Historical urban community sizes

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This article lists historical urban community sizes based on the estimated populations of selected human settlements from 7000 BC – AD 1875, organized by archaeological periods.

Many of the figures are uncertain, especially in ancient times. Estimating population sizes before censuses were conducted is a difficult task.[1]

Neolithic settlements[edit]

Town Location 7000 BC 6000 BC 5000 BC 4000 BC 3800 BC 3700 BC
'Ain Ghazal Jordan 2,501[2]
Beidha Jordan 1,000[3]
Çatalhöyük Turkey 1,000[3][2]–10,000[4]
Choirokoitia[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Cyprus 300–600 2,000
Lepenski Vir Serbia 150–1,000[12][13][14][15][16][17]
Nea Nikomedeia Greece 500–700[18]
Okoliste Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,000–3,000[19]
Vinča-Belo Brdo Serbia 2,000–2,500[20][21]
Sesklo Greece 1,000–5,000[22][23][24][25]
Dobrovody Ukraine 16,000[26] 10,000–16,000[27][28][29]
Fedorovka Ukraine 6,000[26]
Mehrgarh Pakistan 1,000–10,000[30]
Maydanets Ukraine 10,000[26] 10,000–46,000[a][31]
Nebelivka Ukraine 17,000[26]
Talianki Ukraine 15,000–25,000–30,000[26][32][33] 10,000–15,000[34][35][unreliable source?]
Tell Brak Syria 4,000[3] 5,000[3]
Uruk Iraq 5,000[3]

Bronze Age[edit]

Table 1: 3700–2600 BC
City Location 3700 BC 3400 BC 3100 BC 2800 BC 2600 BC
Adab Iraq 11,000[36]
Anshan Iran 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Bad-tibira Iraq 16,000[36]
Eridu Iraq 6,000–10,000[36]
Habuba Kabira Syria 6,000–8,000[36]
Harappa Pakistan 35,000[37]
Kish Iraq 40,000[36]
Lagash Iraq 40,000[38]
Larak/Larsa Iraq 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Manika, Greece[39][40][41][42][43][44][45] Greece 6,000–15,000 6,000–15,000
Memphis Egypt 30,000
Mohenjo-daro Pakistan 41,250[37]
Nekhen Egypt 5,000–10,000[36]
Nippur Iraq 13,000[36]
Shahr-i Sokhta Iran 20,000[2]
Shuruppak Iraq 20,000[36]
Suheri 13,000[36] 10,000[36]
Susa Iran 8,000[3]
Tell Brak Syria 8,000[3] 22,000[36] 20,000[36]
Thebes, Greece Greece 4,000
6,000[45]
Umma Iraq 26,000[36]
Ur Iraq 6,000[36]
Uruk Iraq 8,000[3]
14,000[36]
20,000[36] 40,000[38]–50,000[36] 80,000[36] 80,000[38]
Table 2: 2500–1200 BC
City Location 2500 BC 2300 BC 2000 BC 1800 BC 1600 BC 1360 BC 1200 BC
Athens[46][47] Greece 10,000 10,000–15,000
Akrotiri (prehistoric city)[48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] Greece 8,000–30,000
Adab Iraq 13,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Akkad Iraq 36,000[36]
Amarna Egypt
Anshan Iran 10,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Avaris/Pi-Ramses Egypt 100,000[38] 160,000[38]
Babylon Iraq 65,000[3] 80,000[3]
Dur-Kurigalzu Iraq
Ebla Syria 30,000[36]
Erlitou China 24,000[3]–35,000[36]
Harappa Pakistan 10,000[36]
Hattusa Turkey 40,000[56] 40,000[56]
Hazor Israel
Heliopolis Egypt
Heracleopolis Egypt
Isin Iraq 40,000[36] 20,000[36]
Kerma Sudan
Kesh Iraq 11,000[36]
Kish Iraq 25,000[36] 10,000[36] 40,000[38]
Knossos[48][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66] Greece 1,300–2,000 18,000 20,000 30,000
Lagash Iraq 40,000[36] 10,000[36] 30,000[36][38] 10,000[36]
Larak/Larsa Iraq 10,000[36] 40,000[36] 20,000[36]
Manika, Greece[45] Greece 6,000–15,000 6,000–15,000
Malia Greece 5,000–10,000–12,500[48][65]
Mari Syria
Memphis Egypt 30,000[36]–35,000[3] 60,000[3][36][38] 30,000[36] 22,000[67] 32,000[67] 50,000[67]
Mohenjo-daro Pakistan 20,000[36] 20,000[36] 10,000[36]
Mozah 15,000[36] 15,000[36]
Mycenae Greece 20,000[68] 30,000–35,000[62][69] 30,000[56]
Namazga-Tepe Turkmenistan 14,000[36] 14,000[36]
Nekhen Egypt 21,000[56]
Niniveh Iraq 23,000[56] 33,000[56]
Nippur Iraq 20,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Palaikastro Greece 18,000[48][65]
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán Mexico 7,500[70]
Shahr-i Sokhta Iran 20,000[36] 20,000[36]
Shuruppak Iraq 17,000[36]
Suheri 10,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Susa Iran 25,000[36] 25,000[36]
Taosi China 10,000[3] 14,000[3]
Tell Brak Syria 15,000[36] 15,000[36]
Tell Churra 20,000[36]
Tell Leilan Syria 20,000[36] 20,000[36]
Thebes Egypt 40,000[36] 40,000[36] 80,000[3] 80,000[3]
Thebes, Greece[45][71][72] Greece 4,000–6,000 8,000
Tiryns[45][73][46][47] Greece 1,200–1,800 10,000 10,000–15,000
Umma Iraq 34,000[36] 20,000[36] 10,000[36] 20,000[36]
Ur Iraq 60,000[3]
