Clockwise from topː Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalay at Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmadabad Railway Station, CEPT University, Kankaria Lake and the Kirti Stambh at Hutheesing Temple
|• Mayor||Bijal Patel (BJP)|
|• Deputy Mayor||Dinesh Makwana|
|• Municipal commissioner||Vijay Nehra|
|• Metropolis||464.16 km2 (179.21 sq mi)|
|Area rank||1st in Gujarat|
|Elevation||53 m (174 ft)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (31,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||GJ-01 (west), GJ-27 (East),, GJ-38 Bavla (Rural)|
|Sex ratio||1.11 ♂/♀|
|Source: Census of India.|
Ahmedabad (// ()), also pronounced as, Amdavad in Gujarati, is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative headquarter of the Ahmadabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 (as per 2011 population census) makes it the fifth most populous city in India, and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 6,357,693 is the seventh most populous in India. Ahmadabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.
Ahmadabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmadabad, which houses the 54,000-seat Sardar Patel Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities such as commerce, communication and construction. Ahmadabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers.
In 2010, Ahmadabad was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in. As of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated gross domestic product was $64 billion.
Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission. In July 2017, the Historic City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmadabad, was declared as India's first UNESCO World Heritage City.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Civic administration
- 5 Culture
- 6 Economy
- 7 Sports
- 8 International relations
- 9 Notable citizens
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval . At that time, Karna, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara (modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval, and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid dynasty. This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A.D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed. According to other sources, he named it after himself. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of Dhu al-Qi'dah, Hijri year 813) at Manek Burj. He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.
In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6.2 mi) in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. In 1535 Humayun briefly occupied Ahmedabad after capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu. Ahmedabad was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaug. The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686. Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas.
During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between the Peshwa of Poona and the Gaekwad of Baroda. In 1780, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, a British force under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war. The British East India Company took over the city in 1818 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858. Incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI), enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India via the city. Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East".
The Indian independence movement developed roots in the city when Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram (now Sabarmati Ashram) on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 – which would become centres of nationalist activities. During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March. The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, and again in 1942 during the Quit India Movement. Following independence and the partition of India in 1947, the city was scarred by the intense communal violence that broke out between Hindus and Muslims in 1947, Ahmedabad was the focus for settlement by Hindu migrants from Pakistan, who expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy.
By 1960, Ahmedabad had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's thoroughfares. It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat state after the partition of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960. During this period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for higher education, science and technology. Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period. Many countries sought to emulate India's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan".
In the late 1970s, the capital shifted to the newly built, well planned city of Gandhinagar. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development. The 1974 Nav Nirman agitation – a protest against a 20% hike in the hostel food fees at the L.D. College of Engineering in Ahmedabad – snowballed into a movement to remove Chimanbhai Patel, then chief minister of Gujarat. In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes. The city suffered some of the impact of the 2001 Gujarat earthquake; up to 50 multi-storey buildings collapsed, killing 752 people and causing much damage. The following year, a three-day period of violence between Hindus and Muslims in the western Indian state of Gujarat, known as the 2002 Gujarat riots, spread to Ahmedabad; refugee camps were set up around the city.
|Population growth of Ahmedabad|
At the 2011 Census of India[update] Ahmedabad had a population of 5,633,927, making it the fifth most populous city in India. The urban agglomeration centred upon Ahmedabad, then having a population of 6,357,693, now estimated at 7,650,000, is the seventh most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city had a literacy rate of 89.62%; 93.96% of the men and 84.81% of the women were literate. Ahmedabad's sex ratio in 2011 was 897 women per 1000 men. According to the census for the Ninth Plan, there are 30,737 rural families living in Ahmedabad. Of those, 5.41% (1663 families) live below the poverty line. Approximately 440,000 people live in slums within the city. In 2008, there were 2273 registered non-resident Indians living in Ahmedabad.
In 2010, Forbes magazine rated Ahmedabad as the fastest-growing city in India, and listed it as third fastest-growing in the world after the Chinese cities of Chengdu and Chongqing. In 2011, it was rated India's best megacity to live in by leading market research firm IMRB. According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2003, Ahmedabad has the lowest crime rate of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million. In December 2011 market research firm IMRB declared Ahmedabad the best megacity to live in, when compared to India's other megacities. Slightly less than half of all real estate in Ahmedabad is owned by "community organisations" (i.e. cooperatives), and according to Vrajlal Sapovadia, professor of the B.K. School of Business Management, "the spatial growth of the city is to [an] extent [a] contribution of these organisations". Ahmedabad Cantonment provides residential zones for Indian Army officials.
In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the textile mills that were responsible for much of Ahmedabad's wealth faced competition from automation and from domestic specialty looms. Several prominent mills closed down, leaving between 40,000 and 50,000 people without a source of income, and many moved into informal settlements in the city center. The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), the governing and administrative body of the city, simultaneously lost much of its tax base and saw an increased demand for services. In the 1990s, newly emerging pharmaceutical, chemical, and automobile manufacturing industries required skilled labor, so many migrants seeking work ended up in the informal sector and settled in slums.
Ahmedabad has been relatively successful in its efforts to reduce poverty and improve the living conditions of poor residents. The urban poverty rate has declined from 28% in 1993-1994 to 10% in 2011-2012. This is partly due to the strengthening of the AMC and its partnership with several civil society organizations (CSOs) representing poor residents. Through several projects and programs (see below), the AMC has provided utilities and basic services to slums. However, there are challenges that remain, and there are still many residents who lack access to sanitation, improved water, and electricity. Riots, often rooted in religious tensions, threaten the stability of neighborhoods and have caused spatial segregation across religious and caste lines. Finally, the conception of pro-poor, inclusive development is being overshadowed by a national initiative promoting the creation of 'global cities' of capital investment and technological innovation. This has shifted priorities towards constructing new housing and attracting private development rather than servicing the urban poor.
