|Place of origin||English dish|
|Main ingredients||Eel, spiced stock|
Jellied eels are a traditional English dish that originated in the 18th century, primarily in the East End of London. The dish consists of chopped eels boiled in a spiced stock that is allowed to cool and set, forming a jelly. It is usually both served and eaten cold.
Eels were historically a cheap, nutritious and readily available food source for the people of London; European eels were once so common in the Thames that nets were set as far upriver as London itself, and eels became a staple for London's poor. The earliest known eel, pie and mash houses opened in London in the 18th century, and the oldest surviving shop, M Manze, has been open since 1902. At the end of the Second World War, there were around 100 eel, pie and mash houses in London. In 1995, there were 87.
In the present day, there are relatively few eel, pie and mash shops still in existence, although jellied eels are sold in some of the capital's delicatessen shops and supermarkets. The water quality of the Thames, having improved greatly since the 1960s, has since become suitable once again for recolonisation by eels. The Environment Agency supports a Thames fishery, allowing nets as far upriver as Tower Bridge.
Jellied eels are traditionally prepared using the freshwater eels native to Britain. Typically, the eels are chopped (shucked) into rounds and boiled in water and vinegar to make a fish stock with nutmeg and lemon juice, before being allowed to cool. The eel is a naturally gelatinous fish, with the cooking process releasing proteins, like collagen, into the liquid, which solidify upon cooling to form a jelly, though gelatin may be added in order to aid this process.
Recipes for jellied eels are individual to particular London pie and mash shops, and also street sellers; however, traditional recipes for authentic Victorian jellied eels all have common ingredients and cooking methods, with variation only in the choice of herbs and spices used to flavour the dish.
Outside the UK
- Donald Strachan (8 Aug 2012). Frommer's London 2013. John Wiley & Sons. p. 244. ISBN 9781118333884.
- Copping, Jasper (2007-06-18). "Eels in danger of slipping off the menu". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- Richard Schweid (2010). Consider the Eel. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780807826935.
- Naismith, I. A.; B. Knights (2005-04-04). "The distribution, density and growth of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, in the freshwater catchment of the River Thames". Journal of Fish Biology. 42 (2): 217–226. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1993.tb00323.x. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- "Commercial Fisheries in the Thames Estuary". ThamesWEB. ThamesWEB.com. Archived from the original on 2006-11-27. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A8573132 Background
- https://www.theguardian.com/netnotes/article/0,6729,680948,00.html Jellied eels story at The Guardian, 8 April 2002
- Would you Adam and Eve it? Jellied eels hit by over-fishing London Evening Standard, 3 January 2012.
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