65,000[56]
Uruk Iraq 50,000[3][36] 75,000[3]
Yin (Anyang) China 50,000[3]–120,000[38]
Zabala Iraq 10,000[36] 10,000[36] 10,000[36]
Zhengzhou China 35,000[3]

Iron Age[edit]

Table 1: 1000-400 BC
City 1000 BC 900 BC 800 BC 700 BC 650 BC 600 BC 500 BC 430 BC 400 BC
Aegina Greece 20,000–40,000[74] 20,000–40,000
Anuradhapura Sri Lanka 48,000[56][67]
Anyi 100,000[38] 100,000[38]
Athens[64][75][76][77][78] Greece 2,500–5,000[75] 2,500–5,000[75] 2,500–5,000[75] 10,000[75] 20,000[75] 40,000[75] 25,000[75]
Agrigento Italy 40,000 40,000
Argos Greece 30,000–60,000[64][76][79][80][81][82] 30,000–60,000
Ayodhya India
Babylon Iraq 45,000[67]–100,000[b] 47,000[67] 60,000[67] 125,000[3] 150,000[3] 200,000[56] 150,000[3]
Benares India
Capua Italy 100,000[83][84] 100,000
Cerveteri Italy 25,000–40,000[85][86][87][88][89]
Chicheng China
Cuicuilco Mexico
Corinth Greece 5,000[75] 20,000[75]
Crotone Italy 50,000–80,000[90]
Ecbatana Iran
Haojing China 100,000[b] 125,000[38] 125,000[38] 33,000[56][67]
Hastinapur India
Jerusalem Israel/Palestine 40,000[56][67] 49,942 (445 BC)[56]
Kamarina Italy 20,000
Kerch Crimea (disputed between Ukraine and Russia) 40,000[56][67]
Kingchow China
Kalḫu (Nimrud) Iraq 75,000[3]
Kosambi India 55,000[67]
Linzi China 55,000–100,000[3][38] 80,000–100,000[67][38] 65,000–100,000[3][38] 80,000–100,000[3][38] 60,000–200,000[67][38] 100,000–200,000[3][38]
Luoyang China 35,000[3][67]–100,000[c][d] 40,000[3] 45,000[3]–50,000[67] 55,000[3]–100,000[38] 70,000[67]–100,000[38] 65,000[3]–100,000[38] 200,000[38] 200,000[38] 100,000[3]–240,000[38]
Marib Yemen 45,000[67]
Memphis Egypt 35,000–100,000[b][67] 44,000[67] 65,000[67] 100,000[67]
Metapontum Italy 40,000
Miletus Turkey
Niniveh Iraq 39,000[56] 100,000[3] 120,000[56]
Pataliputra / Patna India 400,000[3]
Populonia Italy 25,000–40,000[87][88][91][92]
Pyongyang North Korea
Tarquinia Italy 20,000–40,000[87][88][91][92]
Thebes, Greece Greece 30,000–60,000[45][71][93][94][95] 30,000–60,000
Qufu China 100,000[38] 100,000[38]
Rome Italy 4,440[96] 24,400–40,000[96][97] 27,200 28,960[97]
Sais Egypt
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán Mexico 13,000[98] 13,000[98]
Shangqiu China 100,000[38] 130,000[38]
Sravasti India 46,000[56]
Sparta Greece 40,000–50,000[99]
Susa Iran 40,000[56][67] 200,000[56][67]
Suzhou China 100,000[38]
Syracuse Italy 24,000–40,000[100][101][102] 24,000–40,000[76] 24,000–125,000[67][76]
Sybaris Italy 100,000[103]
Taranto Italy 110,000–150,000[104]
Thebes Egypt 50,000[3]–120,000[b] 50,000[3]
Vaisali India
Veii Italy 25,000–100,000[87][88][91][92]
Volsinii Italy 13,000–40,000[87][88][91][92]
Vulci Italy 15,000–40,000[87][88][92]
Xiadu China 100,000[38] 100,000[38] 320,000[38] 300,000[38]
Xintian China 100,000[38]
Xinzheng China 100,000[38]
Xue
Yong China 100,000[38]
Table 2: 300 BC-400 AD
City Location 300 BC 200 BC 100 BC AD 1 AD 100 AD 200 AD 300 AD 361 AD 400
Alexandria Egypt 150,000[3] 300,000[3][56]–600,000[38] 400,000[3] 250,000[67]–500,000[105] 500,000[105] 125,000[67]–200,000[56]
Augsburg Germany 25,000–50,000 25,000–50,000[106]
Antioch Turkey 120,000[56] 400,000[75] 150,000[67]–250,000[107] 250,000[107] 150,000[67]
Anuradhapura Sri Lanka 68,000[56][67] 130,000[56] 72,000[67]
Anyi 100,000[38]
Athens Greece 25,000[75] 10,000[75] 10,000[75] 90,000[108] 90,000[108]
Autun France 40,000–100,000[109][110] 40,000–100,000
Arles France 10,000[111] 10,000[111] 75,000[112]
Ayodhya India 63,000[67]
Aquileia Italy 12,000[113] 12,000[113]
Carnuntum Austria 12,000[107]–50,000[114][115] 12,000[107]–50,000[114][115]
Capua Italy 100,000 100,000[83][84] 25,000–40,000
Carthage Tunisia 150,000–200,000[56] 100,000[56]–300,000[116] 300,000[116]
Chang'an/Xi'an China 100,000–400,000[38][3][56] 375,000–400,000[3][38] 246,000–500,000[117][38][3] 81,000–100,000[56][67][38] 120,000[3] 140,000[3] 80,000[67] 100,000[38]
Chengdu China 100,000[38] 70,000[67]
Cổ Loa Vietnam 40,000[38] 50,000[38]
Byzantium /
Constantinople
Turkey 15,000 20,000 150,000 200,000
Corinth Greece 40,000–100,000[75][107][118]
Cologne Germany 20,000–40,000[119][120] 20,000–40,000[119][121][122]
Ctesiphon Iraq 250,000[67]
Cuicuilco Mexico 36,000[67]
Datong China 100,000[38]
El Mirador Guatemala 200,000[123]
Ephesus Turkey 33,600[107]
Izapa Mexico 35,000[67]
Kaveri 59,000[67]
Linzi China 125,000–350,000[3][38] 100,000[38] 100,000[38] 100,000[38] 100,000[38]