As of 2011, about 66% of the population lives in formal housing. The other 34% lives in slums or chawls, which are tenements for industrial workers. There are approximately 700 slum settlements in Ahmedabad, and 11% of the total housing stock is public housing. The population of Ahmedabad has increased while the housing stock has remained basically constant, and this has led to densification of both formal and informal housing and a more economical use of existing space. The Indian census estimates that the Ahmedabad slum population was 25.6% of the total population in 1991 and decreased to 4.5% in 2011, but these numbers are contested and local entities maintain that the census underestimates informal populations. There is a consensus that there has been a reduction in the percentage of the population who lives in slum settlements, and a general improvement in living conditions for slum residents.
Slum Networking Project
In the 1990s, the AMC faced increased slum populations. They found that residents were willing and able to pay for legal connections to water, sewage, and electricity, but because of tenure issues they were paying higher prices for low-quality, informal connections. To address this, beginning in 1995, the AMC partnered with civil society organizations to create the Slum Networking Project (SNP) to improve basic services in 60 slums, benefitting approximately 13,000 households. This project, also known as Parivartan (Change), involved participatory planning in which slum residents were partners alongside AMC, private institutions, microfinance lenders, and local NGOs. The goal of the program was to provide both physical infrastructure (including water supply, sewers, individual toilets, paved roads, storm drainage, and tree planting) and community development (i.e. the formation of resident associations, women's groups, community health interventions, and vocational training). In addition, participating households were granted a minimum de-facto tenure of ten years. The project cost a total of Rs. 4350 million. Community members and the private sector each contributed Rs. 600 million, NGOs provided Rs. 90 million, and the AMC paid for the rest of the project. Each slum household was responsible for no more than 12% of the cost of upgrading their home.
This project has generally been regarded as a success. Having access to basic services increased the residents' working hours, since most worked out of their homes. It also reduced the incidence of illness, particularly water-borne illness, and increased children's rates of school attendance. The SNP received the 2006 UNHABITAT Dubai International Award for Best Practice to improve the living Environment. However, concerns remain about the community's responsibility and capacity for the maintenance of the new infrastructure. Additionally, trust was weakened when the AMC demolished two of slums that were upgraded as part of SNP to create recreational parks.
Religion and ethnicity
According to the 2011 census, Hindus are the predominant religious community in the city comprising 81.56% of the population followed by Muslims (13.51%), Jains (3.62%), Christians (0.85%) and Sikhs (0.24%). Buddhists, people following other religions and those who didn't state any religion make up the remainder.
- Its (Marian) cathedral of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ahmedabad (Latin Rite; established 1949), a suffragan of the Metropolitan of Gandhinagar.
- Ahmedabad is home to a large population of Vanias (i.e., traders), belonging to the Vaishnava sect of Hinduism and various sects of Jainism.
- Most of the residents of Ahmedabad are native Gujaratis. The city is home to some 2000 Parsis and some 125 members of the Bene Israel Jewish community. There is also one synagogue in the city.
- Shree Simandhar Swami’s idol is on the terrace of the Dada Darshan building at the bank of the Sabarmati Riverfront near the Gandhi Bridge in Ahmedabad. The idol can be seen from afar. People passing near the Gandhi Bridge can easily do devotional viewing of the Lord.
Ahmedabad lies at western India at 53 metres (174 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Sabarmati river, in north-central Gujarat. It covers an area of 464 km2 (179 sq mi). The Sabarmati frequently dried up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water, and the city is in a sandy and dry area. However with the execution of the Sabarmati River Front Project and Embankment, the waters from the Narmada river have been diverted to the Sabarmati to keep the river flowing throughout the year, thereby eliminating Ahmedabad's water problems. The steady expansion of the Rann of Kutch threatened to increase desertification around the city area and much of the state; however, the Narmada Canal network is expected to alleviate this problem. Except for the small hills of Thaltej-Jodhpur Tekra, the city is almost flat. Three lakes lie within the city's limits—Kankaria, Vastrapur and Chandola. Kankaria, in the neighbourhood of Maninagar, is an artificial lake developed by the Sultan of Gujarat, Kutb-ud-din, in 1451.in
Ahmedabad is divided by the Sabarmati into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad is characterised by packed bazaars, the pol system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of worship. A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion. This is a list of Pols in the old walled city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India. Heritage of these Pols has helped Ahmedabad gain a place in UNESCO's Tentative Lists, in selection criteria II, III and IV. The secretary-general of EuroIndia Centre quoted that if 12000 homes of Ahmedabad are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and its allied businesses. The Art Reverie in Moto Sutharvado is Res Artis center. The first pol in Ahmedabad was named Mahurat Pol. Old city also houses the main railway station, the main post office, and some buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge in 1875 and later the relatively modern Nehru Bridge. The western part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centred around roads such as Ashram Road, C. G. Road and Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.
Sabarmati Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad, India. Proposed in 1960s, the construction began in 2005
Ahmedabad has a hot, semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh), with marginally less rain than required for a tropical savanna climate. There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is extremely dry. The weather is hot from March to June; the average summer maximum is 43 °C (109 °F), and the average minimum is 24 °C (75 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 13 °C (55 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average annual rainfall is about 800 millimetres (31 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause local rivers to flood and it is not uncommon for droughts to occur when the monsoon does not extend as far west as usual. The highest temperature in the city was recorded on 18 and 19 May 2016 which was 50 °C (122 °F).
|Climate data for Ahmedabad (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.1
|Average high °C (°F)||28.1
|Average low °C (°F)||12.4
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.0
|Average rainy days||0.1||0.1||0.0||0.4||0.6||3.9||11.5||10.7||5.0||0.8||0.4||0.2||33.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||49||43||37||41||47||62||77||81||71||53||48||50||55|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||287.3||274.3||277.5||297.2||329.6||238.3||130.1||111.4||220.6||290.7||274.1||288.6||3,019.7|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity 1971–1990), IEM ASOS (May record high)|
Following a heat wave in May 2010, reaching 46.8 °C (116.2 °F), which claimed hundreds of lives, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) in partnership with an international coalition of health and academic groups and with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network developed the Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan. Aimed at increasing awareness, sharing information and co-ordinating responses to reduce the health effects of heat on vulnerable populations, the action plan is the first comprehensive plan in Asia to address the threat of adverse heat on health. It also focuses on community participation, building public awareness of the risks of extreme heat, training medical and community workers to respond to and help prevent heat-related illnesses, and co-ordinating an interagency emergency response effort when heat waves hit.
