Java Community Process

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The Java Community Process (JCP), established in 1998, is a formalized mechanism that allows interested parties to develop standard technical specifications for Java technology. Anyone can become a JCP Member by filling a form available at the JCP website. JCP membership for organizations and commercial entities requires annual fees – but is free for individuals.[1]

The JCP involves the use of Java Specification Requests (JSRs) – the formal documents that describe proposed specifications and technologies for adding to the Java platform. Formal public reviews of JSRs take place before a JSR becomes final and the JCP Executive Committee votes on it. A final JSR provides a reference implementation that is a free implementation of the technology in source code form and a Technology Compatibility Kit to verify the API specification.

The JCP itself is described by a JSR. As of 2020, JSR 387 describes the current version (2.11) of the JCP.

List of JSRs[edit]

There are hundreds of JSRs. Some of the more visible JSRs include:

JSR # Specification or Technology Reference implementations Other implementations
1 Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) 1.0
3 Java Management Extensions (JMX) 1.0, 1.1, & 1.2[2]
5 Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) 1.0
8 OSGI Open Services Gateway Specification
9 Jiro (Federated Management Architecture Specification) 1.0
12 Java Data Objects (JDO) 1.0
13 Improved BigDecimal (Java Platform, Standard Edition#java.math)
14 Add Generic Types To The Java Programming Language (as of J2SE 5.0)
16 Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) 1.0
19 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 2.0
22 JAIN SLEE API Specification (JSLEE) 1.0
30 Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) 1.0 for Java ME
31 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) 1.0
32 JAIN SIP API Specification (JSIP) 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 for Java ME
36 Connected Device Configuration (CDC) 1.0 for Java ME
37 Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) 1.0 for Java ME
40 Java Metadata Interface (JMI) 1.0
41 A Simple Assertion Facility (as of J2SE 1.4)
47 Logging API Specification (as of J2SE 1.4)
48 WBEM Services Specification (as of J2SE 1.4)
51 Non-blocking I/O (NIO) (as of J2SE 1.4) Grizzly, Netty
52 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) 1.0 and 1.1[3]
53 Java Servlet 2.3 and JavaServer Pages (JSP) 1.2 Specifications
54 Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 3.0
56 Java Network Launching Protocol and API (JNLP) 1.0, 1.5 and 6.0[4] (Java Web Start)
58 Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 1.3
59 Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE) 1.4 (Merlin)
63 Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) 1.1 and 1.2[5]
68 Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) 1.0
73 Java Data Mining API (JDM) 1.0
75 PDA Optional Packages for the J2ME Platform
77 J2EE Management
80 Java USB API
82 Java APIs for Bluetooth
88 Java EE Application Deployment
91 OSS Trouble Ticket API
93 Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) 1.0
94 Java Rules Engine API
102 Java Document Object Model (JDOM) 1.0
110 Java APIs for WSDL (WSDL4J) 1.0
112 Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) 1.5
113 Java Speech API 2 (JSAPI2)
114 Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Rowset Implementations
116 SIP Servlet API 1.0
118 Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) 2.0 for Java ME
120 Wireless Messaging API (WMA)
121 Application Isolation API
127 JavaServer Faces (JSF) 1.0 and 1.1[6]
133 Java Memory Model and Thread Specification Revision
135 Java Mobile Media API (MMAPI) for Java ME
139 Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) 1.1 for Java ME
140 Service Location Protocol (SLP) API for Java
141 Session Description Protocol (SDP) API for Java
151 Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 1.4
152 JavaServer Pages (JSP) 2.0
153 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 2.1
154 Java Servlet 2.4 and 2.5 Specifications[7]
160 Java Management Extensions (JMX) Remote API 1.0
163 Java Platform Profiling Architecture (JPPA), which includes (among other specifications) the specification of Java Virtual Machine Tools Interface
166 Concurrency Utilities (as of J2SE 5.0 java.util.concurrent, java.util.concurrent.atomic and java.util.concurrent.locks)
168 Portlet specification 1.0
170 Content repository API for Java (JCR) 1.0
172 Web Services Specification for Java ME
173 StAX (Streaming API for XML)
175 A Metadata Facility for the Java Programming Language
176 Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE) 5.0 (Tiger)
177 Security and Trust Services API for J2ME (SATSA)