London UK 30,000 45,000–60,000[124]
Lugdunum France 25,000–50,000[111][125] 25,000–50,000[111][125]
Luoyang China 125,000[3]–240,000[38] 60,000[67] 200,000[38] 420,000[38][67] 140,000[3]–250,000[38] 200,000[38]
Milan Italy 30,000–40,000[56] 100,000 25,000–100,000[126][127][128]
Monte Albán Mexico 5,200[129] 17,200[129] 17,200[129] 17,200[129] 17,200[129]
Nanjing China 56,000[67] 78,000[67] 100,000[38] 150,000[67] 300,000[38]
Nimes France 40,000–60,000[130][131][132]
Ostia Antica Italy 25,000[106]–40,000[113] 25,000–50,000[106][113][133]
Paithan India 60,000[67] 84,000[67]
Patala Pakistan 73,000[67]
Pataliputra India 350,000[56]–400,000 69,000[56][67] 250,000[56]
Peshawar Pakistan 120,000[56]
Philippi Greece 100,000[134]
Pingcheng China 88,000[67] 200,000[3]
Pozzuoli Italy 30,000–50,000 30,000[116]–50,000[106]
Pyay Myanmar 69,000[67]
Qufu China 100,000[38]–125,000[3]
Rhodes[135][136][137] Greece 100,000–200,000 100,000
Rome Italy 100,000[97] 150,000–160,000[67][56] 400,000[3] 1,000,000[38][3] 1,000,000[3][38] 1,000,000[3] 800,000[3] 800,000[3] 800,000[3]
Salona Croatia 25,000[119] 25,000[119]
Seleucia Iraq 200,000[67] 400,000[75] 250,000 (CE 2)[56] 150,000[56]–250,000[67]
Shangqiu China 100,000[38]
Suzhou China 100,000[38] 66,000[67] 95,000[67] 58,000[67]
Syracuse Italy 50,000–100,000[76] 90,000[138] 90,000[138]
Taxila Pakistan 60,000[67]
Teotihuacán Mexico 60,000–80,000[139] 90,000[67]
Thessaloniki Greece 30,000[108] 30,000[108]
Tikal Guatemala 100,000[140]
Tres Zapotes Mexico 30,000[67]
Trier Germany 10,000[119] 10,000[119]–50,000 50,000–100,000[106][112] 60,000
Ujjain India 94,000[67] 80,000[67]
Wanxian China 100,000[38]
Xiadu China 300,000[38]
Xianyang China 100,000[38] 100,000–300,000[56]
Xinzheng China 120,000[38]–125,000[3]
Xuchang China 140,000[3]
Ye China 140,000[3] 120,000[67] 100,000[38]

Middle Ages[edit]

Early Middle Ages: 500-999 AD
City Location 500 600 622 700 775 800 900
Aleppo Syria 72,000[67]
Athens Greece 110,000[141]
Alexandria Egypt 94,000[67]–200,000[56] 216,000[56] 60,000–100,000 60,000–100,000
Angkor Cambodia 80,000[142] 100,000[142] 90,000[67]–150,000[142]
Anhilpur India 80,000[67]
Antioch Turkey 150,000[67]
Anuradhapura Sri Lanka 70,000[67]
Arles France 10,000[143]
Ayodhya India 75,000[67]
Badami India 70,000[67]
Baghdad Iraq 175,000[3][67] 150,000[3]
Bakhalal Mexico 45,000[67]
Basra Iraq 100,000[67]
Benares India 49,000[67] 59,000[67]
Carthage Tunnisia 100,000[56][67]
Chang'an / Xi'an China 95,000[67][38]–400,000[56] 400,000[38]–600,000[3] 400,000[67] 1,000,000[38] 1,000,000[38][56][e] 600,000[67]–1,000,000[38][3] 100,000[38]–750,000[67][3]
Chengdu China 94,000[67] 100,000[38] 100,000[38]
Chenla Cambodia 70,000[67]
Chunar India 72,000[67]
Constantinople Turkey 400,000[3]–500,000[56][144] 150,000[3] 150,000[67] 125,000[3] 40,000–50,000[3] 40,000–50,000[3] 150,000[3]
Copán Honduras 63,000[67]
Cologne Germany 15,000–20,000[145] 21,000[145]
Córdoba Spain 135,000[68] 160,000[67] 110,000[146]–175,000[3]
Ctesiphon Iraq 400,000[67] 200,000[147]–500,000[67]
Dali China 90,000[67]–100,000[38]
Đại La /Hanoi Vietnam 25,000[148]
Datong China 200,000[38]
Dorestad Netherlands 1,000–2,500 1,000–2,500
El Pilar Guatemala 182,600[149]
El Tajín Mexico 40,000[67] 40,000[67] 50,000[67]
Fanyang (Youzhou) China 100,000[38]
Florence Italy 1,000 2,000–2,500 5,000
Fustat Egypt 100,000[67] 150,000[67]
Gao Mali 72,000[67]
Granada Spain 20,000
Guangzhou China 200,000[38] 200,000[38]
Gwalior India 65,000[67]
Huari/Wari Peru 70,000[150]
Jiankang China 500,000[38]
Jinyang (Taiyuan) China 100,000[38] 100,000[38]
Kannauj India 230,000 250,000 250,000 230,000[67] 200,000[67]
Kanchi India 56,000[67] 70,000[67] 51,000[67]
Kyoto Japan 200,000[151] 100,000–200,000[67][38] 200,000[38][56]
Laon France 28,000[152]
Lhasa China 100,000[38][67]
London UK 10,000–12,000
Luoyang China 200,000[67]–500,000[38] 500,000[38] 200,000[67] 500,000[38] 300,000[67]–400,000[38] 150,000[67]–200,000[38]
Lyon France 12,000[153]
Madurai India 70,000[67] 70,000[67]
Mainz Germany 20,000[145] 30,000[145]
Mandsaur India 63,000[67]
Manyakheta India 100,000[67]–200,000[154]
Metz France 25,000[155] 14,000[155]
Milan Italy 30,000 25,000[156] 30,000 (875)[157]
Naples Italy 30,000[157] 30,000[157] 30,000[157]
Nanjing China 150,000[67]–500,000[38]
Nara Japan 100,000[38]
Orléans France 10,000[143]
Padua Italy 15,000[143]
