedes Benz 2631 6×6 forward control chassis.[4] To provide a stable firing platform, four hydraulically operated stabilizers are lowered to the ground before firing.[4] Another fully enclosed cabin to the immediate rear of the cab houses the remainder of the crew. This new chassis was unveiled in 2006;[4] some systems have not been upgraded and are still on older chassis.

The Fajr-5 is normally fired from this truck launcher, but it can also be fired individually.[5] The primary role of this artillery rocket system is the engagement of land targets. A naval surface search radar can be added to allow the system to be used in an anti-shipping role.[1]

Fajr-5 MLRS can be networked together,[1] and have a remote-fire capability in which the command vehicle can fire all nearby Fajr-5 systems.[1]

The Fajr-5's circular error probable (CEP) is not known.[1] The Fajr-5's reliability is not known. The Fajr-5's cost is not known. The number of Fajr-5 rockets produced is not known. Whether the Fajr-5 is still in production is not known.

In 2019, the Defense Intelligence Agency described the Fajr-5 as the "most capable" multiple rocket launcher in Iranian service.[6]


Basic rocket[edit]

A basic Fajr-5 rocket firing during a 2014 military exercise in Iran.

The rocket is solid fueled and has a fragmentation high explosive warhead.[2] The rocket is 6.485 meters long, 333mm in diameter, and weighs 907 kg.[2] It has wraparound fins for stabilization in flight, which reach a diameter of 710 mm when extended.[2] The rocket's double base propulsion burns for an average time of 5.3 seconds, reaching a peak velocity of 1100 m/s.[2] The rocket's motor has nine launch nozzles arranged in a circle, which are slanted to help create spin-stabilization in flight.[7] The Fajr-5 rocket carries a 175 kg warhead with a fragmentation radius of 500m.[2]

One source reports that Fajr-5 rockets can likely carry (plain) high explosive, submunitions, incendiary, smoke, or chemical payloads as well.[1] The shelf life of a basic Fajr-5 rocket is 15 years.[2]

Two-stage rocket[edit]

Iran produces a two-stage Fajr-5 rocket with extended range. The two-stage Fajr-5 rocket has a length of 9.4 m and a maximum range of 180 km at sea level.[2] This variant has a diameter of 333 mm, like other Fajr-5 rockets, but has fixed fins, which have a diameter of 561 mm.[2] The two-stage Fajr-5 can reach a maximum altitude of 85 km and carries the same 175 kg warhead with a 500m fragmentation radius.[2] This variant is launched from TELs similar to those used for Zelzal rockets, which only have the capacity for a single rocket.

The shelf life of a two stage Fajr-5 rocket is 15 years.[2]


In February 2017, Iran revealed a guided version of the Fajr-5, similar to the Chinese SY300, under the name Fajr-5C. It has a firing accuracy of 250 m when using INS and 50 m using GNSS, with range from 40–130 km (25–81 mi).[8]

The guided Fajr-5 rocket was briefly mentioned, and believed to be under development, in 2014.[9] The missile has been delivered to the IRGC Ground Force units as of May 2023.[10]


When the Fajr-5 is reloaded, the launch tubes (in two groups of two) are detached from the launcher and laid on the ground by a crane (an Italian Effer 155-25). Then, a machine called a "Loading machine" is used to mechanically press the heavy Fajr-5 rockets into their launch tubes one by one. When all the tubes are filled, the crane is used to reattach the launch tubes to the vehicle.[2] Because of the long reload time and large size of the "Loading machine" (12m), the Fajr-5 MLRS is supposed to retreat after firing to safer rear battle areas to reload.[2][failed verification] A reload takes 2 minutes per rocket.[2]


A Fajr-5 firing during a military exercise in Iran.

The first Fajr-5 were created when China exported WS-1 MLRS to Iran in the late 1980s/early 1990s.[11] They were then subsequently created and produced by Iran's Aerospace Industries Organization.

Operational history[edit]


As of 2011, the best estimate for the number of Fajr-5 pieces manufactured was "somewhere around 100" or less.[1]


Iran supplied a number of Fajr-5s to Hezbollah in Lebanon beginning in 2002[12][13] or 2001.[14] Sources disagree on whether Hezbollah used Fajr-5 rockets in the 2006 Lebanon War,[15] in part because at the time they were confused with similar Khaibar-1 rockets.