179 Location API 1.0 for Java ME
180 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) API for Java ME
181 Web Services Metadata for the Java Platform
184 Mobile 3D Graphics API for Java ME 1.0 and 1.1
185 Java Technology for the Wireless Industry (JTWI)
187 Instant messaging (Java ME and Java SE)
198 A Standard Extension API for Integrated Development Environments
199 Java Compiler API
200 Pack200 Network Transfer Format for Java Archives
201 Extending the Java Programming Language with Enumerations, Autoboxing, Enhanced for loops and Static Import (as of J2SE 5.0)
202 Java Class File Specification Update
203 More Non-blocking I/O (Java) (NIO2)
204 Unicode Supplementary Character Support (as of J2SE 5.0 adds support for Unicode 3.1)
205 Wireless Messaging API 2.0 (WMA) 2.0
206 Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) 1.3
208 Java Business Integration (JBI) 1.0
211 Content Handler API
215 Java Community Process (JCP) 2.6
218 Connected Device Configuration (CDC) 1.1 for Java ME
219 Foundation Profile 1.1
220 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 3.0
221 Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 4.0
222 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) 2.0
223 Scripting for the Java Platform for Java SE 6
224 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS), successor of JAX-RPC
225 XQuery API for Java (XQJ)
226 Scalable 2D Vector Graphics API for Java ME
229 Payment API (PAPI)
231 Java Bindings for OpenGL
234 Advanced Multimedia Supplements API for Java ME
235 Service Data Objects (SDO)
239 Java Bindings for OpenGL ES
240 JAIN SLEE API Specification (JSLEE) 1.1
241 The Groovy Programming Language
243 Java Data Objects (JDO) 2.0
244 Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 5
245 JavaServer Pages (JSP) 2.1
247 Java Data Mining API (JDM) 2.0
248 Mobile Service Architecture
249 Mobile Service Architecture 2
250 Common Annotations for the Java Platform (for the Metadata facility for Java)
252 JavaServer Faces (JSF) 1.2
253 Mobile Telephony API (MTA)
255 Java Management Extensions (JMX) 2.0
256 Mobile Sensor API
257 Contactless Communication API (NFC)
260 Javadoc Tag Technology Update
269 Pluggable Annotations Processing API (for the Metadata facility for Java)
270 Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) 6 (Mustang)
271 Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) 3.0 for Java ME
274 The BeanShell Scripting Language
275 Units specification (see Units of Measurement)
276 Design-time Metadata for JavaServer Faces Components
277 Java Module System
280 XML API for Java ME
281 IMS Services API (See IMS)
282 Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) 1.1
283 Content repository API for Java (JCR) 2.0
286 Portlet Specification 2.0
289 SIP Servlet API 1.1
290 Java Language & XML User Interface Markup Integration (XML-UI)
291 Dynamic Component Support for Java SE (see OSGi)
292 Supporting Dynamically Typed Languages on the JavaTM Platform
293 Location API 2.0 for Java ME
294 Improved Modularity Support in the Java Programming Language
296 Swing Application Framework (Java SE 7)
299 Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE platform (CDI) Weld OpenWebBeans
301 JSF Portlet Bridge
303 Bean Validation Hibernate Validator
307 Network Mobility and Mobile Data API (not official as of July, 20th, 2007 but official release is planned for 2. Q. 2008
308 Annotations on Java Types (Java SE 8)
314 JavaServer Faces (JSF) 2.0 Mojarra JavaServer Faces Apache MyFaces
316 Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 6
317 Java Persistence API (JPA) 2.0 EclipseLink Hibernate, openJPA
322 Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) 1.6
325 IMS Communication Enablers (ICE) (See IMS)
330 Dependency Injection for Java
336 Java SE 7 Release Contents [OpenJDK 7] ?
337 Java SE 8 Release Contents [OpenJDK 8] ?
338 Java Persistence API (JPA) 2.1 EclipseLink Hibernate, openJPA
343 Java Message Service 2.0 (JMS)
352 Java Batch IBM Java Batch JBeret, Spring Batch
354 Java Money & Currency API
356 Java API for WebSocket
365 Contexts and Dependency Injection for Java 2.0 Weld
367 Java API for JSON Binding (JSON-B) Eclipse Yasson Jackson
370 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) 2.1 Project Jersey
374 Java API for JSON Processing 1.1 Eclipse JSON-P Jackson
376 Java Platform Module System (supersedes 277
380 Bean Validation 2.0 Hibernate Validator
901 The Java Language Specification, Third Edition (JLS) (as of J2SE 5.0 incorporates changes from JSRs 14, 41, 133, 175, 201, and 204)
907 Java Transaction API (JTA) 1.0 and 1.1
912 Java 3D API 1.3
913 Java Community Process (JCP) 2.0, 2.1 & 2.5.[8]
914 Java Message Service (JMS) API 1.0 and 1.1
924 Java Virtual Machine Specification, Second Edition (JVM) (as of J2SE 5.0).[9] OpenJDK
926 Java 3D API 1.5