Paris France 10,000–30,000[56] 20,000
Patna / Pataliputra India 500,000 300,000 100,000 74,000[67]
Pavia Italy 15,000–20,000[56]
Poitiers France 5,000–9,000[56] 5,000–9,000[56] 5,000–9,000[56] 10,000[56] 10,000[56]
Preslav Bulgaria 40,000–60,000[68]
Prambanan Indonesia 60,000[67] 62,000[67]
Provins France 10,000
Pyay Myanmar 73,000[67] 100,000[67]
Pliska Bulgaria 34,000[158]
Ray Iran 68,000[67]
Regensburg Germany 25,000[145] 25,000
Reims France 20,000[56]
Rennes France 10,000
Rome Italy 100,000 50,000[159]–90,000[160] 50,000[159] 50,000[159] 50,000[159] 50,000[161][56] 20,000–30,000[159]
Rouen France 10,000
Seville Spain 20,000 40,000 35,000 35,000 40,000–52,000[68]
Sialkot Pakistan 85,000[67]
Speyer Germany 20,000
Suzhou China 70,000[67] 120,000[38] 100,000[38] 84,000[67]–100,000[38] 81,000[67]–100,000[38]
Teotihuacán Mexico 125,000[67][139] 60,000[67]
Thessaloniki Greece 100,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000[68]
Tikal Guatemala 45,000[67] 40,000[67]
Toledo Spain 25,000 28,000
Toulouse France 10,000[56]
Tours France 17,000[56] 20,000[56]
Tula Mexico 41,000[67] 50,000[67]
Trier Germany 10,000[56] 15,000[56] 15,000–25,000[145]
Venice Italy 37,000[56]
Verona Italy 30,000[56] 25,000
Worms Germany 10,000
Wuchang China 100,000[38] 84,000[67]
Ye China 200,000[38]
Later Middle Ages: 1000–1399
City Location 1000 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350
Angkor Cambodia 200,000[67]
400,000[142]
125,000[67]
550,000[142]
140,000[67]
600,000[142]
150,000[67]
650,000[142]
650,000[142]
Amalfi Italy 35,000[162]–80,000[68] 10,000–15,000[56]
Ani Turkey 100,000[163]–200,000[164]
Anhilpur India 100,000[67] 100,000[67] 135,000[67]
Antioch Turkey 40,000 40,000
L'Aquila Italy 40,000
Bagan Myanmar 100,000[67] 150,000[67] 180,000[67] 180,000[67]
Baghdad Iraq 125,000[56] 150,000[67] 250,000[3] 150,000[56]
Beijing China 130,000[67] 140,000[67] 401,000[67] 400,000[67]
Berlin Germany 2,400 1,200–2,000 4,000–7,000
Bologna Italy 50,000 50,000 23,000
Braunschweig Germany 10,000[145] 21,000[56]
Bruges Belgium 12,000[145] 15,000[56] 25,000[56] 36,000[56] 50,000[56]
Cahokia Illinois, USA 10,200–15,300[165] 25,000[166] 20,000–30,000[167]
Cairo Egypt 135,000[67] 150,000[67] 175,000[67] 200,000[67]–250,000[3] 300,000[67] 400,000[3][67] 350,000[67]
Chang'an / Xi'an China 118,000[67] 114,000[67]
Chartres France 7,000
Chunar India 66,000[67]
Cologne Germany 21,000[168] 25,000–35,000[56] 32,000–60,000[169] 52,000–60,000[168] 40,000–60,000[121][122][169] 57,000 (1333)[168]
Constantinople Turkey 150,000[3] 200,000[67]–250,000[3] 200,000[67] 150,000[67]–250,000[3] 100,000[170] 150,000[170] 80,000[170]
Córdoba Spain 110,000[146][3] 60,000 (1103)[171] 60,000[171] 60,000[171] 40,000[171]
Cuttack India 100,000[67] 90,000[67] 90,000[67]
Dali China 90,000[67]
100,000[38]
100,000[67]
Delhi India 10,000[172] 60,000[172] 80,000[67] 100,000[67][172] 125,000[172]
Dhar India 80,000[67]
Dwarasamudra India 30,000 120,000 150,000
Edessa Turkey 25,000
Erfurt Germany 10,000[145] 21,000[56] 32,000[56]
Fanyang (Youzhou) China 100,000[38]
Fes Morocco 75,000[56] 125,000[67] 160,000[67] 200,000[67]–250,000[56] 200,000[67] 150,000[67]–200,000[56] 125,000[67]
Florence Italy 13,000 20,000 30,000 50,000–110,000[173] 60,000–120,000[56][174] 40,000
Gangaikonda Cholapuram India 200,000 300,000 300,000 250,000 150,000
Gaur Italy 60,000[67] 90,000[67] 100,000[67]
Genoa Italy 15,000[56]–80,000[173] 30,000[56] 100,000[175] 100,000[56]
Ghent Belgium 8,000[145] 12,000[56] 25,000[56] 65,000[176] 42,000[56]–65,000 57,000[56]
Guangzhou China 140,000[67] 150,000[67] 150,000[67]
Hangzhou China 80,000[67] 90,000[67] 145,000[67]–800,000[3] 255,000[67]–1,000,000[3] 320,000[67]–1,000,000[38] 432,000[67]–800,000[3] 432,000[67]
Jinzhou China 85,000[67]
Kaifeng China 400,000[38][56]–1,000,000[3] 442,000[67]–1,000,000[3] 150,000[67] 1,000,000[38]
Kalburgi India 70,000[67]
Kalyan India 150,000[67] 125,000[67]
Kannauj India 72,000[67] 80,000[67] 92,000[67]
Khajuraho (Kalinjar) India 100,000[56] 50,000[67]
Khambhat India 50,000[67] 60,000[67]
Kiev Ukraine 45,000[56] 48,000[56]–100,000[162] 36,000–50,000[56]
Kollam India 60,000[67]
Kyoto Japan 175,000[38]–300,000[56]
Laon France 25,000[152]
London[177] UK 20,000–25,000 10,000–20,000 20,000–30,000 80,000–100,000[178] 25,000–50,000
Lübeck Germany 6,000 18,800
Madurai India 60,000[67]