Early in Ahmedabad's history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion. Sidi Saiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches. Private mansions or haveli from this era have carvings. A Pol is a typical housing cluster of Old Ahmedabad.
After independence, modern buildings appeared in Ahmedabad. Architects given commissions in the city included Louis Kahn, who designed the IIM-A; Le Corbusier, who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill Owner's Association Building, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the administrative building of Calico Mills and the Calico Dome. B. V. Doshi came to the city from Paris to supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local works include Sangath, Amdavad ni Gufa and the School of Architecture. Charles Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi Ashram and Achyut Kanvinde, and the Indian Textile Industries Research Association. Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Française, is located in the Ellis Bridge area. Anant Raje designed major additions to Louis Kahn's IIM-A campus, namely the Ravi Mathai Auditorium and KLMD.
Some of the most visited gardens in the city include Law Garden, Victoria Garden and Bal Vatika. Law Garden was named after the College of Law situated close to it. Victoria Garden is located at the southern edge of the Bhadra Fort and contains a statue of Queen Victoria. Bal Vatika is a children's park situated on the grounds of Kankaria Lake and also houses an amusement park. Other gardens in the city include Parimal Garden, Usmanpura Garden, Prahlad Nagar Garden and Lal Darwaja Garden. Ahmedabad's Kamla Nehru Zoological Park houses a number of endangered species including flamingoes, caracals, Asiatic wolves and chinkara.
The Kankaria Lake, built in 1451 AD, is one of the biggest lakes in Ahmedabad. In earlier days, it was known by the name Qutub Hoj or Hauj-e-Kutub. Vastrapur Lake is located in the western part of Ahmedabad. Lal Bahadur Shastri lake in Bapunagar is almost 136,000 square metres. In 2010, another 34 lakes were planned in and around Ahmedabad of which five lakes will be developed by AMC; the other 29 will be developed by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA). Chandola Lake covers an area of 1200 hectares. It is home for cormorants, painted storks and spoonbills. During the evening time, many people visit this place and take a leisurely stroll. There is a recently developed Naroda lake and the world's largest collection of antique cars in KathWada at IB farm (Dastan Farm). AMC has also developed the Sabarmati Riverfront.
Ahmedabad is the administrative headquarters of Ahmedabad district, administered by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC). The AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act of 1949. The AMC commissioner is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government who reserves the administrative executive powers, whereas the corporation is headed by the Mayor of Ahmedabad. The city residents elect the 192 municipal councillors by popular vote, and the elected councillors select the deputy mayor and mayor of the city. The current Mayor, Bijal Patel, was appointed on 14 June 2018. The administrative responsibilities of the AMC are: water and sewerage services, primary education, health services, fire services, public transport and the city's infrastructure. AMC was ranked 9th out of 21 cities for "the Best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.4 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3."
The city is divided into six zones constituting 64 wards. Ahmedabad district is divided into a number of talukas (administrative divisions) including Ahmedabad taluka Barwala, Dholka, Dhandhuka, Detroj, Sanand, Bavla, Ranpur, Mandal, Viramgam and Daskroi. The city's urban and suburban areas are administered by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA).
- The city is represented by two elected members of parliament in the Lok Sabha (lower house of Indian Parliament) and 21 members of the Legislative Assembly at the Gujarat Vidhan Sabha.
- The Gujarat High Court is located in the Ahmedabad, making the city the judicial capital of Gujarat. Law enforcement and public safety is maintained by the Ahmedabad City Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer.
- Health services are primarily provided at Ahmedabad civil hospital, the largest civil hospital in Asia. Ahmedabad is one of the few cities in India where the power sector is privatised.
- Electricity in the city is generated and distributed by Torrent Power Limited, owned and operated by the Ahmedabad Electricity Company, which was previously a state-run corporation.
Ahmedabad observes a wide range of festivals. Popular celebrations and observances include Uttarayan, an annual kite-flying day on 14 and 15 January. Nine nights of Navratri are celebrated with people performing Garba, the most popular folk dance of Gujarat, at venues across the city. The festival of lights, Deepavali, is celebrated with the lighting of lamps in every house, decorating the floors with rangoli, and the lighting of firecrackers. The annual Rath Yatra procession on the Ashadh-sud-bij date of the Hindu calendar at the Jagannath Temple and the procession of Tajia during the Muslim holy month of Muharram are important events.
One of the most popular forms of meal in Ahmedabad is a typical Gujarati thali which was first served commercially by Chandvilas Hotel in 1900. It consists of roti (Chapati), dal, rice and shaak (cooked vegetables, sometimes with curry), with accompaniments of pickles and roasted papads. Sweet dishes include laddoo, mango, and vedhmi. Dhoklas, theplas and dhebras are also very popular dishes in Ahmedabad. Beverages include buttermilk and tea. Drinking alcohol is forbidden in Ahmedabad.
There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and international cuisines. Most of the food outlets serve only vegetarian food, as a strong tradition of vegetarianism is maintained by the city's Jain and Hindu communities. The first all-vegetarian Pizza Hut in the world opened in Ahmedabad. KFC has a separate staff uniform for serving vegetarian items and prepares vegetarian food in a separate kitchen, as does McDonald's. Ahmedabad has a quite a few restaurants serving typical Mughlai non-vegetarian food in older areas like Bhatiyar Gali, Kalupur and Jamalpur.
Manek Chowk is an open square near the centre of the city that functions as a vegetable market in the morning and a jewellery market in the afternoon. However, it is better known for its food stalls in the evening, which sell local street food. It is named after the Hindu saint Baba Maneknath. Parts of Ahmedabad are known for their folk art. The artisans of Rangeela pol make tie-dyed bandhinis, while the cobbler shops of Madhupura sell traditional mojdi (also known as mojri) footwear. Idols of Ganesha and other religious icons are made in huge numbers in the Gulbai Tekra area. The shops at the Law Garden sell mirror work handicraft.
