List of largest cities throughout history
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This article lists the largest cities or urban areas by estimated population in history. Many of the figures are uncertain, especially in ancient times.
List of the most populous cities or urban areas in history
The following is a table of the most populous cities or urban areas by estimated population in history according to four sources. City names are in bold where all four sources agree.
|Year||Morris (2010)||Modelski (2003)||Chandler (1987)||Chandler & Fox (1974)|
|8000 BC|| 500||Mureybet||Syria|
|7000 BC|| 1,000||Beidha||Jordan|| 1-2,000||Jericho||West Bank|
|6500 BC|| 5,000-10,000||Çatalhöyük||Turkey|
|6000 BC|| 3,000||Çatalhöyük||Turkey|
|5000 BC|| 4,000||Tell Brak||Syria|
|4000 BC||5,000||Uruk||Iraq|| 4,000||Eridu||Iraq|
| < 10,000||Dobrovody||Ukraine|
| < 10,000||Maydanets||Ukraine|
| < 10,000||Talianki||Ukraine|
|3500 BC|| 8,000||Uruk||Iraq||14,000||Uruk||Iraq||20,000||Abydos||Egypt|
|3000 BC|| 45,000||Uruk||Iraq||40,000||Uruk||Iraq||30,000||Memphis||Egypt||40,000||Memphis||Egypt|
|2500 BC|| 50,000||Uruk||Iraq|| 60,000||Lagash||Iraq||Memphis||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|2400 BC|| 50,000||Mari||Syria||Memphis||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|2300 BC|| 80,000||Girsu||Iraq||Memphis||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|2250 BC|| 35,000||Akkad||Iraq||> 30,000||Memphis||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|2000 BC|| 60,000||Memphis||Egypt|| 40,000||Isin||Iraq||65,000||Ur||Iraq||Thebes||Egypt|
|1800 BC||60,000||Mari||Syria||> 25,000||Thebes||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|1750 BC|| 65,000||Babylon||Iraq|
|1650 BC|| 100,000||Avaris||Egypt||Babylon||Iraq|
|1400 BC|| 80,000||Thebes||Egypt||80,000||Thebes||Egypt||Thebes||Egypt||Thebes||Egypt|
|1375 BC|| 100,000||Thebes||Egypt||Thebes||Egypt|
|1300 BC|| 80,000||Thebes||Egypt||120,000||Yinxu
|1200 BC||80,000||Babylon||Iraq||160,000||Pi-Ramses||Egypt|| 50,000||Memphis||Egypt||> 50,000||Memphis||Egypt|
|1100 BC|| 50,000||Memphis||Egypt||120,000||Pi-Ramses||Egypt||Thebes||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|1000 BC|| 50,000||Thebes||Egypt|| 120,000||Thebes||Egypt|| > 50,000||Thebes||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|China|| > 50,000||Haojing
|900 BC|| 50,000||Thebes||Egypt||125,000||Haojing||China||Thebes||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|800 BC|| 75,000||Nimrud
|700 BC|| 100,000||Nineveh||Iraq||100,000||Thebes||Egypt||Thebes||Egypt||Memphis||Egypt|
|668 BC|| 100,000||Nineveh||Iraq||Nineveh||Iraq|
|600 BC|| 125,000||Babylon||Iraq||200,000||Babylon||Iraq|| 100,000||Babylon||Iraq||200,000||Babylon||Iraq|
|500 BC||150,000||Babylon||Iraq|| 200,000||Babylon||Iraq||Babylon||Iraq||Babylon||Iraq|
|320 BC||> 300,000||Alexandria||Egypt||> 300,000||Alexandria||Egypt|
|300 BC|| 150,000||Babylon||Iraq||500,000||Carthage||Tunisia||Pataliputra
|200 BC||300,000||Alexandria||Egypt||600,000||Alexandria||Egypt|| 350,000||Pataliputra||India||350,000||Pataliputra||India|
|100 BC|| 400,000||Alexandria||Egypt||1,000,000||Alexandria||Egypt||Chang'an||China||Chang'an||China|
|1841||1,948,000||London||United Kingdom||2,235,000||London||United Kingdom|
|1850||2,320,000||London||United Kingdom||2,320,000||London||United Kingdom|
|1851||2,362,000||London||United Kingdom||2,362,000||London||United Kingdom|
|1861||2,803,000||London||United Kingdom||London||United Kingdom|
|1875||4,241,000||London||United Kingdom||4,241,000||London||United Kingdom|
|1900||6,600,000||London||United Kingdom||6,500,000||London||United Kingdom||6,480,000||London||United Kingdom||6,480,000||London||United Kingdom|
|1914||7,419,000||London||United Kingdom||London||United Kingdom|
|United States||7,774,000||New York
|1936||10,150,000||New York||United States||New York||United States|
|1950||12,463,000||New York||United States||12,500,000||New York||United States|
|1962|| 15,755,000||New York||United States||New York||United States|
|1968|| 20,500,000||Tokyo||Japan|| 20,500,000||Tokyo||Japan|
|1970|| 20,450,000||Tokyo||Japan|| 21,000,000||Tokyo||Japan|
- List of metropolitan areas by population
- List of urban agglomerations by population
- List of cities by population
- List of largest European cities in history
- (a) Ian Morris, Social Development, Stanford University, October 2010. This contains supporting materials for the following book: (b) Ian Morris, Why the West Rules—For Now, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. ISBN 978-0-374-29002-3.