Mainz Germany 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 25,000[56] 25,000[56] 25,000[56] 24,000[56]
Manyakheta India 71,000[67]
Marrakech Morocco 150,000[67] 150,000[67] 150,000[67] 125,000[67]
Marseille France 6,000–7,000[56] 25,000[56] 40,000[56]
Merv Turkmenistan 200,000[67] 70,000[56]
Metz France 16,000 21,000[56] 23,000–27,000[56] 32,000[56]
Milan Italy 15,000[159] 45,000 58,000 (1170)[56] 60,000[56]–100,000[159] 150,000 150,000–200,000[178][159][179][180] 50,000–200,000[173][179][180][127]
Montpellier France 40,000–50,000[178]
Nabadwip India 85,000[67]
Nanjing China 130,000[67] 130,000[67] 130,000[67] 95,000[67]
Naples Italy 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 30,000–36,000 (1278)[56] 40,000[56]–100,000 60,000 (1340)[56]
Nishapur Iran 125,000[67]
Norwich UK 20,000–25,000
Padua Italy 15,000[178] 35,000[178]
Palermo Italy 60,000[146]–75,000 150,000 150,000[67] 50,000 (1277)[56] 40,000[56]–100,000[178]
Paris France 20,000[181] 50,000–65,000[182][183][184][185] 110,000[181] 160,000[67] 200,000–270,000 (1328)[186] 215,000[67]
Polonnaruwa Sri Lanka 75,000[67]
Prague Czech Republic 10,000[145] 22,000[56] 40,000[56] 50,000[56]
Puri India 78,000[67] 72,000[67]
Ramavati 75,000[67]
Regensburg Germany 40,000[145][162] 30,000
Rome Italy 35,000[56][162] 30,000–40,000[159] 30,000–40,000[159] 40,000[159] 40,000–50,000[159] 15,000[187]–17,000[56]
Rouen France 20,000[56] 20,000[56] 30,000–40,000[56] 50,000[56] 40,000–50,000[56][178]
Salerno Italy 50,000[188] 50,000[56] 50,000 10,000 (1320)[56]
Sarai Russia 120,000[67]
Seville Spain 52,000 40,000–50,000[178]
Shangjing China 140,000[38]
Speyer Germany 25,000 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 30,000[56] 25,000[56]
Suzhou China 100,000[38] 96,000[67]
Tabriz Iran 125,000[67] 100,000[67]
Thanjavur India 200,000[67] 250,000 200,000
Thăng Long/Hanoi Vietnam 30,000[148] 40,000[148]
Thessaloniki Greece 40,000[56] 40,000[56] 40,000[56] 30,000[56] 50,000[56]–100,000[189] 50,000–150,000[162][190]
Toledo Spain 37,000 35,000 42,000
Toulouse France 35,000
Trier Germany 20,000[145] 20,000[56] 20,000[56] 25,000[56]
Venice Italy 45,000–60,000[126][191][192][193] 58,000 64,000–70,000[56] 70,000–80,000[179][56] 45,000[175] 100,000–120,000[67][179] 65,228 (1363)
Veliky Novgorod Russia 10,000–18,000 20,000–40,000 50,000[194][195]
Verona Italy 10,000 20,000–25,000 20,000–25,000 35,000–40,000
Vijayanagar India 200,000
Warangal India 63,000[67] 80,000[67]
Worms Germany 20,000[145] 28,000[56] 25,000[56] 20,000[56]
York UK 8,000[178] 23,000[178]
Ypres Belgium 40,000–200,000[196] 30,000[56]
Renaissance: 1400–1599
City 1400 1450 1500 1550 1575
Aachen 15,000[197]
Adrianople / Edirne 28,000[56] 85,000[56] 125,000[56] 160,000[56] 183,000[56]
Agra 250,000 500,000
Ahmedabad 70,000[56] 80,000[56]–100,000[67] 140,000[67]–175,000[56] 300,000
Ahmednagar 70,000[67]
Alessandria 8,000[198]
Antwerp 18,000 (1374) 20,000 (1444) 40,000[197] 90,000[197] 104,984 (1568)[56][67]
Asti 8,000[198]
Augsburg 14,000 (1408)[199] 17,000 (1471)[199] 20,000[197] 45,000[197]
Ayutthaya 150,000[200] 150,000[200] 10,000 (1569)[200]
Bago 150,000[67] 175,000[67]
Beijing 150,000[67] 600,000[67] 672,000[67] 690,000[67] 706,000[67]
Bologna 40,000[201] 55,000[198] 61,731 (1569)[201][198] 72,395 (1588)[201]
Brescia 27,000[201] 30,000 (1440)[201] 49,000[198] 41,000[198]
Bursa 95,000[56] 130,000[67]
Bruges 37,000[179] 25,000 30,000[197] 35,000[197] 29,000 (1584)[202]
Cairo 125,000–360,000[3][67] 380,000[67] 400,000[3][56] 360,000[67] 275,000[67]
Chan Chan 60,000–100,000[203] 5,000–10,000[204]
Chang'an / Xi'an 150,000[56] 150,000[56] 127,000[67] 150,000[56]
Cologne 40,000[56] 30,000[197] 35,000[197] 37,000[56]
Como 10,000[198] 10,000[198]
Constantinople / Istanbul 75,000[56] 40,000–50,000[190] 200,000[56] 660,000[67] 680,000[67]
Crema 11,000[198]
Cremona 35,000[205] 40,000[198] 34,000[198]
Cuneo 6,000[198]
Cuttack 75,000[67] 100,000[67] 140,000[67] 90,000[67]
Cusco 45,000[206]
Delhi 80,000[67]–100,000[172] 160,000[172] 160,000[172]
Fes 125,000[67] 150,000[56] 130,000[67]
Florence 45,000–61,000[56][173][207] 54,000 (1470)[56] 55,000–70,000[188][173][208] 59,216 (1562)[56]
Fossano 9,000[198]
Gao 60,000[67]
Gaur 150,000[67] 200,000[67]
Ghent 70,000[56] 40,000[197] 50,000[197]
Genoa 80,000–100,000[173][174] 120,000 (1460)[56] 60,000[198] 65,000[198]
