|Movement for a Better Hungary|
|Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom|
|Founded||24 October 2003|
|Headquarters||1113 Budapest, Villányi út 20/A|
|Paramilitary wing||Magyar Gárda|
|European affiliation||Alliance of European National Movements|
|European Parliament group||Non-Inscrits|
|Colours||Red and silver|
24 / 199
3 / 21
81 / 419
|Politics of Hungary
Jobbik, the Movement for a Better Hungary (Hungarian: Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom), commonly known as Jobbik (pronounced [ˈjobːik]), is a Hungarian radical nationalist political party. The party describes itself as "a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" was the protection of "Hungarian values and interests." Jobbik describes itself as rejecting "global capitalism", European integration and Zionism. Instead it adheres to Pan-Turanism, an ideology that asserts that Hungarians originate from the Ural–Altaic race. The movement is described by some scholars and media outlets as "fascist", "neo-fascist", "Neo-Nazi", extremist, racist, antisemitic, antiziganist, and homophobic, though the party rejects these claims. After the Hungarian parliamentary elections on 6 April 2014, the party polled 1,020,476 votes securing 20.54% making them Hungary's third largest party in the National Assembly.
- 1 Name
- 2 Platform and ideology
- 3 History and development
- 4 Discrimination
- 5 Other issues
- 6 Electoral performance
- 7 Literature
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Movement for a Better Hungary more commonly goes under its abbreviated name Jobbik (pronounced [ˈjobːik]), which is in fact a play on words. The word jobb in Hungarian has two meanings, the adjective for "better" and the direction "right"; the comparative Jobbik therefore means both "the more preferable choice" and "more to the right". This is similar to the English phrase "right choice", which could mean both "a choice on the right side of the political spectrum" and "a correct choice".
Platform and ideology
The party describes itself as "a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" is the protection of "Hungarian values and interests". Jobbik's ideology has been described by political scholars as right-wing populist, whose strategy "relies on a combination of ethno-nationalism with anti-elitist populist rhetoric and a radical critique of existing political institutions".
For its part, Jobbik rejects the common classification of the political spectrum in left and right. It prefers a distinction of political parties based on their stance towards globalisation. On this scheme, the party sees itself as patriotic. The party also rejects the term 'far-right', and instead labels itself as 'radical right-wing'. It has also criticised media companies for labelling them as 'far-right' and has threatened to take action towards those who do. In 2014, the Supreme Court of Hungary ruled that Jobbik cannot be labeled "far-right" in any domestic radio or television transmissions, as this would constitute an opinion because Jobbik has refuted the 'far-right' label.
Jobbik rejects globalised capitalism, and the influence of foreign investors in Hungary. Jobbik specifically opposes Israeli and Jewish investment in Hungary. On 4 May 2013, protesting the World Jewish Congress's choice to locate their 2013 congress in Budapest, party chairman Gabor Vona said, "The Israeli conquerors, these investors, should look for another country in the world for themselves because Hungary is not for sale."
Jobbik officially maintains that it rejects violence and supports democracy. The party argues that the national police should be greatly strengthened and, along with the Fidesz, supports introducing a "three strikes law". However, Jobbik's connections to the now-banned Magyar Gárda militia have raised concerns about the party's commitment to ensuring peace and order within Hungarian society, even within the party.
Radical nationalism and irredentism
Jobbik's Hungarian irredentism can be found in pleas for cross-border ethnic self-determination. For example, the party demands "territorial autonomy" for the Székely Land in Romania and desires to make Carpathian Ruthenia an independent Hungarian district. Jobbik frequently calls for a return to pre-Treaty of Trianon borders in political rhetoric.
The meaning of the party's 2009 election slogan "Hungary belongs to the Hungarians" (Magyarország a Magyaroké!) was also the subject of considerable scrutiny. Some critics thought the slogan essentially tautological, while others were sufficiently concerned to mount a successful complaint at the National Electoral Commission, which ruled it "unconstitutional" on the very eve of the election.
