Jasmine tea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jasmine tea
Jasmine Pearls.jpg
Jasmine Dragon Phoenix Pearl tea
Chinese茉莉花茶

Jasmine tea (Chinese: ; pinyin: mòlìhuā chá) is tea scented with aroma from jasmine blossoms to make a scented tea. Typically, jasmine tea has green tea as the tea base; however, white tea and black tea are also used. The resulting flavour of jasmine tea is subtly sweet and highly fragrant. It is the most famous scented tea in China.[1]

The jasmine plant is believed to have been introduced into China from eastern South Asia via India during the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD),[2] and was being used to scent tea around the fifth century.[2] However, jasmine tea did not become widespread until the Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1912) when tea started to be exported in large quantities to the West. Nowadays, it's still a common drink served in tea shops around the world.

The jasmine plant is grown at high elevations in the mountains. Jasmine tea produced in the Chinese province of Fujian has the best reputation.[1] Jasmine tea is also produced in Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Zhejiang provinces.[1] Vietnam and Japan are also known for the production of jasmine tea.

Modern biological studies have shown that drinking Jasmine tea can have health and immunity benefits. Jasmine tea contains several different kinds of antioxidants that provide protection to the membranes of red blood cells. This added protection helps fend off free radical-induced oxydation of the red blood cells.[3]

Preparation[edit]

Tea leaves are harvested in the early spring and stored until the late summer when fresh jasmine flowers are in bloom. Jasmine flowers are picked early in the day when the small petals are tightly closed. The flowers are kept cool until nightfall. During the night, jasmine flowers open, releasing their fragrance. This is when the tea scenting takes place. There are two main methods used to scent the tea with the jasmine.[4] In one method the tea and flowers are placed in alternating layers;[5] in the other, the tea is blended with jasmine flowers and stored overnight.[2] It takes over four hours for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms. The scenting process may be repeated as many as six or seven times for top grades such as Yin Hao.[2] The tea absorbs moisture from the fresh Jasmine flowers so it must be dried again to prevent spoilage.

Cultural uses[edit]

In northern China it is customary to serve Jasmine tea as a welcoming gesture to guests.[1] Jasmine tea is the local tea beverage of Fuzhou, while jasmine flowers are the municipal flower of that city.

Jasmine has symbolic meanings in the Chinese culture. This flower is not only the symbol of forever love but also one of the holy flowers of Buddhism. For example, the crown of the Buddhist in the Ajanta wall paintings, a world heritage site, is decorated by golden jasmine flowers. The fragrance of jasmines is thought to be of heaven. Around of Jasmine tea, several cultural traits can be put into relief. In the past, people in Fuzhou considered tea as an antidote to a lot of poisons. In the Fuzhou dialect, the word for buying medicine literally means buying tea; brewing medicine, brewing tea; taking medicine, drinking tea. Besides, tea culture is important by shaping the art of drinking tea which follows different steps.[6]

Fuzhou Jasmine Tea[edit]

Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian, is the most important city in producing jasmine tea in China.[7] The city is built at a river basin and surrounded by mountains. The climate in Fuzhou is mild, rainfall is abundant and the day-night temperature difference is obvious, creating favorable conditions for jasmine flowers to grow. And there is also the microclimate needed for tea trees -- jasmines are planted near rivers, while tea trees grow on slopes 600 to 1,000 meters above the sea level.[8] Fuzhou has 1,200 hectares of tea gardens and last year it produced 110,000 tons of jasmine tea, worth 1.78 billion yuan ($290 million).[9]

After the jasmine plant was introduced into Fuzhou, people planted the flower broadly. During 1368-1644, the Northern Song Dynasty, Fuzhou gained the name of "The City of Jasmine in China". Fuzhou is regarded as the origin of the jasmine tea production process, and so far it is the only city remain the complete production process. The jasmine tea making process started from Tang Dynasty and had the great change in Ming Dynasty. Before 1937, the development of Fuzhou Jasmine tea was fast and products were sold to many regions. Because of the war, the output dropped quickly. During 1950s-1990s the industry revived and reached 60% of the total national production, but after that it fell again.

The government is still working on revival Fuzhou jasmine tea. In recent years, the Fuzhou Municipal Party Committee and government strived to protect and develop the system of Fuzhou jasmine planting and tea culture, and took active measures to cultivate good stock and applied for the heritage list.[10]

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations awarded the "Fuzhou jasmine tea and tea culture system" as one of the "Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems". [11] Experts from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations specially went to Fuzhou to inspect the Fuzhou Jasmine Planting and Tea Culture System on April 5. After the visit, it was awarded the “Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System” title in Rome, Italy, on April 29, 2014.

See Also[edit]

Jasmine species commonly used as an ingredient for Jasmine tea:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Gong, Wen. Lifestyle in China. 五洲传播出版社, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2010, from [1]
  2. ^ a b c d Ron Rubin, Stuart Avery Gold (2002). Tea Chings: The Tea and Herb Companion. Newmarket Press. p. 101. ISBN 9781557044914.
  3. ^ Zhang, Anqi; Zhu, Qin Yan; Luk, Yan Shun; Ho, Ka Yan; Fung, Kwok Pui; Chen, Zhen-Yu (1997-06-20). "Inhibitory effects of jasmine green tea epicatechin isomers on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells". Life Sciences. 61 (4): 383–394. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00395-0.
  4. ^ Lindsey Goodwin. "What is Jasmine Tea?". about.com.
  5. ^ Dawn Campbell (1995). The Tea Book. Pelican Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 9781455612796.
  6. ^ "Fuzhou Jasmine and tea system". FAO.
  7. ^ "Fuzhou Jasmine and tea system". FAO.
  8. ^ Koohafkan, Parviz; Altieri, Miguel A (2016). Forgotten Agricultural Heritage: Reconnecting food systems and sustainable development. Taylor & Francis. p. 130. ISBN 9781315470085.
  9. ^ Ou, Hailin. [Fuzhou has 1,200 hectares of tea gardens and last year it produced 110,000 tons of jasmine tea, worth 1.78 billion yuan ($290 million). "Fuzhou jasmine tea industry to be a candidate for global heritage status"] Check |url= value (help). China Daily.
  10. ^ "Home > Business Fuzhou jasmine recognized in global agriculture heritage list". Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  11. ^ Min, Qinwen; Zhang, Yongxun (2015). 福建福州茉莉花茶与茶文化系统. p. 69. ISBN 9787109195660.