Azerbaijan–Israel relations

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Israel-Azerbaijan relations
Map indicating locations of Israel and Azerbaijan

Israel

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan and Israel have engaged in intense cooperation since 1992.[1] Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries besides Turkey, Egypt, Jordan and the former Soviet republics to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel. In his meeting with Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu President Ilham Aliyev praised the active role of Jewish community living in Azerbaijan in developing bilateral relations between the countries.[2]

Background[edit]

On October 18, 1991, the declaration of the Parliament of Azerbaijan restored the country's independence, and, in November 1991, Turkey became the first state to formally recognize it.[3] On December 25, 1991, Israel formally recognized the independence of Azerbaijan,[4] becoming one of the first states to do so, and established diplomatic relations with Azerbaijan on April 7, 1992.[4]

According to a 2009 U.S. diplomatic memo, made public through Wikileaks, Azeri president Ilham Aliyev once compared his country's relationship with Israel to an iceberg: "Nine-tenths of it is below the surface."[5]

Azerbaijan was visited by David Harris, executive director of the American Jewish Committee, in July 2010, shortly after the visit of Hillary Clinton to Baku. During the reception, Harris said Azerbaijan presented cultural, strategic and political importance.[6]

Azerbaijan was visited by John Shapiro, executive director of the American Jewish Committee, in January 2017, shortly after the visit of Benjamin Netanyahu to Baku. During the reception, Shapiro said that constructive partnership between Azerbaijan, US and Israel has a big significance.[7]

Visiting Azerbaijan in December 2016 the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said: "Relations with Azerbaijan are very close. They will be even better after this visit.".[8]

Azerbaijan is home to some 30,000 Jews, residing primarily in Baku and Qırmızı Qəsəbə settlement in the Quba district of Azerbaijan.[9] Mountain Jews have been living in Azerbaijan for close to 1500 years; they are the descendants of Persian Jews. During the conquest by the Islamic Caliphate, Arabs settled an allied Jewish tribe in the neighborhoods of Baku; in 1730 Jews were officially allowed to put down roots and own property in Quba.[10] There are also nearly 5000 Ashkenazi Jews living mostly in Baku. The first Jewish Sochnut school in the Soviet Union was opened in 1982 in Baku, then capital of Azerbaijan SSR.

April 2017 marked the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between Israel and Azerbaijan.[11][12] Congratulatory letter to the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev from the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu include:[13][14]

Israel is proud to have been one of the first nations to recognize the independent Republic of Azerbaijan. In the quarter century since, our countries have built a solid relationship based on genuine friendship between the Jewish and Azerbaijani peoples.

Azerbaijan is a model of inter-faith and multicultural harmony in an area fraught with religious and ethnic rivalries. Like you, Israel is a beacon of stability and tolerance in an unstable region. Despite the challenges we face, we have both succeeded in creating thriving economies and vibrant, prosperous and peace-seeking societies.

Recent relations[edit]

Israeli–Azerbaijani ties have been expanding since the very early 1990s. The strategic relationship included cooperation in trade and security matters, cultural and educational exchanges, etc. Relations entered a new phase in August 1997 during the visit of then the Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu to Baku. Since then Israel has been developing closer ties with Azerbaijan and have helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan. Israeli military is said to have been a major provider of battlefield aviation, artillery, antitank, and anti-infantry weaponry to Azerbaijan.[16][17]

In 2009, Israeli President Shimon Peres made a visit to Azerbaijan where military relations were expanded further, with the Israeli company Aeronautics Defense Systems Ltd announcing it was going to build a factory in Baku.[18]

In 2010, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev issued a decree banning the issue of visas in the country's international airports; foreigners henceforth had to apply for visas at the nearest Azerbaijani consulate. Israel and Turkey were the only two countries whose citizens were unaffected by the new law.[19]

In 2016, Israel's Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman supported the position of Azerbaijan in the 2016 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes, calling it "absolutely justified".[20] Furthermore, Lieberman held Armenia responsible for provoking the conflict in April 2016.[21]

A delegation of the World Jewish Congress visited Azerbaijan on September 2016 where during the talks with the Azeri President Ilham Aliyev emphasis was put on "Excellent relations with Jewish community and Israel".[15][22]