On 11 March 2014, in response to a demonstration in Târgu Mureș, the Romanian president Traian Băsescu publicly asked the Romanian Government and the Romanian Parliament to issue a document to ban Jobbik members from Romania.
History and development
Originally established in 2002 as the Right-Wing Youth Association (Jobboldali Ifjúsági Közösség – JOBBIK) by a group of Catholic and Protestant university students, Jobbik was founded as a political party in October 2003.[third-party source needed]. The new party elected Dávid Kovács as president of the party, who served as chairman of the party until 2006. Instrumental in this was the person of Gergely Pongrátz, who in a speech to the founding conference made reference to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.[third-party source needed]
Around Christmas 2003, Jobbik conducted a nationwide cross-erecting action to remind Hungarians of the "true meaning" of the holiday. The move was criticized by several Christian intellectual groups.
Even though the far-right Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MIÉP) and Jobbik had publicly shown mutual aversion beforehand, the parties entered an electoral alliance for the 2006 national elections, called the MIÉP–Jobbik Third Way Alliance of Parties. Its intention was seen as winning votes from the major conservative Fidesz party.
In the 2006 national elections the alliance won only 2.2% of the votes. Therefore, Jobbik termed the alliance a failure and virtually broke it up. In 2009 the State Audit Office (ÁSZ) reported the alliance for grave breaches of accounting rules. Jobbik blamed MIÉP alone for the irregularities.
Magyar Gárda and conflicts in the party
In June 2007, Gábor Vona, supported by the party, founded and registered the organisation called Magyar Gárda "Hungarian Guard", which says in its deed of foundation that it intends to become "part or core" of a national guard to be set up in accordance with the Gabriel Bethlen programme, and it also wishes to participate actively "in strengthening national self-defence" and "maintaining public order" as well as supporting and organising social and charity missions, in disaster prevention and civil defence. The foundation of the Guard was accompanied by sharp political debate.
On 10 March 2008 three leading figures resigned from the party: Dávid Kovács, the founding president of the party, Ervin Nagy, committee chairman, and Márton Fári, former chairman of the party's ethical committee. They indicated the Hungarian Guard as the cause of their resignation, stating that "Jobbik has been merged inseparably with the Guard, taking responsibility for something that it cannot really control in the long run".
On 2 July 2009 the Metropolitan Court of Appeal (Fővárosi Ítélőtábla) disbanded the Hungarian Guard Movement because the court held that the activities of the organization were against the human rights of minorities as guaranteed by the Constitution of Hungary. The Guard has attempted to reorganize itself as a civil service association, known as the Magyar Gárda Foundation, engaged in cultural and nation building activities rather than politics. Its renewed activities are opposed by the Hungarian authorities and prosecutors claim that the founding of the new organization is in contempt of previous court rulings.
The party has strenuously denied allegations of anti-semitism or racism, as being either politically motivated or simply false. It has also dismissed the criticism of perceived anti-semitism, racism and homophobia as the "favourite topics" of an "ignorant and misled" European Union. Even so, the movement has been accused of playing on those fears. Jobbik has also been linked to homophobic incidents in Budapest.
Comments by members
On the eve of the 2009 elections to the European parliament, a comment was posted on an unofficial and unverified Hungarian political internet forum, allegedly in the name of Krisztina Morvai, who then headed the party's electoral list. Addressing their remarks to Hungarian Jews the comment poster stated that they "would be glad if the so-called proud Hungarian Jews went back to playing with their tiny circumcised dicks instead of vilifying me." News of this comment, which has been roundly condemned, spread rapidly around the world and eventually even featured in an article by The Economist. Morvai's critics have pointed to her refusal to even discuss the issue, let alone deny it; implying that this is sufficient to unquestioningly ascribe authorship of the remarks to her.
Her supporters however, claim that though she certainly has a record of being critical of the state of Israel given a sympathy for the Palestinian cause she developed while working as an international human rights lawyer, the idea of Morvai being an anti-Semite is "simply ridiculous," given that at the time of her alleged remarks she was married to a Hungarian of Jewish origin, with whom she has three children, but from whom she is now separated.