Palestinian territories[edit]

Fajr-5 rockets are held in the Gaza strip by Palestinian militant groups. The first was fired by Hamas in November 2012.[16] It is believed that manufacture of some sub-components and final assembly may take place in Gaza, but that the critical components of the rocket are furnished by Iran.[7] Iran denied transferring any rockets to Gaza but said they instead transferred technology to manufacture the rocket.[17]

Some Palestinians have named their children after the Fajr-5.[18]

Pillar of Defense[edit]

In November 2012 during Operation Pillar of Defense, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad fired Fajr-5 rockets towards Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. One hit an apartment block in Rishon LeZion.[citation needed] At least 14 rockets were fired in total.[7]


The rear of a Fajr-5.

On May 10, 2018, the IRGC's Quds Force fired 20 rockets into the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights from Syrian territory. Some of these were Fajr-5s.[19]

In December 2018 some Fajr-5 rockets were destroyed in an IAF airstrike.[20]


Sporadically, during the US occupation of Iraq (between 2003 and 2011), Iranian Backed militias fired the 333 Fajr-5 at US forces from fabricated rails. In 2015, Iran sent Fajr-5 rockets and launcher systems to Iraq to be used in the War against the Islamic State. It is unknown if they were fired, and the quantity sent is also unknown.[21]


The Houthis have unveiled a rocket with similarities to the Fajr-5.[22]


Map with Fajr-5 operators in blue with former operators in red[needs update]

Current operators[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Galen Wright (March 15th 2011) Iranian Military Capability 2011 - Ground Forces
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Defense Industries Organization 2013 Catalog, Section 3: Rocket Industries Group" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-10.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Fajr-3 & Fajr-5 brochure. Archived 2008-01-14 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on May 13, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Foss, Christopher F (8 May 2006). "Fadjr-5 artillery rocket system gets new chassis". Kuala Lumpur: Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
  5. ^ Anthony H. Cordesman, Martin Kleiber. Iran's Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities (2007) ISBN 978-0-89206-501-1 p.60–61
  6. ^ Iran Military Power (PDF). Defense Intelligence Agency. 2019. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-16-095157-2.
  7. ^ a b c "Hamas' Rocket of Choice". Stratfor. Jul 9, 2014. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  8. ^ "Iran unveils new Fajr 5 300mm MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System using guided rockets 10702171". armyrecognition.com. 7 February 2017. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  9. ^ "IRGC unveils new tactical ballistic missiles developments - IHS Jane's 360". 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  10. ^ https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2023/05/07/2890963/irgc-tests-homegrown-rocket-with-thermobaric-warhead
  11. ^ "Military Briefing on Hezbollah's Missile Capabilities: Examining the Fajr, Zelzal". Vital Perspective. Jul 18, 2006. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved March 1, 2019.[unreliable source?]
  12. ^ Devenny, Patrick (1 January 2006). "Hezbollah's Strategic Threat to Israel". Middle East Quarterly. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  13. ^ Gordon, Michael (September 27, 2002) "Militants Are Said to Amass Missiles in South Lebanon". The New York Times.
  14. ^ Sammy Salama; Nikolai Sokov; Gina Cabrera-Farraj (May 4, 2006). "Iran Tests Missiles for Domestic and Foreign Audiences; Origins of One Advanced System Remain Murky". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Archived from the original on June 5, 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  15. ^ Lambeth, B. S. (2011). Air Operations in Israel's War Against Hezbollah: Learning from Lebanon and Getting it Right in Gaza. Santa Monica, CA, United States: RAND. ISBN 978-0-8330-5146-2
  16. ^ Jean-Loup Samaan (April 2015). "Another Brick in the Wall: The Israeli Experience in Missile Defense" (PDF). The Letort Papers. U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2020.
  17. ^ "Iran transferred Fajr-5 missile technology to Gaza: IRGC chief". 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012.
  18. ^ "Gazans naming newborns after Iran's Fajr-5 missiles". The Iran Project. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  19. ^ Spyer, Jonathan. "Israel's Secret War Against Iran Is Widening". Archived from the original on 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  20. ^ Anna Ahronheim (December 27, 2018). "Satellite shows damage to Iranian bases after Israeli Syria strike - Arab-Israeli Conflict - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  21. ^ Schmitt, Eric (16 March 2015). "Iran Sent Arms to Iraq to Fight ISIS, U.S. Says". New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Iran-Backed Houthis Launch Ballistic Missile at Saudi Forces". The Tower. 20 November 2018. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  23. ^ Mark Pyruz (March 2, 2014). "President Rouhani tours Iran Navy and IRGC Navy bases". Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  24. ^ "Iran supplies improved rockets to Syria and Hizbullah - Jane's Missil…". Archived from the original on 7 July 2012.
  1. ^ The older Fajr-5 launcher, on a Mercedes 2624 chassis, has slightly larger dimensions; see the brochure[3]

External links[edit]