Mila Rodino

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Мила Родино
English: Dear Motherland
Bulgarian Anthem Music Sheet.InstrumentalSimple.svg

National anthem of  Bulgaria
Lyrics Tsvetan Radoslavov, 1885
Music Tsvetan Radoslavov, 1885
Adopted September 8, 1964 (as the anthem of People's Republic of Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria)[1]
May 18, 1971 (reaffirmed in the Zhivkov Constitution)[1]
November 10, 1989 (as the anthem of Bulgaria Bulgaria)[1]
July 12, 1991 (reaffirmed in the Constitution of Bulgaria)[1]
Audio sample
Mila Rodino Vocal

Mila Rodino ("Мила Родино" [ˈmiɫɐ ˈrɔdino], translated as "Dear Motherland" or "Dear native land") is the current national anthem of Bulgaria. It is based on the music and text of the song "Gorda Stara Planina" by Tsvetan Radoslavov, written and composed as he left to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War in 1885. The anthem was adopted in 1964. The text has been changed many times, most recently in 1990.

Between 1886 and 1947, the Bulgarian national anthem was Shumi Maritsa ("Шуми Марица"); from 1951 to 1964, it was My Bulgaria, land of heroes (Balgariyo mila, zemya na geroi, "Българийо мила, земя на герои"); in the brief period between these two, it was the march "Republiko nasha, zdravey!" ("Републико наша, здравей!").

History[edit]

Creation[edit]

The song was created by the composer Tsvetan Radoslavov in 1885 after his participation in the Serbo-Bulgarian War. He was inspired to create the song based on his poems when he saw Serbian students singing their own patriotic song on their journey home.[2] It was first printed in 1895 in Part I of "Music Textbook" by K. Mahan.[3]

Adoption as the national anthem[edit]

In the 1960s, after the de-Stalinization process, the poet Georgi Dzhagarov began an effort to replace the previous anthem, which include references to Stalin and because the lyrics of the anthem was similar to the anthem of the Soviet Union. After discussing with Todor Zhivkov, the General Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Zhivkov accepted the idea, and soon, by the Order No.1093, on March 29, 1962, the Council of Ministers held a competition for the lyrics and the music for the new anthem, with the deadline for the submission of lyrics on May 1, 1963, and the music on November 1, 1963. The composition of the committee for the new anthem was selected by Zhivkov himself, and the lyrics for the new anthem must be finalized in September 1, 1963, and for the music in March 1, 1964. The Council of Ministers also draws up a panel of experts to look at the projects submitted in advance and to put the best of the proposals for discussion with the committee.[4][5]

After the proposals for the lyrics and the music were submitted, none of the proposals satisfies them, so they accepted the advice of Georgi Dzhagarov to use "Mila Rodino" as the music for the new anthem. The composition of lyrics were assigned to Georgi Dzhagarov and Dmitry Metodiev, while the melody of the anthem was revised with further harmonization by Philip Kutev and Alexander Raichev.[4]

Under Zhivkov's orders, Georgi Dzhagarov and Dimitar Metodiev were resided in the Vrana Palace to compose the text of Mila Rodino.[6]

During the composition of the lyrics, Georgi Dzhagarov was not particularly proud of his creation. He preferred the anthem without the mentions of the Soviet Union and the leadership of the Bulgarian Communist Party in the third verse of the anthem. An alternate version of the third verse can be found in Dzhagarov's manuscript :[4]

Дружно, братя българи!
Греят нови върхове,
Знамето над нас се вее
и на подвиг ни зове.[4]

The final composition of the lyrics consisted of the original first verse and the chorus of the anthem by Tsvetan Radoslavov, and the new two verses, which the second verse has references to the fight for the independence of Bulgaria and the fight against fascism in World War 2, and the third verse has references to the Soviet Union/Russian SFSR/Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Communist Party of Bulgaria.[7]