In December 2016, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu paid an official visit to Baku. During the visit he emphasised that "Israel and Azerbaijan enjoy an excellent relationship and warm friendship".[23] During the visit Netanyahu visited the Alley of Martyrs and paid tribute to Azerbaijani heroes.[24] He also visited the Ohr Avner Chabad Day School, met with the local Jewish community and gave a speech before students.[25][26] Press statements made by the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu also showed satisfaction with the bilateral cooperation of two countries.[27][28]

In December 2016, Azerbaijan-Israel intergovernmental agreement on air communication was signed.[29]

In March 2017 several regional tours were made by the Israeli envoy to Azerbaijan to deepen economic cooperation in the spheres of economy, agriculture and tourism.[30] Azerbaijan and Israel abolished double taxation between countries in April 2017.[31]

During his speech at the 72nd sessions of UN General Assembly on September 19, 2017, Netanyahu mentioned the expansion of cooperation between the two countries.[32]

Security relations[edit]

Following an October 2001 meeting with Israeli ambassador Eitan Naeh, Azerbaijan's then president Heydar Aliyev declared that the two countries had identical positions in the fight against international terrorism.[33] Israeli intelligence helps collect human intelligence about what they view as extremist organizations in the region. One of the groups, Hizb ut-Tahrir, which seeks the annihilation of the state of Israel, threatens both Jerusalem and Baku. Hizb ut-Tahrir is suspected of having several hundred members in Azerbaijan, and several members of it were arrested and prosecuted by Azerbaijani authorities.[34]

In 2008, a plot was foiled to bomb the Israeli Embassy in Baku, which is located in a high-rise building along with the Thai and Japanese embassies. Two Hezbollah militants went on trial for the attempt in May 2009.[35] Local police narrowly averted the potential disaster, which involved placing three or four car bombs around the high-rise complex to carry out the attack. Groups planned the bombing in retaliation for the 2008 assassination in Damascus, Syria of Hezbollah's second in command Imad Mughniyah, which the Lebanese group blamed on Israel. News reports suggested Iran was involved in the plan as well.[36]

In 2012, Israel and Azerbaijan signed an agreement according to which state-run Israel Aerospace Industries would sell $1.6 billion in drones and anti-aircraft and missile defense systems to Azerbaijan.[37]

Some analysts consider that both Israel and Azerbaijan see Iran as an existential threat. Azerbaijan fears Iranian Islamist influence, but Iran fears Azerbaijan, too, as up to 18 million Iranians are ethnic Azeris. On the other hand, Azerbaijan has close links with Turkey, and the post-2006 worsening of Israel-Turkey relations may have repercussions on Azerbaijan's relations with Israel.[38]

In February 2012, Iran rebuked Azerbaijan for allegedly aiding anti-Iranian activities by Israel's Mossad intelligence agency.[39] A few weeks later Azerbaijan arrested 22 people in a suspected Iranian plot against Israeli and US targets in Azerbaijan.[40] In March 2012, the magazine Foreign Policy reported that the Israeli Air Force may be preparing to use the Sitalchay Military Airbase, located 500 km (340 miles) from the Iranian border, for air strikes against the nuclear program of Iran.[5]

Azerbaijan has sought closer relations with the West, including Israel. There are, however, several inhibiting factors to the closeness of this alliance. One is the great influence of Russia. Another is Azerbaijan's difficulty to withstand pressure from the Muslim world. This pressure is the reason Azerbaijan has yet to open an embassy in Israel and why it has voted against Israel's views in international forums.[41]

Trade relations[edit]

Economic cooperation between Israel and Azerbaijan has been growing significantly. As Azerbaijan deregulated its industries and liberalized economy in early 1990s, Israeli companies penetrated Azerbaijani markets.[42] Many companies have invested in service industry. One example is Bezeq, a major Israeli telecommunication provider. Through a trade contract bid in 1994, Bezeq bought a large share of the telephone operating system.[43] Today it installs phone lines and operates regional services throughout much of the country. Another company, Bakcell, was started as a joint venture between the Ministry of Communication of Azerbaijan and GTIB (Israel)[44] in early 1994 as the first cellular telephone operator in the country. Dozens of Israeli companies are active in the Azerbaijani energy sector. For instance, Modcon Systems Ltd., an Israel-based supplier of high technology to the oil and gas industries, opened a branch in Azerbaijan.[citation needed]