Granada 100,000[56] 165,000[67] 70,000[188][56]
Guangzhou 150,000[67] 175,000[67] 150,000[67] 160,000[67] 170,000[67]
Gwalior 80,000[67]
Hangzhou 235,000[67] 250,000[67] 250,000[56] 260,000[67] 260,000[67]
Hanoi 50,000[148]
Jaunpur 100,000[67]
Kalburgi 90,000[67]
Kano 50,000[67]
Khambhat 60,000[67]
Kollam 60,000[67]
Lodi 9,000[198]
London[177] 45,000[56] 75,000[56] 40,000[209] 80,000[209]
Lyon 20,000–35,000[56] 60,000[56] 50,000[210] 70,000[210]
Lübeck 17,200 21,568 25,444 22,452
Magdeburg 20,000[56] 24,000[56] 18,000[211] 40,000[56]
Mandu 70,000[67]
Mantua 28,000[198] 38,000[198]
Milan 125,000[175][179] 110,000[56] 100,000[198] 69,000[198] 115,000 (1574)
Modena 18,000[198] 16,000[198]
Nanjing 487,000[67] 150,000[67] 157,000[67] 182,000[67] 188,000[67]
Naples 40,000–100,000[56][174] 60,000 (1435)[56] 125,000[212]–150,000[213] 212,000[213] 215,000[67]
Novara 7,000[198]
Nuremberg 18,000[56] 25,982 (1449)[56] 36,000[211] 40,000[211]
Oyo-Ile 150,000 60,000[67]
Padua 27,000[198] 32,000[198]
Paris 100,000 (1422)[214] 150,000[67] 100,000[210] 130,000[210] 220,000[67]
Parma 19,000[198] 25,000[198]
Pavia 16,000[198] 13,000[198]
Piacenza 27,000[198]
Prague 40,000 30,000
Rome 33,000[215] 33,500 (1458)[215] 38,000[215]–55,000[213] 45,000[213] 80,000 (1580)
Rouen 40,000[210] 65,000[210]
Samarkand 130,000[67]
Seoul 100,000[56] 125,000[67] 150,000[56] 125,000[56]
Seville 15,000 (1384)[216] 60,000[216] 65,000 109,000 (1565)[216]
Suzhou 129,000[67]
Tabriz 150,000[67] 200,000[67] 250,000[67]
Tenochtitlan/Mexico City 200,000-400,000[217][218][219] 60,000[56]
Texcoco 60,000[67]
Venice 85,000–200,000[173][174] 150,000 (1423)[179] 100,000[198] 158,000[198] 134,871 (1581)
Verona 14,800 38,000[198] 52,000[198]
Vijayanagar 400,000[67] 550,000[67] 500,000[220]

Early Modern era[edit]

City 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1825 1850 1875
Aachen 14,171 (1601) 12,000[197] 15,000[197] 24,000[197] 35,428 56,190 (1849)[199] 79,606
Adrianople/Edirne 160,000[56] 132,000[56] 93,000[56] 96,000[56] 100,000[56] 125,000[56] 85,000[56]
Alexandria 15,000 (1693) 6,000 (1777) 4,000 (1798) 12,528 (1828) 138,000 212,000[221]
Antwerp 47,000[197] 70,000[197] 70,000[197] 46,000[197] 60,000[197] 88,000[222] 127,000[222]
Agra 500,000[56] 660,000[56] 60,000[56] 108,000[56] 149,008 (1872)[223]
Ahmedabad 300,000[56] 380,000[56] 400,000[67] 120,000[56] 89,000[56] 87,000 (1824) 94,390 (1846) 116,873 (1872)[223]
Amsterdam 59,551[224] 176,873[224] 235,224 233,952[67] 203,485 197,231 (1820) 223,700[222] 289,000[221]
Augsburg 48,000[197] 21,000[197] 21,000[197] 31,000[199] 28,000[197] 35,000[199] 57,210
Ayutthaya 100,000[200] 125,000[225] 150,000[200] 150,000[200] 30,000[200]
Baltimore 26,514 80,620 (1830) 169,054 299,000[221]
Barcelona 64,000 64,000 73,000 70,000 120,000 120,000 167,000 240,000[221]
Beijing 706,000[56] 470,000[67] 650,000[56] 900,000[67] 1,100,000[38][56] 1,350,000[67] 1,648,000[67] 1,310,000[56]
Berlin 25,000[197] 12,000[197] 55,000[197] 113,289[226] 172,132[226] 220,277 446,000 1,045,000[221]
Birmingham 2,000[209] 4,000[209] 7,000[209] 23,688[227] 73,670 (1801)[227] 122,000 294,000 480,000[221]
Bombay 100,000 163,000 (1826) 718,000[221]
Bordeaux 40,000[228] 40,000[228] 50,000[228] 67,000[228] 88,000[228] 142,000[229] 225,000[221]
Boston 6,700 20,000 35,248 61,392 (1830) 202,261 450,000[221]
Breslau 33,000–40,000[56][230] 37,000[56] 40,000[56] 52,000[56] 64,520[56] 89,500 (1831) 114,000[56] 239,050[56]
Brussels 55,000[56] 70,000[56] 70,000[56] 55,000[56]–60,000[222] 66,297[56][222] 208,000[56]–251,000[222] 327,000[221]
Bucharest 60,000[231] 50,000[231] 25,000[231] 34,000[231] 104,000[231] 177,646 (1878)[232]
Budapest 25,000[233] 24,000[233] 54,000[233] 156,506[233] 325,000[221]
Cairo 200,000[67] 350,000[234] 350,000[234] 300,000[234] 210,960 257,783 267,160 345,028
Calcutta 200,000 230,000 (1822) 680,000[221]
Chicago 100 (1830) 29,963 405,000[221]
Cologne 40,000[197] 45,000[197] 42,000[197] 43,000[197][222] 42,000[197] 59,049 94,781 (1849)[222] 135,371
Copenhagen 40,000[56] 29,000 62,000[56] 93,000[222] 101,000[222] 108,000[56] 150,000 241,000[221]
Danzig 50,000[211] 70,000[211] 50,000[211] 46,000[211] 40,000[211] 61,900 65,000[56] 90,500 (1874)
Delhi 200,000[172] 500,000[172] 100,000[172] 125,000[172] 150,000[172] 156,000[172] 154,417 (1872)[235]
Dhaka 200,000[56] 200,000[56] 200,000[56] 135,000[56] 110,000[56] 66,989 (1830)[56] 60,617[56] 51,536 (1869)[56]