On September 8, 1964, Mila Rodino was finally affirmed by the Presidium of the National Assembly, with the Decree No. 534, as the national anthem of Bulgaria.[8] The first performance of the song as the national anthem of Bulgaria was done on September 9, 1964, on the 20th anniversary of the Socialist Revolution of 9 September.[5]

Criticism[edit]

In 1964, before the affirmation of "Mila Rodino" as the national anthem, the decision met resistance from Petko Staynov. Staynov argues that the melody is Jewish (Ashkenazi) and this makes the song not suitable for being the anthem of Bulgaria. Dobri Hristov counters the argument, stating that there are hundreds of melodies in Bulgarian songs which are borrowed from other people and had become an integral part of the Bulgarian musical heritage.[4]

This statement led Staynov being removed from the committee for the new anthem by Todor Zhivkov.[4]

Proposals for a new anthem[edit]

During the discussion for the new constitution of Bulgaria in the 7th Grand National Assembly, there are some proposals submitted for a new anthem. The proposals include "Shumi Maritsa" (Bulgarian: Шуми Марица, English: Maritsa Rushes), the Bulgarian national anthem from 1886 until 1947, and "Vŭrvi, narode vŭzrodeni" (Bulgarian: Върви, народе възродени, English: Onward, peoples resurrected), the anthem of the Bulgarian education.[4]

The most recent one was the petition by writer Nikola Indzhov to change the anthem of Bulgaria to "Vŭrvi, narode vŭzrodeni".[9][10]

Regulation on the anthem[edit]

Current regulation[edit]

According to the Institutional Identity of the Administration of the State of Bulgaria[11], there are two versions of the anthem, the full and the abridged version.

Official version of the anthem[edit]

  • The official version of the anthem in an instrumental rendition for wind orchestra is performed by the Brass Orchestra of the National Guard.
  • The official version of the anthem in an instrumental rendition for symphony orchestra is performed by the Bulgarian National Radio Symphony Orchestra.
  • The official version of the anthem in a vocal version is performed by the Mixed Choir of the Bulgarian National Radio.

Performances of the anthem[edit]

The anthem is to be played at the following occasions:

  • celebration of the Liberation Day in the 3rd of March
  • on public holidays, celebrating historical events and personalities
  • ceremonies for raising the flag of the Republic of Bulgaria
  • state and official visits
  • ceremonies for offering a wreath to the monument of the Unknown Soldier
  • diplomatic ceremonies
  • military ceremonies
  • other official events of national importance
  • on the initiative of the state authorities
  • local celebrations with a decision of the Municipal Council

The abridged version of the anthem can be played at the following occasions:

  • on cultural and sporting events
  • on the occasion of the opening of the school year

The anthem of the Republic of Bulgaria can only be performed once a day, on the same ceremony.

Bans on the usage of the anthem[edit]

The anthem of the Republic of Bulgaria can not be used in advertising, with the exception of national campaigns taken by state authorities. The anthem can not be used as part of another melody or song, to be performed in remixed variants with text other than the legally established by means of musical instruments that create a humorous sound, with pauses, interruptions or extensions of the tones, which change the original sound.

Original regulation[edit]

The first regulation on the anthem came from the Decree No. 534 "On the approval of the text and the music of the national anthem of the People's Republic of Bulgaria", which was published on September 8, 1964.[8]

Lyrics[edit]

In Bulgarian[edit]

Cyrillic script Latin script Latin script (BGN/PCGN (standard) IPA transcription[a] English translation
First verse

Горда Стара планина,
до ней Дунава синей,
слънце Тракия огрява,
над Пирина пламеней.

Gorda Stara planina,
do nej Dunava sinej,
slënce Trakija ogrjava,
nad Pirina plamenej.

Gorda Stara planina,
do ney Dunava siney,
slance Trakiya ogryava,
nad Pirina plameney.