Between 2000 and 2005, Israel has risen from being Azerbaijan's tenth largest trading partner to its fifth. According to U.N. statistics, between 1997 and 2004, exports from Azerbaijan to Israel increased from barely over US$2 million to $323 million, fueled in recent years by the high price of oil.[45] As of 2013, 40 percent of oil to Israel is exported from Baku, which makes Azerbaijan Israel's largest oil supplier.[46]

Azerbaijan and Israel abolished double taxation between countries in April 2017.[47] "Defense and energy sectors apart, the bilateral trade between the two countries amounted to $260 million in 2016.", — said Israeli ambassador to Azerbaijan.[48] According to the State Customs Committee of Azerbaijan, the total trade turnover between Azerbaijan and Israel amounted to $116.2 million in January–February 2017, which is 17.5 percent more compared to the same period of 2016.[47]

Energy[edit]

Azerbaijan and Israel cooperate closely in the field of energy. Israel buys 40 percent of its oil from Azerbaijan.

In a 2007 speech, the Israeli ambassador to Azerbaijan, Arthur Lenk, spoke of a continuous trade between Azerbaijan and Israel in the energy sector. He noted that until the inauguration of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in 2006, Israel was a key consumer of Azerbaijani oil exports, and that the proximity of Ceyhan to Israel offers excellent new opportunities for greater Israeli participation in this sector of the economy, thus creating additional areas for collaboration and mutual benefit. He underlined that through the Trans-Israel pipeline between Ashkelon and Eilat, Israel could be a strategic partner for marketing Caspian oil to Asia. Israeli efforts in developing alternative energy resources, especially solar energy, were also mentioned. Israel additionally seeks possibilities of importing gas from the Caspian Sea region.[49]

In December 2016, during his visit to Azerbaijan the Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu said: "Today we are negotiating not only for the supply of Azerbaijani oil, but also imports of Azerbaijani gas to Israel".[27][28] Israel considers joining TANAP, said Israeli ambassador to Azerbaijan.[50]

Cooperation against Iran[edit]

On March 29, 2012, officials[who?] said that Israel was granted access to air bases in Azerbaijan through a "series of quiet political and military understandings." These airbases could potentially be used in a strike against Iran over its nuclear program and other tensions with Iran, and would be allowed by Azerbaijan.[51] Israeli and Azerbaijani officials denied these reports.[52][53]