Three main literary institutions were established in Ahmedabad for the promotion of Gujarati literature: Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarati Sahitya Parishad and Gujarat Sahitya Sabha. Saptak School of Music festival is held in the first week of the new year. This event was inaugurated by Ravi Shankar.
The Sanskar Kendra, one of the several buildings in Ahmedabad designed by Le Corbusier, is a city museum depicting its history, art, culture and architecture. The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial have permanent displays of photographs, documents and other articles relating to Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel. The Calico Museum of Textiles has a large collection of Indian and international fabrics, garments and textiles. The Hazrat Pir Mohammad Shah Library has a collection of rare original manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Turkish. There is Vechaar Utensils Museum which has of stainless steel, glass, brass, copper, bronze, zinc and German silver tools.
Shreyas Foundation has four museums on the same campus. Shreyas Folk Museum (Lokayatan Museum) has art forms and artefacts from communities of Gujarat. Kalpana Mangaldas Children's Museum has a collection of toys, puppets, dance and drama costumes, coins and a repository of recorded music from traditional shows from all over the world. Kahani houses photographs of fairs and festivals of Gujarat. Sangeeta Vadyakhand is a gallery of musical instruments from India and other countries.
L D Institute of Indology houses about 76,000 hand-written Jain manuscripts with 500 illustrated versions and 45,000 printed books, making it the largest collection of Jain scripts, Indian sculptures, terracottas, miniature paintings, cloth paintings, painted scrolls, bronzes, woodwork, Indian coins, textiles and decorative art, paintings of Rabindranath Tagore and art of Nepal and Tibet. N C Mehta Gallery of Miniature Paintings has a collection of ornate miniature paintings and manuscripts from all over India.
In 1949 Darpana Academy of Performing Arts was established by the eminent scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai and world renowned Bharat Natyam dancer Mrinalini Sarabhai, and thus Ahmemedabad city became the center of Indian classical dance.
Among the several universities in Ahmedabad, Gujarat University is the largest and claims to be the oldest; although the Gujarat Vidyapith was established in 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi - it received no charter from the British Raj, becoming a deemed university only in 1963. A large number of colleges in the city are affiliated with Gujarat University. Gujarat Technological University, CEPT University, Nirma University, and Ahmedabad University all date from this century. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University has over 100,000 students enrolled on its distance learning courses.
Established in 1947 by the scientist Vikram Sarabhai, the oldest of the research institutes in Ahmedabad, the Physical Research Laboratory is active in space science, astronomy, high-energy physics and many other areas of research. The Darpana Academy of Performing Arts, established in 1949 by Mrinalini Sarabhai, was listed by UNESCO as an institution active in the "Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage".
Schools in Ahmedabad are run either by the municipal corporation, or privately by entities, trusts and corporations. The majority of schools are affiliated with the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board, although some are affiliated with the Central Board for Secondary Education, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, International Baccalaureate and National Institute of Open School.
Newspapers in Ahmedabad include English dailies such as The Times of India, Indian Express, DNA, The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Ahmedabad Mirror and Metro. Newspapers in other languages include Divya Bhaskar, Gujarat Samachar, Sandesh, Rajasthan Patrika, Sambhaav, and Aankhodekhi. The city is home to the historic Navajivan Publishing House, which was founded in 1919 by Mahatma Gandhi.
The state-owned All India Radio Ahmedabad is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM bands (96.7 MHz) in the city. It competes with five private local FM stations: Radio City (91.1 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), My fm (94.3 MHz), Radio One (95.0 MHz), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz) and Mirchi Love (104 MHz). Gyan Vani (104.5 MHz) is an educational FM radio station run under media co-operation model. In March 2012 Gujarat University started campus radio service on 90.8 MHz which was first kind of it in state and fifth in India.
The state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan provides free terrestrial channels, while two multi system operators—InCablenet and Siti Cable and GTPL—provide a mix of Gujarati, Hindi, English, and other regional channels via cable. Telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators such as BSNL, Reliance CDMA & Reliance GSM, Airtel, Uninor, Vodafone, Idea and Tata Indicom, Jio.
The gross domestic product of Ahmedabad was estimated at US$64 billion in 2014. The RBI ranked Ahmedabad as the seventh largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. In the 19th century, the textile and garments industry received strong capital investment. On 30 May 1861 Ranchhodlal Chhotalal founded the first Indian textile mill, the Ahmedabad Spinning and Weaving Company Limited, followed by the establishment of a series of textile mills such as the Ananta Mills by Sheth Kalidas Shamalsha Sonara, Calico Mills, Bagicha Mills and Arvind Mills. By 1905 there were about 33 textile mills in the city. The textile industry further expanded rapidly during the First World War, and benefited from the influence of Mahatma Gandhi's Swadeshi movement, which promoted the purchase of Indian-made goods. Ahmedabad was known as the "Manchester of the East" for its textile industry. The city is the largest supplier of denim and one of the largest exporters of gemstones and jewellery in India. The automobile industry is also important to the city; after Tata's Nano project, Ford and Suzuki are planning to establish plants near Ahmedabad while the groundbreaking ceremony for Peugeot has already been performed.
The Ahmedabad Stock Exchange, located in the Ambavadi area of the city, is India's second oldest stock exchange. Two of the biggest pharmaceutical companies of India — Zydus Cadila and Torrent Pharmaceuticals – are based in the city. The Nirma group of industries, which runs a large number of detergent and chemical industrial units, has its corporate headquarters in the city. The city also houses the corporate headquarters of the Adani Group, a multinational trading and infrastructure development company. The Sardar Sarovar Project of dams and canals has improved the supply of potable water and electricity for the city. The information technology industry has developed significantly in Ahmedabad, with companies such as Tata Consultancy Services opening offices in the city. A NASSCOM survey in 2002 on the "Super Nine Indian Destinations" for IT-enabled services ranked Ahmedabad fifth among the top nine most competitive cities in the country. The city's educational and industrial institutions have attracted students and young skilled workers from the rest of India. Ahmedabad houses other major Indian corporates such as: Rasna, Wagh Bakri, Nirma, Cadila Pharmaceuticals, and Intas Biopharmaceuticals. Ahmedabad is the second largest cotton textile centre in India after Mumbai and the largest in Gujarat. Many cotton manufacturing units are currently running in and around Ahmedabad. Textiles are one of the major industries of the city. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation has acquired land in Sanand taluka of Ahmedabad to set up three new industrial estates.