[ɡo̞rda stara planina
do̞ ne̞j dunava sine̞j
slɤntse̞ trakija o̞ɡrʲava
nat̚ pirina plame̞ne̞j]

Proud Balkan Mountains,
next to it the Danube sparkles,
the sun shines over Thrace,
and blazes over Pirin.

Refrain (x2)

Мила Родино,
ти си земен рай,
твойта хубост, твойта прелест, 
ах, те нямат край.[12]

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen raj,
tvojta hubost, tvojta prelest, 
ah, te njamat kraj.

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen ray,
tvoyta khubost, tvoyta prelest, 
akh, te nyamat kray.

[mila ro̞dino̞
ti si ze̞me̞n raj
tvo̞jta xubo̞st tvo̞jta pre̞le̞st
ax te̞ nʲamat̚ kraj]

Dear Motherland,
you are heaven on earth,
your beauty, your loveliness,
ah, they are boundless.

Second verse

Паднаха борци безчет,
за народа наш любим,
майко, дай ни мъжка сила,
пътя им да продължим.*

Padnaha borci bezčet,
za naroda naš ljubim,
majko, daj ni mëžka sila,
pëtja im da prodëlžim.*

Padnakha bortsi bezchet,
za naroda nash lyubim,
mayko, day ni mazhka sila,
patya im da prodalzhim.*

[pat̚naxa bo̞rtsi be̞stʃe̞t̚
za naro̞da naʃ lʲubim
majko̞ daj ni mɤʃka sila
pɤtʲa im da pro̞dɤlʒim]

Countless fighters died,
for our beloved people,
mother, give us manly strength
to continue their path.*

Refrain (x2)

Мила Родино,
ти си земен рай,
твойта хубост, твойта прелест, 
ах, те нямат край.[12]

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen raj,
tvojta hubost, tvojta prelest, 
ah, te njamat kraj.

[mila ro̞dino̞
ti si ze̞me̞n raj
tvo̞jta xubo̞st tvo̞jta pre̞le̞st
ax te̞ nʲamat̚ kraj]

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen ray,
tvoyta khubost, tvoyta prelest, 
akh, te nyamat kray.

Dear Motherland,
you are heaven on earth,
your beauty, your loveliness,
ah, they are boundless.

Third verse

Дружно, братя българи!
С нас Москва е в мир и в бой!
Партия велика води
нашия победен строй.*

Družno, bratja bëlgari!
S nas Moskva e v mir i v boj!
Partija velika vodi
našija pobeden stroj.*

Druzhno, bratya balgari!
S nas Moskva e v mir i v boy!
Partiya velika vodi
nashiya pobeden stroy.*

[druʒno̞ bratʲa bɤlgari
s nas mo̞skva e̞ v mir i v bo̞j
partija ve̞lika vo̞di
naʃija po̞be̞de̞n stro̞j]

Together, Bulgarian brothers!
Moscow is with us in peace and war!
A great party leads
Our victorious society.*

Refrain (x2)

Мила Родино,
ти си земен рай,
твойта хубост, твойта прелест, 
ах, те нямат край.[12]

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen raj,
tvojta hubost, tvojta prelest, 
ah, te njamat kraj.

Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen ray,
tvoyta khubost, tvoyta prelest, 
akh, te nyamat kray.

[mila ro̞dino̞
ti si ze̞me̞n raj
tvo̞jta xubo̞st tvo̞jta pre̞le̞st
ax te̞ nʲamat̚ kraj]

Dear Motherland,
you are heaven on earth,
your beauty, your loveliness,
ah, they are boundless.

  • During communist rule, two additional verses were added (marked above in gray) that referred to Moscow (under direct instructions of Todor Zhivkov) and the Bulgarian Communist Party, as well as the fallen fighters for Bulgaria through the years. After the changes in 1989, that part of the anthem was removed.

