Flag of Bulgaria

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Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria.svg
UseCivil and state flag, civil ensign
Proportion3:5
Adopted1879 (first adoption)
27 November 1990 (readoption)[1]
DesignA horizontal tricolour of white, green and red.

The flag of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: знаме на България, romanizedzname na Bǎlgariya, IPA: [ˈznamɛ nɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]) is a tricolour consisting of three equal-sized horizontal bands of (from top to bottom) white, green, and red. The flag was first adopted after the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, when Bulgaria gained independence. The national flag at times was charged with the state emblem, especially during the communist era. The current flag was re-established with the 1991 Constitution of Bulgaria and was confirmed in a 1998 law.

History[edit]

First Bulgarian Empire[edit]

In 866, Pope Nicholas I advised Prince Boris who had recently Christianized his people to switch from the practice of using a horse tail as a banner to adopting the Holy Cross.[2]

Later illuminated versions of the chronicles of John Skylitzes and Constantine Manasses depict the army of Khan Krum carrying flags either in monotone red[3], or red with a black border.[4] The army of Simeon the Great is also depicted carrying red banners of varying shape.[4] The Radziwiłł Chronicle also depicts Tzar Simeon I's army under a red flag in the 921-922 campaign against Byzantium, but the depiction of the Hungarian invasion of 894 featured the Bulgarian fortress of Drastar under a white flag with a crescent and a six-pointed star. Any pictorial representations of flags in the manuscripts mentioned above, regardless of the faction or time depicted, conform strongly to the overall illustration style used in each manuscript. In addition, none of those manuscripts dates to the time of the First Bulgarian Empire. The historicity of those flags is thus impossible to verify.

Second Bulgarian Empire[edit]

Depictions of Bulgarian flags can be seen on various portolan maps from the 14th and 15th centuries. On those maps, the flags commonly have a white or golden[5][6] background and depict either the insignia of the ruling House of Shishman[7], or unknown symbols[8][9] in red. Those drawings are markedly more diverse than the flags of the neighboring countries such as the Eastern Roman Empire, the Golden Horde or the Serbian Empire, which in the same maps are largely consistent.

Third Bulgarian state[edit]

After the liberation of Bulgaria following the Russo-Turkish War in 1878, the flag was described in the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879 as follows:

From 1946 until 1990 the emblem of the People's Republic of Bulgaria was placed on the left side of the white stripe. It contained a lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red star and above a ribbon bearing the date 9 September 1944, the day of Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944 which led to the establishment of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. In 1971, it was changed so the ribbon bearing the years 681, the year of the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire by Asparukh and 1944.

Following the fall of communism in 1990, the then-enforced Zhivkov Constitution was amended so the flag can be reverted to the pre-communism era.[11] The new Constitution of Bulgaria, adopted in 1991, describes the Bulgarian flag as follows:

A popular version of the flag, which has no official status, is also commonly known. It has the full coat of arms on the left of the flag, placed across the white and green fields only.[13]

Flag law[edit]

According to the Law for the State Seal and National Flag of the Republic of Bulgaria, promulgated on 24 April 1998:

Colours[edit]

According to the Standardisation and Metrology Committee, the following are the required colours for use in the national flag:

Colours of the Bulgarian flags (1879–present)[15]
Colour scheme White Green Red
Pantone textile[16] Whiteness greater than 80% 17-5936 TCX[17] 18-1664 TCX[18]
Pantone[16] Whiteness greater than 80% 347 U 032 U
CMYK[16] 0/0/0/0 100/0/100/0 0/100/100/0
Web colours[16] #FFFFFF #009900 #CC0000
RGB[16] 255,255,255 0,128,0 200,0,0
RAL[19] Safe RAL 6024 RAL 3028

Gallery[edit]

Flags of the First Bulgarian Empire[edit]

These flags derive from illuminated manuscripts dating from centuries after the end of the First Bulgarian Empire, and may be ahistorical.

Flags of the Second Bulgarian Empire[edit]

Flags of the third Bulgarian state[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whitney Smith. "Flag of Bulgaria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  2. ^ "Internet History Sourcebooks". sourcebooks.fordham.edu.
  3. ^ "Madrid Skylitzes" (PDF) (in Ancient Greek). World Digital Library. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  4. ^ a b "Vatican copy of the Manasses Chronicle" (in Church Slavic). Vatican Library. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  5. ^ "Map Guillem Soler, c. 1380". French National Library. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  6. ^ "Map of Battista Beccario, 1426". Bavarian State Library. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  7. ^ "Map by Angelino Dalorto, c. 1325". Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  8. ^ "Map by Pietro Vesconte, c.1325". Vatican Library. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  9. ^ "Map by the Pizzigani brothers, c.1367". Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  10. ^ "Tarnovo Constitution of 1879" (in Bulgarian). Juridical Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  11. ^ "Understanding the Bulgarian Flag". Information Bulgaria. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  12. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria". National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  13. ^ Unofficial flag Archived 2014-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, taken from 2013 Bulgaria Summer Protests, Darik News, 26 June 2013, and unofficial flag, taken from Protests in Bulgaria: the unnoticed uprising, TheConversation.com, 24 Jun 2013. Both retrieved 27 Jun 2013.
  14. ^ "Law for the State Seal and National Flag of the Republic of Bulgaria". National Assembly of the Republic. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  15. ^ bg:Национално знаме на България
  16. ^ a b c d e Знаме. "Институционална идентичност на българската дъжавна администрачия". identity.egov.bg. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  17. ^ PANTONE. "PANTONE 17-5936 TCX Simply Green - Find a Pantone Color - Quick Online Color Tool". Pantone.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  18. ^ PANTONE. "PANTONE 18-1664 TCX Fiery Red - Find a Pantone Color - Quick Online Color Tool". Pantone.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  19. ^ Government of Bulgaria (2005). "Bulgaria's National Flag". Archived from the original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2007-11-09.

External links[edit]