Ahmedabad is one of six operating divisions in the Western Railway zone. Railway lines connect the city to towns in Gujarat and major Indian cities. Ahmedabad railway station, locally known as Kalupur station is the main terminus with 11 others.
The mass-transit metro system, MEGA for the cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar is under construction since March 2015. The North-South and East-West corridors are expected to complete by 2019.
Connectivity by Road
National Highway 48 passes through Ahmedabad and connects it with Delhi and Mumbai. The National Highway 147 also links Ahmedabad to Gandhinagar. It is connected to Vadodara through National Expressway 1, a 94 km (58 mi) long expressway with two exits. This expressway is part of the Golden Quadrilateral project.
In 2001, Ahmedabad was ranked as the most polluted city in India, out of 85 cities, by the Central Pollution Control Board. The Gujarat Pollution Control Board gave auto rickshaw drivers an incentive of ₹10,000 to convert all 37,733 auto rickshaws in Ahmedabad to cleaner burning compressed natural gas to reduce pollution. As a result, in 2008, Ahmedabad was ranked as 50th most polluted city in India.
Janmarg is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Ahmedabad Janmarg Limited, a subsidiary of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and others. Inaugurated in October 2009, the network expanded to 89 kilometres (55 mi) by December 2015 with daily ridership of 1,32,000 passengers. The Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS), maintained by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, runs the public bus service in the city. At present, AMTS has more than 750 buses serving the city.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city centre, provides domestic and international flights. It is the busiest airport in Gujarat and the eighth busiest in India with an average of 250 aircraft movements a day. The Dholera International Airport is proposed near Fedara. It will be the largest airport in India with a total area of 7,500 hectares.
Cricket is one of the popular sports in the city. Sardar Patel Stadium (also known as Motera Stadium), built in 1982, hosts both one day internationals and test matches. It has a seating capacity of 54,000. It hosted the 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket World Cups. Ahmedabad also has a second cricket stadium at the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation's Sports Club of Gujarat which is the home ground of the Gujarat cricket team that plays in the Ranji Trophy tournament.
Other popular sports are field hockey, badminton, tennis, squash and golf. Ahmedabad currently has three golf courses. Mithakhali Multi Sports Complex is being developed by the AMC to promote various indoor sports. Recently Ahmedabad hosted national level games for roller skating and table tennis. Kart racing is gaining popularity in the city, with the introduction of a 380 metre long track based on Formula One concepts.
Sabarmati Marathon is organised every year in December–January since 2011 which have different categories like full and half marathon, 7 km dream run, 5 km run for visually challenged and 5 km wheelchair run. In 2007, Ahmedabad hosted the 51st national level shooting games. The 2016 Kabaddi World Cup is held in Ahmedabad at The Arena by Transtadia (a renovated Kankaria football ground). Geet Sethi, a five-time winner of the World Professional Billiards Championship and a recipient of India's highest sporting award, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, was raised in Ahmedabad.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Sister Cities
- Columbus, Ohio, United States (2008)
- Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (September 2014)
- Port Louis, Mauritius
- Astrakhan, Astrakhan Oblast, Russia
- Ulsan, Yeongnam, South Korea
- Jersey City, New Jersey, United States (1994)
- Ahmad Shah I – founder of Ahmedabad
- Gautam Adani – billionaire businessman; chairman and founder of Adani Group
- Ela Bhatt – cooperative organizer, activist and Gandhian, founder of the Indian Self Employed Women's Association
- Sujata Bhatt – poet and writer
- Jasprit Bumrah – cricketer
- B.V. Doshi – architect; the first to win a Pritzker Prize
- Neha Dubey – psychotherapist and former actress
- Pawan Raj Goyal – doctor
- Makarand Paranjape – poet and professor
- Karsanbhai Patel – founder of Nirma Group
- Rutik Sheth – film maker and marketing professional
- Pannalal Patel – author
- Parthiv Patel – cricketer, wicketkeeper-batsman for the Indian national cricket team
- Vallabhbhai Patel – first Deputy Prime Minister of India, popularly known as Sardar Patel
- Darshan Raval – singer
- Mallika Sarabhai – activist and classical dancer
- Mrinalini Sarabhai – classical dancer; founder of Darpana Academy
- Vikram Sarabhai – scientist and innovator, regarded as the father of India's space program
- M. C. Setalvad – eminent jurist; first and longest-serving Attorney General of India
- Nirav Tripathi – businessman
- Ahmedabad portal
- List of people from Ahmedabad
- List of tallest buildings in Ahmedabad
- Timeline of Ahmedabad
- "Bijal Patel appointed city Mayor". Ahmedabad Mirror. 15 June 2018.
- "Amdavad city". Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "About The Corporation: Ahmadabad Today". Ahmdabad Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Ahmedabad City Census 2011 data". Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Gujarāt (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Archived from the original on 30 April 2016.
- "Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density". 2011 census of India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Ahmadabad (Ahmadabad) District : Census 2011 data". census2011. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- Dave, Jitendra (March 28, 2012). "Is it Ahmadabad or Amdavad? No one knows for sure". DNA India.
- "India: States and Major Agglomerations - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.
- "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". citypopulation.de. 1 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016.