Original lyrics[edit]

Мила Родино
(Bulgarian Cyrillic)[13]
Mila Rodino
(Transliteration)
Dear Motherland
(English translation)

Горда стара планина,
до ней север се синей
Слънце Витош позлатява
към Цариград се белей.

Припев:
Мила Родино,
ти си земен рай,
твойта хубост, твойта прелест,
ах, те нямат край.

Хайде братя българи,
към Балкана да вървим.
Там се готви бой юнашки,
за свобода, правдини.

Припев: Мила...

Gorda stara planina,
do nej sever se sinej
Slënce Vitoš pozlatjava
këm Carigrad se belej.

Refrain: (twice)
Mila Rodino,
ti si zemen raj,
tvojta hubost, tvojta prelest, 
ah, te njamat kraj.

Hajde bratja bëlgari,
këm Balkana da vërvim.
Tam se gotvi boj junaški,
za svoboda, pravdini.

Refrain: Mila...

Proud Stara Planina,
next to it the north sparkles,
the sun gilds Vitosha
towards Tsarigrad it shines white.

Refrain:
Dear Motherland,
you are heaven on earth,
your beauty, your loveliness,
ah, they are boundless.

Bulgarian brothers, let's go
to the Balkan.
There a heroic battle is approaching,
for freedom, justice.

Refrain: Dear...

Versions of the lyrics[edit]

Another version of the lyrics was published by composer Dobri Hristov. It was published in the Rodina collection, by the Publishing of the Bulgarian-Mohammedian Cultural and Enlightenment Friendship, in the town of Smoleni.[14]

Горда Стара-планина.
Надъ ней северъ синей,
До ней Витошъ възвишава
Гордо свойтѣ раменѣ

Припев:
Мила Родино,
Ти си земенъ рай!
Твойта хубостъ, твойта прелесть,
Ахъ, тѣ нѣматъ край!

Гордо Дунавътъ се лѣй!
Свойта пѣсень тихо пѣй!
Вѣченъ споменъ той за Ботевъ
Отъ гърди си ще лелѣй!

Припев

Чуй Марица, какъ шуми,
И съсъ радость си мълви,
Че тамъ, дето кърви бѣха
— Днесъ тамъ розата цъвти!

Припев

Sheet Music[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pronunciation when sung does not match spoken Bulgarian (unstressed, reduced vowels).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Химнът на България през превратностите на времето". socbg.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  2. ^ "1963 г. Радой Ралин лобира химн да е "Мила Родино"". www.24chasa.bg. March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "ТАЙНАТА ИСТОРИЯ НА ХИМНА НА НАРОДНА РЕПУБЛИКА БЪЛГАРИЯ". www.tretavazrast.com. March 11, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Химнът на България през превратностите на времето". socbg.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "ИСТОРИЯ НА БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ХИМН". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  6. ^ "Мила родино". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. Assoc. Prof. Vesselka Toncheva, PhD and Ch. Prof. Grigor Grigorov, PhD. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  7. ^ "Комунистическа България – с герб-некролог и химн, възпяващ Москва и Сталин". www.pamettanabulgarite.com. December 2, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Държавен вестник, брой 71 от 8.IX". September 8, 1964.
  9. ^ "Предлагат смяна на химна на България" [They offer a change of the anthem of Bulgaria] (in Bulgarian). February 26, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  10. ^ "Ново 20: Предлагат смяна на химна!" [New 20: They offer a change of anthem!] (in Bulgarian). January 25, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  11. ^ "Химн на Република България". identity.egov.bg. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c http://www.parliament.bg/?page=history&lng=bg&hid=9
  13. ^ Ivan Voynikov, 2005, History of the Bulgarian state symbols. Part three: The Bulgarian anthem, in Bulgarian [1]
  14. ^ "Сборникъ РОДИНА. Издание на българо-мохамеданската културно-просвѣтна и благотворителна дружба „Родина" въ гр. Смоленъ". macedonia.kroraina.com. Retrieved August 25, 2018.

External links[edit]