In a newsletter published by a group calling itself "The trade union of Hungarian police officers prepared for action", the following was allegedly printed: "Given our current situation, anti-Semitism is not just our right, but it is the duty of every Hungarian homeland lover, and we must prepare for armed battle against the Jews." The editor of the union, Judit Szima, was a Jobbik candidate in the upcoming election for the European Union parliament. Haaretz alleged Szima "didn't see anything wrong with the content of the article."
During spring 2012, Jobbik representative in Hungarian parliament Zsolt Baráth caused an outrage by commemorating 1882 blood libel against the Jews in Parliament. The Tiszaeszlár blood libel, found later to be unrelated to Jews, was known as first major anti-Jewish event in modern Hungary, predating the Holocaust.
In November 2012, the party's deputy parliamentary leader, Márton Gyöngyösi, posted a video speech on the Jobbik website in which he stated: "I think such a conflict makes it timely to tally up people of Jewish ancestry who live here, especially in the Hungarian Parliament and the Hungarian government, who, indeed, pose a national security risk to Hungary." As Al Jazeera reported, this led to "international condemnation of Nazi-style policies and a protest outside the legislature in Budapest. Around ten thousand Hungarians in Budapest protested against Gyöngyösi's anti-Semitic remarks. All major Hungarian political parties took part in the protest. At the protest, Attila Mesterházy the leader of Hungarian Socialist Party, described Jobbik as a "fascist possessions virus", while Budapest mayor Antal Rogán, representing the governing conservative Fidesz party, described Jobbik as "evil". Jewish organizations responded to Gyöngyösi speech by describing it as a reintroduction of Nazism in Hungarian parliament and by describing Jobbik as a Nazi party.
In 2014 Tibor Ágoston, the deputy chairman of Jobbik's Debrecen and Hajdú-Bihar County organization, referred to the Holocaust as the "holoscam". Tamás Horovitz, the chairman of the Debrecen Jewish Congregation and the mayor of Debrecen, Lajos Kósa, condemned Ágoston’s remarks.
In 2015 deputy leader Előd Novák posted to his social media account on Facebook a picture of himself and his family next to a separate image of Rikardo Racz, the first newborn in Hungary of the year who was born to a Romani family. In a comment on the pictures, he stated that the population of Hungarians would become a minority and suggested that the Romani population is the biggest problem facing Hungary. Novák's remarks were both condemned and supported. Novák would later respond to the issue by refusing to apologize and suggested that the family should apologize to him.
World Jewish Congress Protest
On 4 May 2013, Jobbik members protested against the World Jewish Congress in Budapest, claiming the protest was against "a Jewish attempt to buy up Hungary". Jobbik MP Enikő Hegedűs vociferously condemned both Israel and Jews at the rally as her husband, Lóránt Hegedűs Jr., stood nearby. An ordained minister in the Reformed Church in Hungary, Lóránt Hegedűs himself had served in the National Assembly as an MP of the far-right nationalist Hungarian Justice and Life Party from 1998 to 2002. He invited Holocaust denier David Irving to his Budapest church in 2007 as a "special guest", and has also been accused of anti-Semitism on several occasions for statements he has made about Jews at Jobbik events. At a 2011 rally, he claimed that Jews orchestrated World War II and controlled the international media, and a year prior had alleged that the Hungarian government was secretly cooperating with Mossad to facilitate an Israeli takeover of Hungary with the assistance of Hungarian Jews and mainstream churches. After his wife's statement regarding the World Jewish Congress, the Reformed Church launched an inquiry into the minister's conduct, with presiding bishop Gusztáv Bölcskei denouncing Hegedűs's activism for Jobbik as "permanent provocation" which was incompatible with scripture.
Slavery and fearing of ethnic shift in Hungary
According to Gábor Vona, Hungarians became slaves because the European Union had only wanted Hungary to enter the EU because of its cheap workforce. Vona also stated that "the number of Hungarians continues to fall while the gypsy population grows ever larger. This was not racism but a real social and economic problem. Anyone who doesn’t understand this is not normal."