- George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0-9676230-1-4. Figures in main tables are preferentially cited. Part of former estimates can be read at Evolutionary World Politics Homepage.
- Tertius Chandler, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census, Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1987. ISBN 0-88946-207-0. Figures in main tables are preferentially cited. Part of Chandler's estimates are summarized or modified at The Institute for Research on World-Systems; Largest Cities Through History by Matt T. Rosenberg; or The Etext Archives. Chandler defined a city as a continuously built-up area (urban) with suburbs but without farmland inside the municipality.
- Tertius Chandler and Gerald Fox, 3000 Years of Urban Growth, New York, NY: Academic Press, 1974. ISBN 0-12-785109-7. Figures in main tables are preferentially cited.
- Summarized in the supporting material on the website, but not given in Morris's published text (p. 632).
- The date that the population of Beidha, Basta and Çatalhöyük is estimated to be 1,000 is given as 7500 BC in Morris's published text (p. 632).
- Suggested to be the largest cities in Modelski's text, but not given constantly prior to 3700 BC (p. 3, p. 17, and p. 20). No entry is suggested for the Halafian and Ubaid periods.
- A Pre-Pottery Neolithic B settlement located ca. 25 km north of Petra.
- The rough year that Çatalhöyük was supposed to be the largest is not given in Modelski's text which cites Ian Hodder's report (p. 3 and p. 17). The year 6500 BC is based on the recent report by Hodder (Inhabiting Çatalhöyük: Reports from the 1995-99 Seasons (Çatalhöyük Research Project), Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2005.) where less inhabitants (1,500 to 2,000) are suggested by Craig Cessford (pp. 323-326).
- The date that the population of Çatalhöyük is estimated to be 3,000 is given as 6500 BC in Morris's published text (p. 632).
- Suggested to be housing up to 10,000 people in Modelski's text (pp. 24–25), but only Eridu is listed as the largest city in Table 2 (a) (p. 22). The estimate is based on the author's personal communication with Mikhail Videiko, Institute of Archaeology, Kiev, October 2002 (p. 75). The previous estimates by S. I. Kruts for Maydanets and Talianki are 8,000 (1,575 housed within 270 ha) and 14,000 (2,700 houses within 450 ha), respectively (Pitskhelauri, K. N., and Chernykh, E. N. Eds., Kavkaz v sisteme paleometallicheskikh kultur Evrazii, Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1989, pp. 146–156.).
- Suggested to be more than 45,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632).
- According to Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 218), Nippur shares the top with Lagash with 60,000 inhabitants in 2500 BC, though Table 2 (b) suggests that the population of Nippur is 20,000, the value of which is even lower than those estimated for Mari (50,000); Uruk and Umma (40,000); Memphis, Ebla, Urkesh, and Shuruppak (30,000) (p. 28).
- Girsu (Telloh), the later capital of the state of Lagash, was situated 25 km NW of Lagash (Tell al Hiba), though both sites are frequently referred as Lagash.
- According to Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 218), Girsu shares the top with Mari with 50,000 inhabitants, though Table 2 (b) suggests that the population of Girsu as well as Umma and Mohenjo-daro is 40,000 (p. 28).
- According to Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 218), the population of Girsu for 2300 BC is estimated as 50,000, which is less than that appears in Table 2 (b) and is the same value with that estimated for Mari (p. 28).
- Location uncertain. Maybe west of Sippar.
- Morris's list of the largest settlements excludes Ur for 2000 BC (p. 632), though the supporting material lists Ur sharing the top with Memphis with 60,000 inhabitants.
- Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 218) excludes Girsu for 2000 BC, though Table 2 (b) lists Girsu with 40,000 inhabitants (p. 28), sharing the top with Isin and Larsa.
- Interpolated values given by Christopher Chase-Dunn (citypop5.xls) or Chase-Dunn and Willard (oct2k1.xls). These numbers are not given in Chandler's original lists.