- "Ahmadabad & Gandhinagar a tale of twin cities". One India One People. 1 December 2015. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
- Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (2006). "Profile of the City Ahmadabad" (PDF). Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation Ahmadabad, Urban Development Authority and CEPT University, Ahmadabad. Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- "Ahmadabad joins ITES hot spots". Times of India. 16 August 2002. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- Kotkin, Joel. "In pictures—The Next Decade's fastest growing cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Ahmedabad best city to live in, Pune close second". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Bippen, Nicole. "Ahmedabad- GDP of $119 billion". Therichest. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
17 February 2014
- "Government releases list of 20 smart cities - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "600-year-old smart city gets World Heritage tag". The Times of India. 9 July 2017. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Turner, Jane (1996). The Dictionary of Art. 1. Grove. p. 471. ISBN 978-1-884446-00-9.
- Michell, George; Snehal Shah; John Burton-Page; Mehta, Dinesh (28 July 2006). Ahmadabad. Marg Publications. pp. 17–19. ISBN 81-85026-03-3.
- Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 173.
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.
- "History of Ahmedabad". Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, egovamc.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- More, Anuj (18 October 2010). "Baba Maneknath's kin keep alive 600-yr old tradition". The Indian Express. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- This ambiguity is similar to the case of Tsar Peter the Great naming his new capital "Saint Petersburg", referring officially to Saint Peter but in fact also to himself.
- Pandya, Yatin (14 November 2010). "In Ahmedabad, history is still alive as tradition". dna. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "History". Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
Jilkad is anglicized name of the month Dhu al-Qi'dah, Hijri year not mentioned but derived from date converter
- "02/26/2015 : Divya Bhaskar e-Paper, ahmedabad, e-Paper, ahmedabad e Paper, e Newspaper ahmedabad, ahmedabad e Paper, ahmedabad ePaper". Archived from the original on 21 June 2015.
- Kuppuram, G (1988). India Through the Ages: History, Art, Culture, and Religion. Sundeep Prakashan. p. 739. ISBN 978-81-85067-08-7. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- Eraly, Abraham (2004). The Mughal Throne. Orion Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7538-1758-2.
- Sangwan, Satpal; Y. P. Abrol; Mithilesh K. Tiwari (2002). Land Use-- Historical Perspectives: Focus on Indo-Gangetic Plains. Allied Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-81-7764-274-2.
- Prakash, Om (2003). Encyclopaedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. pp. 282–284. ISBN 81-261-0938-6. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- Kalia, Ravi (2004). "The Politics of Site". Gandhinagar: Building National Identity in Postcolonial India. Univ of South Carolina Press. pp. 30–59. ISBN 1-57003-544-X. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- Iain Borden; Murray Fraser; Barbara Penner (11 August 2014). Forty Ways to Think About Architecture: Architectural History and Theory Today. John Wiley & Sons. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-118-82261-6. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- A. Srivathsan (23 June 2006). "Manchester of India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- Gilly, Thomas Albert; Gilinskiy, Yakov (8 December 2009). The Ethics of Terrorism: Innovative Approaches from an International Perspective (17 Lectures). Charles C Thomas Publisher. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-398-07867-6. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1962). Cities and civilization. Popular Prakashan. p. 96. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- Acyuta Yājñika; Suchitra Sheth (2005). The Shaping of Modern Gujarat: Plurality, Hindutva, and Beyond. Penguin Books India. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-14-400038-8. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- Political Science. FK Publications. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-81-89611-86-6. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Shah, Ghanshyam (20 December 2007). "60 revolutions—Nav nirman movement". India Today. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- Yagnik, Achyut (May 2002). "The pathology of Gujarat". New Delhi: Seminar Publications. Archived from the original on 22 March 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2006.
- Sinha, Anil. "Lessons learned from the Gujarat earthquake". WHO Regional Office for south-east Asia. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 13 May 2006.
- "Gujarat riot death toll revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- "17 bomb blasts rock Ahmedabad, 15 dead". CNN IBN. 26 July 2008. Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- "India blasts toll up to 37". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. 27 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- "Historical Census of India". Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- "BPL Census for ninth plan". Ahmedabad District Collectorate. Archived from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2006.
- "Slum Population in Million Plus Cities". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 23 December 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2006.
- "NRI Directory". Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "Cheers Ahmedabad! City is racing ahead". DNA India. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- IMRB. "Ahmedabad best city to live in, Pune close second". Times of India. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- John, Paul (16 October 2005). "Surat crime rate lowest". Times of India. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "Ahmedabad best city to live in, Pune close second". The Times of India. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Sapovadia, Vrajlal (2007). "A critical study of urban land ownership by an individual vis-à-vis institutional (or community) based ownership—The Impact of type of ownership on spatial growth, efficiency and equity: A case study of Ahmedabad, India". Urban Research Symposium 2007 (PDF). Washington, DC: World Bank. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- "Army plans to bridge accommodation deficit for staffers". IANS. New India Press. 16 September 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2008.[permanent dead link]
- Bhatkal, Tanvi, William Avis, and Susan Nicolai. “A Cautionary Tale of Progress in Ahmedabad,” n.d., 48.
- World Bank. 2007. The Slum Networking Project in Ahmedabad : partnering for change (English). Water and Sanitation Program case study. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/353971468259772248/The-Slum-Networking-Project-in-Ahmedabad-partnering-for-change
- SEWA Academy (2002) Parivartan and its impact: A Partnership Programme of Infrastructure Development in Slums of Ahmedabad City. SEWA Monograph. Ahmedabad: Self Employed Women's Association.
- "UN-HABITAT.:. India | Dubai International Award for Best Practices Winners | Ahmedabad Slum Networking Programme". mirror.unhabitat.org. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018. GCatholic, with Google satellite picture and links
- "Jews of Ahmedabad, India, welcome Torah scroll." Archived 15 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Jewish Journal. 13 September 2012. 13 September 2012.
- Katz, Nathan; Ellen S. Goldberg. "The Last Jews in India and Burma". Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2006.
- "High ageing rate, health problems worry Parsi community". Times of India. 22 October 2001. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
- "The Dada Darshan Trimandir". Retrieved 2018-20-10. Check date values in:
- Gujarat State gazetteers. Directorate of Govt, Print., Stationery and Publications, Gujarat State. 1984. p. 46.