Attempts to criminalize promotion of "sexual deviancy"
In April 2012, Jobbik tried to introduce a bill into the Hungarian parliament that would change the national constitution to allegedly "protect public morals and the mental health of the young generations" by banning the popularization of "sexual deviancy". The legislation was drafted by party spokesman Ádám Mírkóczki. This was to target "homosexuality, sex changes, transvestitism, bisexuality and paedophile behaviour". The proposed amendments would criminalise anyone who "popularizes their sexual relations—deviancy—with another person of the same sex, or other disturbances of sexual behaviour, before the wider public". The penalty would be three years in prison, or five years if 'popularizing' is done in front of minors. The draft legislation ultimately failed to pass.
Support for Miklós Horthy
On 3 November 2013, Márton Gyöngyösi and other Jobbik members unveiled a bronze bust of Miklós Horthy, a nationalist military commander who served as Regent of Hungary from 1920 to 1944, in front of the "Church of Homecoming" in downtown Budapest's Liberty Square, where Lóránt Hegedűs serves as pastor. The ceremony drew strong public and official condemnations over the legacy of Horthy, who forged close—if uneasy—ties with Adolf Hitler from the 1930s and led Hungary into World War II in 1941 on the side of the Axis powers (which the country had officially joined the previous year). Many Hungarians thus see Horthy as a source of deep national shame and Nazi collaborator, complicit in the murder of half a million Hungarian Jews in the Holocaust in Hungary. Others, however, revere him as a national hero, ostensibly for guiding the country to stability in its chaotic interwar period—at the ceremony, Gyöngyösi proclaimed Horthy "the greatest Hungarian statesman of the 20th century".
Several thousand individuals—some of whom had pinned yellow Stars of David on their clothing came out to protest against the statue, and were met by a smaller crowd of far right protesters near the church who responded with anti-Semitic and racist slurs. Mayor Antal Rogán condemned Jobbik's move as a "political provocation" that would allow the "western European left-wing press" to unfairly characterise Hungary as being plagued by anti-Semitic extremists. Hegedűs, who had already hung a portrait of Horthy by his church's entrance well prior to the statue's installation, defended Horthy's legacy to journalists after the unveiling, calling it "unjust and historically wrong" to implicate the former leader in crimes against humanity because he was not prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials. In light of the furore over the statue, church officials announced they would launch another official probe into Hegedűs's political activities.
Growth and electoral success
The party faced its first electoral test with the coming of the 2009 European parliamentary elections. The election's results shocked their opponents: with the party sending three MEPs to Strasbourg; coming close to equal in number of votes with the governing Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) while eliminating their liberal coalition partner Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), to become the nation's third largest party.
In London on 16 May 2008, the delegation of Jobbik's Committee of Foreign Affairs met Nick Griffin, chairman of the British National Party. They discussed cooperation between the two parties, and the elections for the European Parliament. Griffin spoke at the party rally in August 2008, while former vice-president Zoltán Füzessy is presently resident in Gravesend, Kent, England.
The Alliance of European National Movements (AENM) was formed in Budapest on 24 October 2009. The alliance's founding members were Jobbik (the Alliance was established during their sixth party congress), France's National Front, UK's British National Party Italy's Tricolour Flame, Sweden's National Democrats and Belgium's National Front. Since January 2014 Béla Kovács has been its president.
On 12 April 2015, Jobbik's Lajos Rig defeated the Fidesz candidate in a parliamentary by-election in Veszprém County. It was the second by-election lost by Fidesz after the national 2014 elections, leaving the ruling Fidesz-KDNP coalition two short of the parliamentary supermajority (kétharmad).
Hungarian Parliamentary Elections 2014
In November 2013, the party leader Gábor Vona, expressed optimism about the election saying that the party planned "no less than election victory in 2014". He argued that Jobbik candidates had been faring well in local elections and that opinion surveys had showed that Jobbik was the most popular party among voters aged under 35. The party has prepared its election programme dubbed "We'll say it, we'll solve it," which focuses on guaranteeing people a livelihood, safety and order. Vona said his party would initiate a referendum on protecting Hungarian land and on amending Hungary's European Union accession treaty.
