Ilok

Coordinates: 45°13′19″N 19°22′31″E / 45.22194°N 19.37528°E / 45.22194; 19.37528
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Ilok
Grad Ilok
Town of Ilok
Ilok 001.jpg
Ilok vinski podrum.jpg
Ilok Principovac.jpg
Lucka uprava Ilok 221208.jpg
Crkva sv Ivana Kapistrana ulaz mozaik 221208.jpg
Ilocki vinogradi - panoramio.jpg
Ilok jewish cemetery C.jpg
Photographs of Ilok
Flag of Ilok
Coat of arms of Ilok
The Town of Ilok.png
Ilok is located in Vukovar-Syrmia County
Ilok
Ilok
Location of Ilok in Croatia
Ilok is located in Croatia
Ilok
Ilok
Ilok (Croatia)
Ilok is located in Europe
Ilok
Ilok
Ilok (Europe)
Coordinates: 45°13′19″N 19°22′31″E / 45.22194°N 19.37528°E / 45.22194; 19.37528
Country Croatia
RegionSyrmia (Podunavlje)
County Vukovar-Syrmia
Government
 • MayorMarina Budimir
Elevation
110 m (360 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Town6,767
 • Urban
5,072
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
32236
Area code+385 (0)32
Websiteilok.hr
Ilok Castle

Ilok (pronounced [ilok]) is the easternmost town in Croatia forming a geographic salient surrounded by Vojvodina. Located in the Syrmia region, it lies on the Fruška Gora hill overlooking the Danube river, which forms the border with the Bačka region of Serbia. The town is home to a Franciscan monastery and Ilok Castle, which is a popular day trip for domestic tourists.

Name[edit]

In Croatian, the town is known as Ilok, in German as Illok, in Hungarian as Újlak, in Serbian Cyrillic as Илок and in Turkish as Uyluk. In Hungarian language "Újlak" means "new dwelling or lodge".

History[edit]

The area of present-day Ilok was populated since the neolithic and Bronze Ages. One Scordisci archaeological site dating back to late La Tène culture was excavated in the 1970s and 1980s as a part of rescue excavations in eastern Croatia.[2] The Romans settled there in the 1st or 2nd century and built Cuccium, the first border fortification on the Danube. The Slavs settled here in the 6th century. The area was later ruled by the Bulgarian Empire, with a period of Frankish and Croat rule under Ljudevit Posavski, but after that the Bulgarians return, and stayed there until it was included into the medieval Kingdom of Hungary.

In 12th and 13th centuries the market-town of Ilok was mentioned in documents under various names (Iwnlak, Vilak, Vylok, Wyhok, Wylak). At the end of the 13th century, Hungarian kings gave the Vylak castrum to the powerful Csák noble family. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Ilok was a capital of the semi-independent medieval state of Upper Syrmia ruled by Ugrin Csák.

After 1354, the town of Ilok belonged to Nicholas and Paul Garay (in Croatian references Gorjanski), and then to Nicholas Kont of Orahovica and his descendants, among which was his grandson Ladislaus, great-grandson Nicholas and the last member of the Újlaki (Iločki) family - Lawrence. Nicholas was the Ban of All Slavonia from 1457 to 1463, and his son, Lawrence was a duke of Syrmia from 1477 to 1524.

In 1526, the town came under Ottoman rule. During this time, it was mainly populated by Muslims. In 1566–69, Ilok had 238 Muslim and 27 Christian houses. In 1572, it had 386 Muslim, and 18 Christian houses. In 1669, the population of Ilok numbered 1,160 houses, and town possessed two mosques. It was kaza centre in Sanjak of Syrmia. Habsburg army firstly occupied Ilok in 1688, but Ottomans recaptured it in 1690. In 1697, Habsburg army definitively retook Ilok from the Ottomans and the Muslim population fled.

During the Habsburg rule, Ilok belonged to the Kingdom of Slavonia, a Habsburg province that belonged to both the Kingdom of Croatia, and the Kingdom of Hungary. Between 1849 and 1868, the Kingdom of Slavonia was completely separate Habsburg crownland, and in 1868 it was joined with the Kingdom of Croatia to form the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Ilok was a district capital in the Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.

In 1918, Ilok first became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, and then part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (in 1929 renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia). From 1929 to 1939, Ilok was part of the Danube Banovina and, from 1939 to 1941, of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Between 1941 and 1944, during the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, it belonged to the Independent State of Croatia. From 1945 onward, it was part of the People's Republic of Croatia within Socialist Yugoslavia.