Dresden 14,793 (1603) 16,000 (1648) 21,298 (1699) 63,209 (1755) 61,794 61,886 (1830) 94,092 (1849) 197,295[221]
Dublin 5,000[236] 17,000[236] 60,000[236]–80,000[237] 90,000[236]128,570 (1753)[237] 167,899 (1802)[236] 194,000[238] 263,000[239] 310,000[221]
Edinburgh 35,000 55,000 82,000 145,000 194,000 274,000[221]
Edo (Tokyo) 60,000[67] 430,000 688,000[67] 509,000[56] 685,000[67] 530,000[56] 567,000[56] 780,000[221]
Esfahān 125,000[56] 350,000[67] 350,000[67] 60,000[56] 50,000[56] 60,000[56] 76,088 (1870)
Genoa 71,000[198] 90,000[198] 80,000[198] 87,000[198] 91,000[198] 83,569 (1822) 100,696 130,269 (1872)
Glasgow[240] 7,000 14,000 14,000 23,500[222] 77,000[222] 170,000 346,000 635,000[221]
Guangzhou 180,000[67] 200,000[67] 200,000[67] 400,000[67] 800,000[67] 900,000[67] 875,000[67] 944,000[56]
Hangzhou 270,000[67] 281,000[67] 303,000[67] 340,000[67] 387,000[67] 410,000[67] 700,000[56] 50,000 (1864)
Hanoi 40,000[148] 100,000[241] 100,000[241] 75,000[241] 81,000[241] 51,000[148] 255,000[242]
Huế 60,000[148] 50,325[148]
Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon 24,000 50,000[148] 50,000[148] 180,661 (1902)[243]
Hyderabad 80,000[244] 90,000[225] 200,000[244] 225,000[244] 200,000[244] 200,000[244] 200,000[244] 350,000[244]
Iași (Jassy) 20,000[231] 20,000[231] 50,000[231] 72,000 (1877)[245]
Constantinople/Istanbul 400,000–700,000[3][67] 700,000[67] 600,000–700,000[3][67] 625,000[67] 570,000[67] 675,000[67] 785,000[67] 827,750 (1874)
Hamburg 40,000[230] 75,000 70,000[56] 75,000–90,000[246][56] 130,000[246] 124,838 (1830) 193,000[56] 348,000[221]
Kagoshima 50,000 51,000[56] 57,000[56] 67,000[67] 72,350[56] 72,000[56] 89,374 (1873)
Kanazawa 50,000[56] 55,106[56] 67,000[67] 78,000[56] 97,000[56] 103,000[56] 116,000[56] 109,685 (1873)
Kyoto 300,000[67] 350,000[247] 350,000[248][67] 362,000[239] 377,000[249] 350,000[238] 323,000[239] 238,663 (1873)[250]
Königsberg 40,000 (1663) 40,600 (1708) 60,000[209] 59,000[209] 67,125 79,887 (1852) 122,636
Lahore 350,000[56] 200,000[56] 94,000[56] 99,000 (1872)[250]
Leipzig 20,000 14,000 (1648) 15,653 (1699) 35,000 32,146 41,506 62,374 (1849) 209,000[221]
Lisbon 110,000[56] 165,000 (1639)[56] 188,000[56] 148,000–213,000[246][56] 180,000–237,000[246][56] 249,000[56] 240,000–259,000[246][56] 235,000 (1870)[246]
Liverpool 5,714 22,000[246] 77,653 (1801)[246] 170,000[56] 375,955 (1851)[251] 650,000[221]
London 200,000[209] 400,000[209] 575,000[209] 675,000[209] 865,000[209] 1,335,000[67] 2,320,000[67] 4,241,000[67]
Lyon 40,000[210] 75,000[210] 97,000[210] 114,000[246] 102,167 (1793) 115,841 (1820) 254,000 331,000[221]
Lübeck 22,570 31,068 19,978 17,644 24,631 25,600 26,098 44,799
Madras 15,000 55,000 125,000 172,000 310,000 400,000[221]
Madrid 49,000[252] 130,000[252] 110,000[252] 109,000[246][252] 167,000[252] 181,400 (1826)[56] 263,000[246][56] 407,000[221]
Manchester 5,000[209] 9,000[209] 18,000[209] 70,000[209] 155,000 412,000 590,000[221]
Marseille 40,000[210] 66,000[210] 75,000[210] 68,000[210][246] 78,000[210] 119,000[56] 193,000[56] 316,000[221]
Mexico City 75,000[56] 90,000[56] 100,000[56] 110,000[56] 128,000[56] 176,000[56] 170,000[251][56] 250,000[56]
Milan[175] 120,000[198] 100,000[198] 124,000[198] 123,618[56][246][198] 134,528[56][198] 168,000[56] 193,000[56] 277,000[221]
Moscow 80,000[56] 200,000 (1638) 130,000[56] 130,000–161,000[246][56] 238,000[56] 241,500 373,800[251] 601,969 (1871)
Munich 20,000[211] 10,000[211] 21,000[211] 32,000[211][246] 34,000[211] 62,290 96,398 198,000[221]
Nagoya 65,000[56] 65,000[67] 96,000[56] 92,000[67] 116,000 125,193 (1873)[250]
Nanjing 194,000[67] 178,000[67] 300,000[56] 285,000[56] 220,000[56] 200,000[56] 300,000[56]
Naples 400,000[213] 176,000[213] 216,000[213] 305,000[213] 427,000[213] 350,000[67] 413,000[251]–416,000[56] 450,000[221]
New Orleans 8,056 46,082 (1830) 116,375 210,000[221]
New York City 4,436 (1703) 13,296 (1749) 63,000 170,000 682,000 1,900,000[67]
Nuremberg 40,000[211] 25,000[211] 40,000[211] 30,000[211][246] 27,000[211][246] 54,000[246] 91,017
Osaka 200,000–360,000[67] 220,000 350,000–380,000[67][253][254] 400,000 (1749) 383,000–500,000 (1783)[56][253] 340,000[56] 300,000 320,000[221]
Palermo 105,000[255][213] 128,000[225] 100,000[213] 118,000[213] 139,000[213] 168,000[238] 182,000[239] 219,000[221]