On September 30, 2012, it was reported that Azerbaijan and Israel jointly examined the use of Azeri air bases and spy drones to help Israeli jets perform a long-range strike on Iran. This would help Israel in regards to issues with refueling, reconnaissance, and rescuing crews, and could make an attack more feasible.[54] The plan apparently involves using an Israeli tanker aircraft painted in the colors of a third country airline company that would land and refuel in Azerbaijan and then refuel the Israeli strike aircraft.[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "News.Az – Azerbaijan, Israel to continue 'to forge strong friendship'". Retrieved March 8, 2016. 
  2. ^ "Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan Republic - NEWS » Meetings Ilham Aliyev and Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu held one-on-one meeting". en.president.az. Retrieved 2017-05-27. 
  3. ^ Nichol, James P. (1995). Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 150. ISBN 0-275-95192-8. 
  4. ^ a b Lenk, Arthur (April 7, 2007). "15th Anniversary of Israel-Azebraijan Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  5. ^ a b Perry, mark (March 28, 2012). "Israel's Secret Staging Ground". Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Ilham Aliyev received the Executive Director of American Jewish Committee". President's office. July 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  7. ^ "Azerbaijan-US-Israel partnership very important (exclusive)". Trend.Az (in Russian). 30 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  8. ^ "PM Netanyahu meets with members of the Azerbaijan Jewish community and visits Martyrs Lane memorial site". Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Azerbaijan Virtual Jewish History Tour". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 6 March 2017. As of 2016, approximately 30,000 Jews live in Azerbaijan 
  10. ^ "Jerusalem of the Caucasus". Visions of Azerbaijan Magazine. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  11. ^ "Israel and Azerbaijan: Celebrating 25 Years of Friendship — Jewish Journal". Jewish Journal. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  12. ^ "Celebrating 25 years of Azerbaijan-Israel Relations". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  13. ^ "From Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister of the State of Israel". en.president.az. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  14. ^ "Israeli PM: Azerbaijan model of inter-faith, multicultural harmony". Trend.Az (in Russian). 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "'Excellent relations with Jewish community and Israel,' Azerbaijan's president tells WJC delegation". www.worldjewishcongress.org. World Jewish Congress. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "Good Relations between Azerbaijan and Israel:". Retrieved March 8, 2016. 
  17. ^ Jane's Defense Weekly, October 16, 1996
  18. ^ Ora Coren (June 29, 2009). "Aeronautics to build plant in Azerbaijan". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  19. ^ Citizens of Turkey and Israel Unaffected by New Visa Issue Law. Vesti.az. November 9, 2010.
  20. ^ http://en.trend.az/azerbaijan/politics/2515494.html
  21. ^ http://sputniknews.com/military/20160417/1038168379/karabakh-israel-role-analysis.html
  22. ^ "Ronald Lauder: I highly appreciate respectful and warm attitude of Azerbaijani people and Azerbaijani leadership towards Jewish community". Azertag. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  23. ^ "Netanyahu: Israel, Azerbaijan enjoy excellent relations". APA Information Agency, APA. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
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  25. ^ "PM Netanyahu Meets with Jewish Community in Baku". 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  26. ^ "PM Netanyahu Meets with Jewish Community in Azerbaijan". 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
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  28. ^ a b "PM Netanyahu meets with Azerbaijan President Aliyev". Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  29. ^ "Azerbaijan, Israel agree on air communication". AzerNews.az. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  30. ^ "Israeli envoy tours regions to deepen economic cooperation". AzerNews.az. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  31. ^ "Azerbaijan, Israel abolishing double taxation". Trend.Az (in Russian). 7 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  32. ^ "FULL TEXT: Netanyahu's Address to UN General Assembly". Haaretz. 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-09-20. 
  33. ^ Itar-TASS News Agency (Moscow), October 22, 2001
  34. ^ Swietochowski, "Azerbaijan: The Hidden Faces of Islam," World Policy Journal, p. 75.
  35. ^ "Israeli Embassy Bombing Foiled – Defense/Middle East – News – Arutz Sheva". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved March 8, 2016. 
  36. ^ Rotella, Sebastian (May 30, 2009). "Azerbaijan seen as new front in Mideast conflict". Los Angeles Times. 
  37. ^ Israel signs deal to provide Azerbaijan with $1.6 billion in military equipment. The Washington Post. February 26, 2012.
  38. ^ Tim Judah (February 6, 2012). "Israel's front-line in the South Caucasus". The Jewish Chronicle. United Kingdom. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  39. ^ "Iran rebukes Azerbaijan for allegedly aiding Israel's Mossad". Haaretz. February 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  40. ^ "Azerbaijan arrests 22 suspects in plot to attack Israeli, U.S. targets". Haaretz. March 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  41. ^ Gallia Lindenstrauss, Israel-Azerbaijan: Despite the Constraints, a Special Relationship, Institute for National Security Studies, January 2015
  42. ^ Bourtman, Ilya (2006). "Israel and Azerbaijan's Furtive Embrace". Middle East Quarterly. 13 (3): 44–57. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  43. ^ Perry, Mark (March 28, 2012). "Israel's Secret Staging Ground". Foreign Policy. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  44. ^ Israel-Azerbaijan Telecommunications Forum Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ Ilya Bourtman. "Israel and Azerbaijan's Furtive Embrace". Middle East Forum. Retrieved March 8, 2016. 
  46. ^ http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/azerbaijans-cooperation-with-israel-goes-beyond-iran-tensions
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  49. ^ Embassy of Israel in Azerbaijan. Ambassador Lenk: “Israel can be a strategic partner for marketing Caspian oil to Asia”. Retrieved on 2007-07-12
  50. ^ Holding, APA Information Agency, APA. "Israel considers joining TANAP, says ambassador". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
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  52. ^ "Azerbaijan denies report it gave Israel access to airfields". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  53. ^ "Israel`s Lieberman rebuffs claims on Azeri air base access". AzerNews.az. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  54. ^ "Azerbaijan eyes aiding Israel against Iran". Reuters. September 30, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012. 
  55. ^ Grove, Thomas. "Azerbaijan eyes aiding Israel against Iran." Reuters, September 30, 2012.

External links[edit]