- The palace of Pi-Ramses (Qantir) was founded 2 km NE of Avaris (or Hawaret, Tell el-Dab'a), the residential area of which overlaps.
- When the city first passed 100,000, suggested by Richard Forstall (pp. 541-542).
- According to Chandler's list of the largest cities (pp. 523-527), Thebes was the largest for 1400-668 BC, but Memphis was also supposed to be somewhat larger during 1205-1188 (p. 94, p. 460).
- Qiyi (Qi) is listed as the largest settlement with 35,000 inhabitants in the Morris's published list (p. 632). On the other hand, the supporting material lists Thebes as the maximum settlement with 50,000 inhabitants, while both Luoyang (Luoyi) and Haojing (Feng) are listed as the mamximum settlements in the East with 35,000 inhabitants.
- Modelski's list of the world's largest cities treats Thebes and Haojing as the top cities with 100,000 inhabitants (p. 218), though the same list on the next page (p. 219) as well as Table 2 (c) place the population of Thebes at 120,000, while that for Haojing as well as Memphis and Babylon at 100,000 (pp. 33-34).
- Chandler listed Thebes, Haojing, and Chengzhou (Luoyang) as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd largest cities (p. 460), though Luoyang is supposed to pass 100,000 in 1000 BC (p. 541).
- Haojing, which formed the capital of Western Zhou together with Fenghao, was located 15 km SW of Chang'an, the capital of Tang Dynasty as well as the present center of Xi'an. Han capital was located 5 km NW of the center of modern Xi'an. All these sites are now within the sub-provincial city of Xi'an.
- Chengzhou was founded on the east side of the Luo river with Wangzheng on the west side. Both cities were later annexed to form Luoyi (Luoyang), the center of which has often shifted.
- According to Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 219), the population of Babylon for 700 BC is estimated as 120,000, which makes Babylon the only city to appear as the largest, while Table 8 (a) shows that Babylon has 100,000 inhabitants in 700 BC (p. 55).
- Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 219) excludes Linzi for 500 BC, though Table 5 (a) lists Linzi with 200,000 inhabitants (p. 41).
- The estimated year Sravasti was surpassed by Rajagriha is not given in Chandler and Fox's list (pp. 362-364).
- According to Chandler's list of the largest cities (pp. 523-527), Pataliputra was the largest for 300 to 195 BC, but Chang'an is listed as the largest already in 200 BC (p. 462).
- Seleucia was founded on the right bank of Tigris opposite to Ctesiphon. Figures for Seleucia include the population of Ctesiphon as a suburb during the Seleucid era and vice versa during the Sassanid era.
- Seleucia was supposed to stand first briefly just after Antiochus IV overran part of Egypt in 170 BC, though the precise year Chang'an recovered the lead is not given in Chandler and Fox's list (pp. 362-364).
- The population of Rome in AD 200 is estimated at 800,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 1,000,000.
- The population of Rome in AD 400 is estimated at 500,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 800,000.
- Based on historical documents, in Eastern Jin dynasty, Jiankang (Nanjing) had 280,000 registered households, and assuming an average Nanjing household had about 5.1 people at that time, the city had more than 1.4 million residents. (Shufen Liu, "Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. Culture and Power, 2001:35.)
- The population of Daxing (Chang'an) in AD 600 is estimated at 250,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 600,000.
- Although Chandler and Fox presumed that Baghdad was the world's largest city from 775 to 935 (p. 363), Chang'an is still listed as the largest in the year 800 (p. 306).
- Modelski's list of world's largest cities (p. 219) estimates the population of Baghdad for AD 1000 as 1,500,000, which is much higher than the value listed in Table 8 (b) (1,200,000 inhabitants) (p. 55).
- Although Kaifeng is obscurely treated as the most populous city until 1160 (p. 363), Kaifeng is ranked as the fifth largest city with 175,000 people in 1150, while Constantinople is listed as the largest city (p. 310). Surely Chandler and Fox have mistakenly omitted the statement that Constantinople is briefly the largest after the fall of Kaifeng to the Jurchens.
- The population of Hangzhou in AD 1200 is estimated at 800,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 1,000,000.
- The population of Hangzhou in AD 1500 is estimated at 600,000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 678,000.
- Includes Üsküdar in Asia Minor as a suburb.
- According to Morris (p. 483), Edo grew into the world's biggest city by 1720, but the estimated population for Edo is not given.
- Data from Richard Forstall's table for Rand McNally & Co.
- The population of Tokyo in AD 2000 is estimated at 26,7000 in Morris's published text (p. 632), while the supporting material describes 26,400,000.
- Top Ten Cities Through History, animation showing the ten largest cities throughout history according to Chandler