Gülbahar Hatun (wife of Mehmed II)
کل بھار خاتون
Fatihetü'l-maeyâmin ve'l hayrat 
The interior appearance of the tomb in Gülbahar's mausoleum at the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul.
|Valide Hatun of the Ottoman Empire|
|Tenure||3 May 1481 – 1492|
(as Valide Sultan)
|Died||1492 (aged 59–60)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
|Burial||Fatih Mosque, Istanbul|
|Spouse||Mehmed the Conqueror|
There have been differing views of her origin. The Ottoman inscription (vakfiye) describes her as Hātun bint-i Abdullah (Daughter of Abdullah), which means that her father was a convert to Islam. She was the real biological mother of Bayezid II.
There are differing views of her issue:
- She was mother of "Gevher-Han Sultan", who married the son of Akkoyunlu Sultan Uzun Hasan, "Şâh-Zâde Uğurlu Damad Muhammed Mirza Paşa" in 1474, and the adoptive/step-mother of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II.
- According to some other sources, on the other hand, she was the real-biological mother of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II as well.
Per custom, Gülbahar got the highest position as Valde Hatun in the imperial family after the sultan himself when her son, Bayezid II, ascended the throne in 1481 until her death in 1492. During her son's reign, she and the rest of the Imperial Family resided at the Old Palace (saray-ı atik) and were visited by the Sultan who on each visit used to pay his respect to his mother. In one case, Gülbahar complained of her son's rare visits and in a letter to her son wrote:
"My fortune, I miss you. Even if you don't miss me, I miss you ... Come and let me see you. My dear lord, if you are going on campaign soon, come once or twice at least so that I may see your fortune-favored face before you go. It's been forty days since I last saw you. My sultan, please forgive my boldness. Who else do I have beside you ... ?"
In popular culture
- Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5 (paperback).
- Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2 (Hardcover).
- Necdet Sakaoğlu (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. (The name of the real biological mother of Bayezid II is given as Meliketû'l-Melikât Gül-Bahar Valide Hâtun).
- Peirce, Leslie (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-19-508677-5.
- Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2
- Diyanet İslâm Ansiklopedisi, p.234-238, vol: 5, 1992
- The Imperial House of Osman - 3
- Edmonds, Anna (1997). Turkey's Religious Sites. Damko. p. 1997. ISBN 975-8227-00-9.
- Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-691-01078-1.
- Bozbora, Nuray (1997), Osmanlı yönetiminde Arnavutluk ve Arnavut ulusçuluğu'nun gelişimi, pp. 81–82
- Heath W. Lowry (1 February 2012). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-7914-8726-6.
Mother of Bayezid II was Gülbahar Hatun (a Pontic Greek from the village of Douvera in Trabzon)
- Sultan II. Bayezid Han, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism, retrieved 6 February 2009
- Necdet Sakaoğlu (2007). Famous Ottoman women. Avea. p. 69.
The graves of Gül-Bahars are very well khown. First one - Gülbahar Hatun I is in Fatih Mosque in Istanbul and the second one - Gülbahar Hatun II is in Gül-Bahar Hatun Mosque in Trabzon. Only the grave of Aisha Hatun, who was the Fourth wife of Bayezid II and the daughter of Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey, the eleventh ruler of the Dulkadirids centered around Elbistan in Kahramanmaraş, is unknown. We do not have any documents about Aisha Hatun." He supports the theory of "Aisha Gulbahar". Another reason for this confusion is that Bayezid's mother was also Gulbahar.
1481 – 1492
as Valide Sultan