Paris 220,000[210] 430,000[210] 510,000[210] 576,000[210] 581,000[210] 855,000[67] 1,314,000[67] 2,250,000[67]
Philadelphia 4,400 14,563 (1753) 68,200 138,000 426,221 791,000[221]
Prague 60,000 25,000 39,000[256] 58,000[257][256] 77,403[56][257][256] 98,000 117,000[257] 223,371 (1869)
Rio de Janeiro 20,000 29,000 44,000 166,419 274,000[221]
Rome 105,000[213] 124,000[213] 138,000[213] 156,000[213] 163,000[213] 138,000 170,000 252,000[221]
Rouen 60,000[210] 82,000[210] 64,000[210] 67,000[210] 81,000[210] 92,083 (1836) 104,142 (1851)[258] 104,902 (1876)
Saint Petersburg 138,000[259] 220,200[259] 438,000[67] 502,000[259] 764,000[221]
Seoul 150,000[67] 158,000[67] 187,000[67] 190,000[56] 192,000[56] 194,000[56]
Seville 121,000 (1597)[216] 65,000[252] 96,000[252] 66,000[252][257] 96,000[252] 75,000 (1820) 106,000[257] 133,247 (1877)
Shanghai 45,000 60,000 100,000 115,000 250,000 400,000[221]
Sunpu 100,000[67] 31,555 (1873)[260]
St. Louis 925 (1799) 4,977 (1830) 77,860 338,000[221]
Suzhou 175,000[56] 145,000[56] 245,000[56] 302,000[56] 243,000[67] 302,000[67] 550,000[56] 250,000[56]
Turin 24,000[198] 37,000[198] 42,000[198] 57,000[198] 82,000[198] 109,000[238] 138,000[239] 216,000[221]
Warsaw 35,000[261] 21,000[261] 28,000[261] 75,000[261] 124,000[238] 163,000[261] 311,000[221]
Venice[175] 139,000[198] 120,000[198] 138,000[198] 149,000[198] 138,000[198] 109,927 106,000[257] 129,676
Vienna[262][263] 50,000[256] 60,000[256] 114,000[256] 175,400[256] 231,000[256] 401,200 551,300 1,020,770
Xi'an 138,000[67] 147,000[56] 167,000[67] 195,000[67] 224,000[67] 259,000[67] 275,000[56] 250,000[56]
Yamaguchi 80,000[67]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dobrovody and Maydanets Suggested to be housing up to 10,000 people in Modelski's text (pp. 24–25), The estimate is based on the author's personal communication with Mikhail Videiko, Institute of Archaeology, Kyiv, October 2002 (p. 75). The previous estimates by S. I. Kruts for Maydanets and Talianki are 8,000 (1,575 housed within 270 ha) and 14,000 (2,700 houses within 450 ha), respectively (Pitskhelauri, K. N., and Chernykh, E. N. Eds., Kavkaz v sisteme paleometallicheskikh kultur Evrazii, Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1989, pp. 146–156.).[full citation needed]
  2. ^ a b c d Modelski's list of the world's largest cities treats Thebes and Haojing as the top cities with 100,000 inhabitants (p. 218), though the same list on the next page (p. 219) as well as Table 2 (c) place the population of Thebes at 120,000, while that for Haojing as well as Memphis and Babylon at 100,000 (pp. 33-34).[full citation needed]
  3. ^ Chandler listed Thebes, Haoqing, and Chengzhou (Luoyang) as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd largest cities (p. 460), though Luoyang is supposed to pass 100,000 in 1000 B.C. (p. 541).[full citation needed]
  4. ^ When the city first passed 100,000, suggested by Richard Forstall (pp. 541-542).[full citation needed]
  5. ^ Haoqing, the capital of Western Zhou, was located 15 km SW of Chang'an, the capital of Sung and Tang dynasties as well as the present center of Xi'an. Han capital was located 5 km NW of the center of modern Xi'an. All these sites are now within the sub-provincial city of Xi'an.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Rosenberg, Matt (November 4, 2019), "Largest Cities Throughout History", ThoughtCo, retrieved 2020-12-28
  2. ^ a b c Berezkin, Yuri E. "Apa Tanis and the Ancient Near East - an alternative model of complex society" (PDF). The Development of Urbanism from a Global Perspective. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Morris, Ian. "Social Development" (PDF). Ianmorris.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  4. ^ "Jericho and Catal Huyuk". Bruceowen.com. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  5. ^ "Choirokoitia". World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-04-26.
  6. ^ Cyprus, p. 25, at Google Books
  7. ^ Travel Cyprus: Illustrated Guide, Greek and Turkish Phrasebooks & Maps, p. 137, at Google Books
  8. ^ Frommer's Cyprus With Your Family: From the Best Family Beaches to Mountain Villages, p. 161, at Google Books
  9. ^ Cyprus, p. 23, at Google Books
  10. ^ The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean, p. 8, at Google Books
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