A JCP representative (far right) speaks to the trade press during a panel discussion at the JavaOne conference in 2012

The JCP's executive board has been characterized as a "rubber stamp organization" since Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems (the original developer of the Java language).[10]

The Apache Software Foundation resigned its seat on the board in December 2010 because Oracle was unwilling to license the Technology Compatibility Kit for Apache's version of Java.[11]

JCP Program and Industry Awards[edit]


2012 — 10th Annual JCP Award Winners[13]
Award Nominee Contributions Details JSR # Win?
JCP Member/Participant of the Year London Java Community and SouJava "Adopt a JSR!" program Supporting Java developers through the JCP. Win!
Stephen Colebourne Date and time API for Java. Comprehensive and advanced. Tireless work. 310
Markus Eisele Active work among the German Java community and in the JSR 342 Expert Group. 342
JUG Chennai Becoming the most active JCP organization in India and a competitive service organization in the commercial marketplace.
Werner Keil Incredible energy and participation in seven JSRs as well as the Executive Committee.
Antoine Sabot-Durand
Outstanding Spec Lead Victor Grazi,

Credit Suisse

Java Money & Currency API Dedicated, focused expertise in solving issues representing money and currencies. 354 Win!
Michael Ernst Annotations on Java Types Level-headed approach; a great example of a well-run JSR. 308
Nigel Deakin,


Java Message Service 2.0 Outstanding, thorough, and intelligent work keeping the JMS 2 EG open and moving forward at a great pace. 343
Pete Muir,

Red Hat

Contexts and Dependency Injection for Java EE 1.1 Voluntarily upgrading to 2.8 in late 2011 and maintaining what were already transparent methods in running his Expert Group. 346
Most Significant JSR Jitendra Kotamraju API for JSON Processing An important step in bringing Java into the world of the modern web. 353
Victor Grazi,

Credit Suisse

Money and Currency API New ways of handling monetary amounts and currency computations. Fixing critical Java Number Format and Representation bugs beyond monetary values. 354
Mitch Upton Java State Management The potential to improve how Application Servers and Distributed Services are going to look in the near future as well as simplifying deployment in PaaS and Cloud environments. 350
Nigel Deakin Java Message Service 2 Modernize JMS at a rapid pace. 343
Patrick Curran JCP.Next Setting the direction and procedures for the next-generation JCP. 348 355 358 Win!

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Becoming a JCP Member". Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  2. ^ JSR 3 originally specified the JMX 1.0 release. Two subsequent "final" releases have provided JMX 1.1 and JMX 1.2. JMX 2.0 is specified by JSR 255.
  3. ^ JSR 52 originally specified the JSTL 1.0 release. A subsequent maintenance release provided JSTL 1.1.
  4. ^ JSR 56 originally specified the JNLP 1.0 release. A subsequent "final" release provided JNLP 1.5, which was primarily a maintenance release.[1] As of February, 2006, the JNLP 6.0 maintenance release has been completed but not finalized.
  5. ^ JSR 63 originally specified the JAXP 1.1 release. A subsequent maintenance release of JSR 63 provided the JAXP 1.2 specification.[2] JAXP 1.3 is specified by JSR 206.
  6. ^ JSR 127 originally specified the JSF 1.0 release. A subsequent maintenance release provided the JSF 1.1 specification.[3] JSF 1.2 is specified by JSR 252.
  7. ^ JSR 154 originally specified the Java Servlet 2.4 release. As of February, 2006 a maintenance draft of the 2.5 servlet specification is under review, scheduled to close on March 20, 2006.
  8. ^ JSR 913 originally specified JCP 2.0. It was subsequently amended by various changes to voting rules to produce version 2.1 and then further changed by licensing rules, policy, and processes to get to version 2.5. JCP 2.6 is defined by JSR 215.[4]
  9. ^ JSR 924 originally specified changes to the JVM to support changes in J2SE 5.0. As of 2006 a maintenance update to support changes proposed by JSR 202 is underway.
  10. ^ Handy, Alex (12 September 2011). "Java is open, but is the process?". SD Times. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  11. ^ Whiting, Rick (10 December 2010). "Apache Quits Java Governing Board Over Dispute With Oracle". CRN. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  12. ^ The Java Community Process(SM) Program - Press & Success - News Stories. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  13. ^ The Java Community Process(SM) Program - Press & Success - News Stories. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.

External links[edit]