- "Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake" (PDF). Jag Mohan Humar, David Lau, and Jean-Robert Pierre. The Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- Reader In Urban Sociology. Orient Blackswan. 1991. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-0-86311-152-5. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Residential Cluster, Ahmedabad: Housing based on the traditional Pols" (PDF). arc.ulaval.ca/. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- (Gujarati)Patel, Bholabhai. "અમદાવાદની પોળ સંસ્કૃતિની એક મર્મસ્પર્શી ઝલક". Divya Bhaskar. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Dave, Jitendra. "Ahmedabad heritage set to conquer Spain". Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Vaarso". Ahmedabad Mirror. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Urban Structure and Growth". The Ahmedabad Chronicle: Imprints of a millennium. Vastu-Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design. 2002. p. 83.
- "Idar records highest ever temp at 50.0". Times of India. 18 May 2016. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Ahmedabad Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Ahmedabad Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "VAAH Data for May 18, 2016". IEM. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- Chitre, Mandar; Halliday, Adam (3 May 2012). "Weather: Researchers fear 'May 2010 heat wave' may return to city". Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "Heat Action Plan – Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation" (PDF). Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- FEATURE: Ahmedabad, India launches heat wave preparation and warning system Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Climate & Development Knowledge Network, Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Addressing heat-related risks in urban India: Ahmedabad's Heat Action Plan Archived 12 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Dr Tejas Shah, Dr Dileep Mavalankar, Dr Gulrez Shah Azhar, Anjali Jaiswal and Meredith Connolly, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Indian Institute of Public Health-Gandhinagar and the Natural Resources Defense Council, 2014
- B.R. Kishore; Shiv Sharma (2008). India – A Travel Guide. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 491. ISBN 978-81-284-0067-4. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Pandya, Yatin. "Calico dome: Crumbling crown of architecture". Daily News and Analysis. India. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Shastri, Parth (16 October 2011). "Calico Dome: The icon of its time". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Gans, Deborah; Corbusier, Le (2006). The Le Corbusier guide. Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 211–. ISBN 978-1-56898-539-8. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Gargiani, Roberto; Rosellini, Anna (25 November 2011). Le Corbusier: Beton Brut and Ineffable Space (1940–1965): Surface Materials and Psychophysiology of Vision. EPFL Press. pp. 417–. ISBN 978-0-415-68171-1. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Christopher Charles Benninger Architects". Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "He was a teacher and an institution". Times of India. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Law Garden Night Market". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Endangered species Identified for breeding and their species coordinator". Central Zoo Authority India. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- Gujarat-Daman-Diu. Google books. 1998. ISBN 9788125013839. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Pandya, Yatin. "Reminiscing the Kankaria Lake of yore". DNA India. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Jadav, Ruturaj (14 April 2010). "City of lakes-With 34 new lakes under development, Ahmedabad is set to pose a challenge to Udaipur". Ahmedabad Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- It's a Jungle Out tHere [sic]. Indian Express, 18 August 2013
- "Chandola Lake". ahmedabad.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- "Get ready to pay entry fee at Naroda Lake". dna. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015.
- "VCCCI". vccci.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015.
- Mahadevia, Darshin (2008). Inside the transforming urban Asia : processes, policies and public actions (1. publ. ed.). New Delhi: Concept. p. 650. ISBN 978-81-8069-574-2.
- Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). janaagraha.org. Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "My Taluka". Government of Gujarat. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "City Information". aai.aero/. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012.
- "Saikia new Ahmedabad police chief". The Indian Express. 20 October 2007. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- Dasgupta, Manas (25 September 2008). "Civil Hospital planned as world's biggest hospital". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
- Vedavalli, Rangaswamy (13 March 2007). Energy for Development: Twenty-first Century Challenges of Reform and Liberalization in Developing Countries. Anthem Press. pp. 215–. ISBN 978-1-84331-223-9. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "Group Companies—The Ahmedabad Electricity Company Limited". Torrent Group. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Ahmedabad all set for Tazias". Daily News and Analysis. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Ahmedabad gets ready for colourful tazias". Daily News and Analysis. 28 December 2009. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- O'Brien, Charmaine (2013). The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin UK. ISBN 93-5118-575-3.
- Dalal, Tarla (2003). The Complete Gujarati Cookbook. Sanjay & Co. p. 4. ISBN 81-86469-45-1.
- Naomi Canton (17 August 2017). "We're beneficiaries of reverse colonialism: Boris". Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017.
- "Food – IIMA". iimahd.ernet.in. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Made for India: Succeeding in a Market Where One Size Won't Fit All". India Knowledge@Wharton. The Wharton School. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- "KFC in Ahmedabad". Burrp.com Network 18. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Nair, Avinash (17 October 2011). "Kentucky Friend Chicken changes dress code for vegetarian Gujarat". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Hum dono hai alag alag" (PDF). press release. McDonald's India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Mcdonald's in Ahmedabad". Burrp.com Network 18. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Ahmedabad Food". Outlook Traveller. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Anjali H. Desai (2007). India Guide Gujarat. India Guide Publications. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-9789517-0-2. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Schedule of Virasat — virasatfestival.org" (PDF). virasatfestival.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Saptak Music Festival". Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "The Calico Museum of Textiles". Calicomuseum.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Vechaar Utensils Museum". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Kaushalam. "Vechaar ~ Utensils Museum Vishalla Environmental Center for Heritage of Art Architecture and Research". www.vechaar.com. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- "Shreyas Folk Museum". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "Shreyas Foundation". Shreyasfoundation.in. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "Lokayatan Folk Museum". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "L D Museum of Indology". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "N C Mehta Gallery". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "Literacy in Gujarat". Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Gujarat University". www.gujaratuniversity.org.in. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013.
- "Gujarat Vidyapith : History". Gujarat Vidyapith. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
- "List of University (State wise)—Gujarat". University Grants Commission, India. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2006.
- "Introduction". www.baou.edu.in. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017.