On 17 October 1991 during the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence, non-Serbs fled as the Yugoslav National Army led by Serbs paramilitaries occupied the area, but spared it from destruction due to its rapid surrounding and occupation. Between 1991 and 1995, Ilok was part of the Republic of Serb Krajina. The area was peacefully reintegrated into Croatia in 1998.

Ilok is underdeveloped municipality which is statistically classified as the First Category Area of Special State Concern by the Government of Croatia.[3]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2021 census, the town proper had 3,928 inhabitants, and the whole municipality of Ilok had 5,147. Before the 2001 census, the town was considered part of the old municipality of Vukovar. With pronounced issue of population decline in eastern Croatia caused by population ageing, effects of the Croatian War of Independence and emigration after the accession of Croatia to the European Union, the population of the town and three suburban settlements at the time of 2021 census dropped to 5,045 from 2011 population of 6,767.

Town of Ilok: Population trends 1857–2021
population
5954
7040
6547
7699
7865
8451
9130
9458
8839
9280
10049
10449
9891
9748
8351
6767
5147
18571869188018901900191019211931194819531961197119811991200120112021
Population by settlements 1991 2001 2011
Bapska 1,624 1,313 928
Ilok 6,775 5,897 5,072
Mohovo 344 303 239
Šarengrad 1,005 838 528
Total 9,748 8,351 6,767
Population by ethnicity 1991 2001 2011
Croats 6,848 (70.25%) 6,425 (76.94%) 5,189 (76.68%)
Slovaks 1,192 (12.22%) 1,044 (12.50%) 935 (13.82%)
Serbs 680 (6.97%) 566 (6.78%) 439 (6.49%)
Hungarians 115 (1.17%) 98 (1.17%) 78 (1.15%)
others 913 (9.36%) 218 (2.61%) 126 (1.86%)
Total 9,748 8,351 6,767

Ilok (settlement)[edit]

According to the 2011 census, settlement of Ilok had 5,072 inhabitants.[4]

Population[5]
1857 1869 1880 1890 1900 1910 1921 1931 1948 1953 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
3,110 3,776 3,489 4,288 4,387 4,856 5,475 5,809 5,361 5,696 6,193 6,683 6,700 6,775 5,897 5,072

2011 census[edit]

Ilok[6]
Population by ethnicity

total: 6,767

  Croats 5,189 (76.68%)
  Slovaks 935 (13.82%)
  Serbs 439 (6.49%)
  Hungarians 78 (1.15%)
  Ruthenians 19 (0.28%)
  Macedonians 14 (0.21%)
  Germans 12 (0.18%)
  Albanians 10 (0.15%)
  Montenegrins 3 (0.04%)
  Bosniaks 2 (0.03%)
  Slovenes 2 (0.03%)
  Czechs 1 (0.01%)
  Roma 1 (0.01%)
  declared religion 5 (0.07%)
  regional affiliation 1 (0.01%)
  others 5 (0.07%)
  nondeclared 36 (0.53%)
  not classified 2 (0.03%)
  unknown 13 (0.19%)

1991 census[edit]

Ilok[7]
Population by ethnicity

total: 6,775

  Croats 4,248 (62.70%)
  Slovaks 1,157 (17.07%)
  Serbs 484 (7.14%)
  Yugoslavs 474 (6.99%)
  Hungarians 105 (1.54%)
  Ruthenians 28 (0.41%)
  Albanians 10 (0.14%)
  Muslims 10 (0.14%)
  Macedonians 9 (0.13%)
  Montenegrins 8 (0.11%)
  Germans 5 (0.07%)
  Czechs 2 (0.02%)
  Slovenes 2 (0.02%)
  Ukrainians 1 (0.01%)
  others 2 (0.02%)
  nondeclared 145 (2.14%)
  regionaly declared 7 (0.10%)
  unknown 78 (1.15%)

1910 census[edit]

Ilok[7]
Population by language Population by religion

total: 4,856

  Croatian 2,729 (56.19%)
  Slovak 840 (17.29%)
  German 571 (11.75%)
  Serbian 448 (9.22%)
  Hungarian 254 (5.23%)
  Czech 7 (0.14%)
  Ruthenian 5 (0.10%)
  Slovene 1 (0.02%)
  others 1 (0.02%)

total: 4,856

  Rom. Cath. 3,325 (68.47%)
  Lutherans 646 (13.30%)
  East. Orthodox 450 (9.26%)
  Jewish 213 (4.38%)
  Calvinists 204 (4.20%)
  East. Catholics 16 (0.32%)
  others 2 (0.04%)

Slovaks in Ilok[edit]

1) Nightingale Isle by Ilok by Slovak painter Karol Miloslav Lehotský
2) 1952 invitation to the opening of the Slovak House, Museum of Vojvodina Slovaks

Ilok is one of the centres of the cultural life of the Slovaks of Croatia community.[8] Ilok Slovak community is closely linked with Slovaks in Serbia where there are Slovak communities and Slovak majority villages just across the border and with Slovak language being one of the official languages in Vojvodina.

