Hangal Tarakeshwara temple
|Lok Sabha Constituency||Haveri|
|Elevation||555 m (1,821 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Hangal lies about 75 kilometres (47 mi) south of the city of Hubli-Dharwad, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of the Tungabhadra river and east of the Arabian sea. It is located on state road one, running north to south. A nearby body of water is the Anakere lake. The town is on level terrain in an agricultural district.
Hungal is recorded as Panungal in early documents. It was once the capital of a feudatory of the Kadambas. The Kadambas was an ancient dynasty of south India which ruled the region of the present day state of Goa and nearby Konkan region from around 485 AD until the 11th century AD. They built temples in Hangal in the Jain tradition.
Hanagal is also known for Agnihotra (three Kunda shroutagni) which was practiced by Brahmashri Chayanayaji - Girishastri Kashikar till 1973 for seven generations.
As of 2001[update] India census, Hangal had a population of 25,011. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Hangal had an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 67%, and female literacy was 60%. In Hangal, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Hangal is approximately 370 kilometres (230 mi) from Bengaluru and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Haveri. The town can be reached from Bengaluru via Chitradurga and Haveri and from Dharwad via Hubli and Shiggavi. The nearest rail head is at Haveri (railway station code HVR).
The Tarakeshwara temple is a large structure decorated with images and pillars dating to the Chalukya era in the mid 12th century AD which is dedicated to the Hindu deity, Shiva. The images include scenes from the Ramayana.
The outer walls are designed with miniature shikaras of both Dravidian and Nagara style. The pillars of the open main hall are lathe turned wood. They have a bell shaped section and other decorations including elephants and diamond shaped motifs in bands. The elephants are carved so there appears to be a space between their trunks and the pillars. The band motifs vary in detail. The temple main hall has a large domed ceiling. It consists of concentric circles of cusped mouldings. At the apex, the ceiling falls rosette or pendant design. The overlying roof is a stepped pyramid shape.
Nearby is the ramal, an octagonal piece of stone in a corbelled lotus[disambiguation needed] shape. It is 30 feet (9.1 m) and is supported on eight pillars. There are memorial stones carved with religious (Mastigallu) and military (Veeragallu) scenes. Eight of them are guardians of eight cardinal points.
There is a sanctuary adjoining the main hall. The Nandi pavilion rests on twelve pillars and contains balcony seating. There is also a Ganesha temple of the Nagara style (northern curvilinear) shikhara (miniature temple decorations.)
Jain temple at the fort
The Jain temple in the Hangal fort is located on the premises of the department of horticulture. It dates to 1150 AD. The temple in the Hoysala style is beautifully decorated but there is need of conservation and restoration. The temple was built on a stepped plan. It had an open hall and sanctuary, now in ruins. The sculptural decoration included flowers, garlands, torana, animals, birds and deities. It is was especially elaborate in the upper portion of the walls. The temple walls are also decorated with thin pilasters. The open hall has lathe turned pillars.
The Veerabhadra temple is also located at the Hangal fort. Although highly decorated, it is in need of restoration work.
The Billeshwara temple is in the Hoysala style. This temple has elaborately carved jambs on the doorframe of the garbhagudi. At the bottom of each side, there are five carved figures. Manmatha is in the central projection. Rati is at his side. Daksha (the goat headed deity) is also present and all are flanked by attendants. The temple has a sanctuary face which is incomplete. The temple outer walls are decorated with designs of temple towers and carved diamond shaped depressions. The square panels show carved serpents with intertwined tails, animals, musicians, and foliage.
- "Hangal, Karnataka map." Google.com Accessed 9 November 2015.
- "Handbook of Karnataka." Gazetteer Accessed 11 August 2008
- "The Kadambas of Hangal." Nupam.com Accessed 11 August 2008
- Moreas G. "The Kadamba Kula." at Google books.co Accessed 9 March 2009.
- "The Kadambas of Hangal." Prabhu.50g.com Accessed 11 August 2008.
- "General view of a small ruined Jain temple in the Fort, Hangal." At Google Books.co Accessed 17 October 2008.
- Moraes G. "The Kadamba Kula: A History of Ancient and Mediaeval Karnataka." Asian Educational Services, 1995 p129. ISBN 8120605950, 9788120605954.
- Pigou W. "Hungul, a temple." 1857. At Bl.uk online gallery. Accessed 13 March 2009.
- "The Kadambas of Hangal." Prabhu.50g.com Accessed 13 March 2009.
- Wellesley A. "The Dispatches of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K. G. During His Various Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France: India, 1794-1805." J. Murray, 1834 p69 at Google Books accessed 8 November 2015.
- "Census of India 2001." Census commission of India. Accessed 1 November 2008.
- "Tarakeshwara temple." Bl.uk online gallery. Accessed 17 October 2008.
- "Alphabetical list of monuments - Karnataka - Dharwad." Asi.nic.India accessed 13 March 2009.
- "The Architectural Antiquities of western India." Archive.org Accessed 17 October 2008.
- "General view from the south-west of the Tarakeshvara Temple, Hangal." Bl.uk online gallery. Accessed 13 March 2009.
- "Murray's handbook for India, part two, Bombay." John Murray 1819 p417. Accessed at Google Books 9 November 2015.
- "List of Monuments" India studies.org Accessed 30 March 2009.  Archive.org Accessed 1 December 2008.
- "View from the north Jain temple." Bl.uk Online gallery. Accessed 30 March 2009.
- Hardy A. "Indian Temple Architecture." At Google Books. Accessed 30 March 2009.
- "Karnataka Temples." Shaivam.org Accessed 12 January 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hangal.|
- Coins issued by the Kadambas of Hangal
- Kadambas of Hangal, Toyimadeva, gold pagoda.
- Kadambas of Hangal, Shanti Varma gold punchmarked coin (1075-1094 AD)
- Hangal Tarakeshwara temple complex on Google Maps