- "MHRD, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)". www.nirfindia.org. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
- Jain, R.; Dave, H.; Deshpande, M. R. (September 2001). Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SoXS) development at Physical Research Laboratory/ISRO. adsabs.harvard.edu. European Space Agency. p. 109. Bibcode: 2006JApA...27..175J
- Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (5 February 2008). "Intangible Cultural Heritage" (PDF). UNESCO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2017.
- "Decision of the Intergovernmental Committee: 2.COM 4 - intangible heritage - Culture Sector". ich.unesco.org. UNESCO.
- "AHMEDABAD NEWSPAPERS". All you can read. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Gandhi copyright breathes life into Navjivan Trust". Times of India. 1 October 2003. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "requency Schedule for 30 March 2008 to 26 October 2008". All India Radio. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
- "Gyan Vani to be expanded". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 July 2001. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Ahmed, Syed Khalique (31 March 2012). "GU launches first campus FM radio station in state, fifth in country". The Indian Express. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Jha, Paras (24 November 2010). "Historic silence: Staff strike switches off Akashvani, Doordarshan in Gujarat". DNA India. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Haslam, Catherine. "A Guide to India's Telecom Market". www.lightreading.com. Light reading Asia. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Engineering Expo – Ahmedabad". mpponline.in. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Know the 10 most developed Indian cities based on GDP". IndiaTVNews. 9 January 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Top 10 Indian Cities and Their Major Industrial Activities". Listice. 3 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Textile industry of Ahmedabad". Ahmedabad Textile Mills' Association. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- "History of textile industry in Ahmedabad". Textile Association of India. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- "Industry and Commerce". The Ahmedabad Chronicle: Imprints of a millennium. Vastu-Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design. 2002. p. 34.
- "Groundbreaking performed for Peugeot plant at Sanand site in Gujarat". deshgujarat.com. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Suzuki to pick Gujarat for new $1.3 bln plant". The Economic Times. Reuters. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Ford bets big on India, to build plant in Gujarat". Reuters. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "ASE to sell off iconic Manekchowk building". DNA India. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Adani Group locations". Adani.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Narmada water reaches Ahmedabad". Chennai, India: Business Line. 14 March 2001. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Tiku, Nitasha (11 December 2007). "Ahmedabad, Kolkata among new global hotspots". Rediff. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- "Ahmedabad joins ITES hot spots". Times of India. 16 August 2002. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- "About Ahmedabad". ozoneindiagroup. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Chand, Smriti. "Cotton Textile Industry in India : Production, Growth and Problems". Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Soma Textiles & Industries, Ltd". Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Kumar Textile Industries". Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Textiles:: Reliance Industries Limited". Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Growth of Cotton Textile Industry in Ahmedabad". Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Singh, Vipul (2009). Longman Vistas 8. Pearson Education India. p. 174. ISBN 81-317-2910-9.
- Mehta, Makrand (1982). The Ahmedabad cotton textile industry: genesis and growth. New Order Book Co.
- Dave, Kapil (15 May 2011). "Six new GIDC estates to come up in Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar". Indianexpress. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Organisation". Western Railways. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- "railway stations near Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India". Google Maps. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "New firm to speed up Metro in Ahmedabad". dnaindia.com. 2 May 2009. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- DeshGujarat (14 March 2015). "First 6 km works of Ahmedabad Metro to complete by September 2016:CM". DeshGujarat. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- "Ahmedabad Metro set to roll by October 2017". The Times of India. 12 December 2015. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- "IL&FS; Engineering Services Bags Rs. 374.64 Cr Metro Rail Contract in Gujarat". The Hans India. 15 December 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- "PM flags off Ahmedabad expressway". The Hindu Business Line. 30 January 2003. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- "Ahmedabad riding clean fuel wave to healthier future". The Economic Times. India. 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- "About-Ahmedabad Janmarg Ltd". Ahmedabad BRTS. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Ahmedabad BRTS:Urban Transport Initiatives in India: Best Practices in PPP" (PDF). National Institute of Urban Affairs. 2010. pp. 18–48. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "City's BRTS didn't enhance public transport usage". The Times of India. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Highlights of Ahmedabad civic budget 2009–10". Desh Gujarat. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Routes to/from Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport". Our Airports. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "ahmedabad airport". Airport Authority of India. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- "Federa, father of all airports". Times of India. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Sports in Ahmedabad". ahmedabadonline. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Sardar Patel Stadium". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
- "Indian Grounds". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
- "Sardar Patel Stadium". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
- Kaushik, Himanshu (20 January 2007). "Five more golf courses to tee off in state". Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- Manish, Kumar (23 September 2007). "Multi-crore sports complex in city". Times of India. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "Looking to Feature". Sports Authority of Gujarat. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- Menon, Lekha (23 November 2004). "No sense of adventure". Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "Karting". J K Tyres. Archived from the original on 16 July 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "Sabarmati Marathon Official Website-Race Categories". www.sabarmatimarathon.net. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "National Shooting C'ships to be held at Ahmedabad". Press Trust of India. 20 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- "Geet Sethi Profile". Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Sanyal, Anindita (15 May 2015). "India Gets 3 Sister Cities in China, and One Sister Province". NDTV. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016.
- Muktirajsinhji Chauhan and Kamalika Bose. History of Interior Design in India Vol 1 : Ahmedabad (2007) ISBN 81-904096-0-3
- Kenneth L. Gillion (1968). Ahmedabad: A Study in Indian Urban History. University of California Press.
- Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. A history of important ancient towns and cities in Gujarat and Kathiawad (from the earliest times down to the Moslem conquest). ASIN B0008B2NGA.
- Crook, Nigel (1993). India's Industrial Cities: Essays in Economy and Demography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563172-2.
- Rajan, K. V. Soundra (1989). Ahmadabad. Archaeological Survey of India.
- Forrest, George William. Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-93823-9.
- Gandhi, R (1990). "Patel: A Life". Navajivan Press, Ahmedabad. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
- Michell, George (2003). Ahmadabad. Art Media Resources. ISBN 81-85026-03-3.
- Spodek, Howard (2011). Ahmedabad: Shock City of Twentieth-Century India. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35587-4.