Once Evangelical Slovaks were granted the right to settle and buy property in the Kingdom of Slavonia in 1859 Slovak settlers across the Danube river in Bačka started to move to Syrmia.[9] Slovak Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession established the local parish in Ilok in 1864 with building serving a place of worship, a school and a teacher's apartment.[9] The Slovak Evangelical school, which existed until 1896, was at the time was one of four confessional schools in the town alongside Croat Catholic, Serb Orthodox and the Jewish Israelite school.[9] State sponsored school education in Ilok was reinitiated in 1922 after the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the public Slovak school will continue its work until 1957.[9] The first Slovak cultural association was established by students of the local gymnasium in 1925 which in the same year joined the Association of Czechoslovak Academicians in Yugoslavia.[10] The Slovak Reading Society was established in 1928 which preserved that name until 1951 when it changed the name into contemporary name the Slovak Cultural and Educational Association Ľudovít Štúr.[10]

Slovak branch of the national Union of Czechs and Slovaks was established in Ilok in 1981 with Slovak cultural life continuing even during the Croatian War of Independence.[10] Following the completion of the United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium Slovak Cultural and Educational Association Ľudovít Štúr joined the Union of Slovaks in Croatia while local Matica slovenská was established on 18 December 1997.[10] In that period Slovak community used the right to organize Slovak language education for the first four grades until 2002/2003 school year after which only elective Slovak classes were offered.[9] In 2014 local community commemorated 140 years of the existence of the Evangelical-Slovak Church in Ilok.[11]

Politics[edit]

Minority councils and representatives[edit]

Directly elected minority councils and representatives are tasked with consulting tasks for the local or regional authorities in which they are advocating for minority rights and interests, integration into public life and participation in the management of local affairs.[12] At the 2023 Croatian national minorities councils and representatives elections Slovaks and Serbs of Croatia each fulfilled legal requirements to elect 15 members minority councils of the Town of Ilok.[13]

Gallery[edit]

Panoramic view of the Danube in Ilok with the Serbian town of Bačka Palanka on the other side of the river.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Ilok". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  2. ^ Dizdar, Marko (2016). "Late La Tène Settlements in the Vinkovci Region (Eastern Slavonia, Croatia): Centres of Trade and Exchange" (PDF). Boii - Taurisci: Proceedings of the International Seminar, Oberleis-Klement, June 14th-15th, 2012. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press: 31–48. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  3. ^ Lovrinčević, Željko; Davor, Mikulić; Budak, Jelena (June 2004). "AREAS OF SPECIAL STATE CONCERN IN CROATIA- REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENCES AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS". Ekonomski pregled, Vol.55 No.5-6. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  4. ^ "STANOVNIŠTVO PREMA STAROSTI I SPOLU PO NASELJIMA, POPIS 2011". Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske.
  5. ^ - Republika Hrvatska - Državni zavod za statistiku: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857.-2001.
  6. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Vukovar-Sirmium". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  7. ^ a b Book: "Ethnic and religious composition of population of Croatia, 1880-1991: by settlements", author: Jakov Gelo, publisher: Zagreb, Croatian bureau of statistics, 1998., ISBN 953-6667-07-X, ISBN 978-953-6667-07-9;
  8. ^ Wertheimer-Baletić, Alica (1993). "JEDNO I POL STOLJEĆE U BROJČANOM RAZVOJU STANOVNIŠTVA VUKOVARA I VUKOVARSKOGA KRAJA". Društvena istraživanja: časopis za opća društvena pitanja. 2 (2–3): 455–477.
  9. ^ a b c d e Boženka Dasovićová (3 July 2017). "Slováci v Iloku". Slovenský kultúrny klub v Srbsku. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  10. ^ a b c d Boženka Čermáková (n.d.). "MATICA SLOVENSKÁ ILOK". Savez Slovaka. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  11. ^ "Ilok: Evangelička slovačka crkva". tvprofil.com. 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  12. ^ "Manjinski izbori prve nedjelje u svibnju, kreću i edukacije". T-portal. 13 March 2023. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  13. ^ "Informacija o konačnim rezultatima izbora članova vijeća i izbora predstavnika nacionalnih manjina 2023. XVI. VUKOVARSKO-SRIJEMSKA ŽUPANIJA" (PDF) (in Croatian). Državno izborno povjerenstvo Republike Hrvatske. 2023. p. 7. Retrieved 3 June 2023.

External links[edit]