On 26 January 2014, Vona held a rally in London where he sharply criticised the election law for preventing Hungarians living abroad from voting by mail at the parliamentary election.
For the Hungarian Parliament:
|Election year||National Assembly||Government|
| % of
overall seats won
0 / 386
47 / 386
23 / 199
For the European Parliament:
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of overall seats won||+/-||Notes|
3 / 22
3 / 21
- † 2009 Seat winners:
- Ásotthalom – László Toroczkai (since 2013)
- Bánokszentgyörgy – László Baumgartner (since 2014)
- Békésszentandrás – Imre Sinka (since 2010 as an independent, since 2012 as a Jobbik-member)
- Devecser – Gábor Ferenczi (since 2014)
- Gasztony – Szabolcs Nagy (since 2014)
- Gyöngyöspata – Oszkár Juhász (2011–2014)
- Hegyháthodász – Roland Dervalics (2010–2014)
- Hencida – László Szémán (since 2010)
- Kemenessömjén – Attila Kurucz (since 2007 as an independent, since 2012 as a Jobbik-member)
- Kosd – Ferenc Kurdi (since 2012)
- Mátraballa – Róbert Dudás (since 2014)
- Monorierdő – Béla Szente (since 2013)
- Ózd – Dávid Janiczak (since 2014)
- Recsk – Sándor Nagy (since 2014)
- Tapolca – Zoltán Dobó (since 2014)
- Tiszavasvári – Erik Fülöp (since 2010, re-elected in 2012 and 2014)
- Törökszentmiklós – Imre Markót (since 2014)
- Tuzsér – Tibor Ferkovics (since 2013)
- Kovács, András (2013). The Post-Communist Extreme Right: The Jobbik Party in Hungary. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse (London/New York: Bloomsbury). pp. 223–234. ISBN 978-1-78093-343-6.
- Tove H. Malloy, Joseph Marko.. Minority Governance in and beyond Europe: Celebrating 10 Years of the European Yearbook of Minority Issues. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2014. p. 208.
- Peter Parycek. CeDEM 12 Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government 3–4 May 2012 Danube-University Krems, Austria. 2012. p. 233.
- William M. Downs. Political Extremism in Democracies: Combating Intolerance. Palgrave Macmillan. 2012. p. 191.
- Charles Asher Small. Global Antisemitism: A Crisis of Modernity. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 2013. p. 226
- Nationalist Jobbik Party Doubles Voter Base In Hungary, xpatloop.com, 2009-06-25
- The political effects of the European elections, budapestanalyses.hu, 2009-06-11
- Jobbik signs agreements with other European nationalist groups, Politics.hu (source: MTI), 2009-10-26,
Hungary's radical nationalist Jobbik party signed an agreement with four international parties to set up the Alliance of European Nationalist Movements, Jobbik deputy leader Andras Balczo said on Saturday.
- Radical nationalist Jobbik for toppling Trianon borders, says MEP, The Budapest Times, 2009-06-14,
Hungary's radical nationalist Jobbik party plans to fight for the toppling of borders set by the 1920 Trianon treaty, newly elected MEP Csanad Szegedi said at the memorial meeting.
- "Survey finds LMP most "EU friendly" Hungarian party; Jobbik most hostile". Politics.hu. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Euroscepticism and the emergence of East-Central Europe’s far-right - Visegrad Insight". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- A Jobbik szembefordul a globális kapitalizmussal, mandiner.hu, 2013-10-26
- Vona megmondta: befellegzett a globális kapitalizmusnak, nol.hu, 2013-01-26
- Jobbik "anti-Zionist" demo goes ahead in Budapest, politics.hu, 2013-05-05
- Huggan, Graham; Law, Ian (2009). Racism Postcolonialism Europe. Liverpool University Press.
- Schori Liang, Christina (2007). Europe for the Europeans: The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right. Ashgate.
- Kirton, Gill; Greene, Anne-Marie (2010). The Dynamics of Managing Diversity: A Critical Approach (3rd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.
- "Jobbik confident of winning EP seat, party leader says". politics.hu (source: MTI). 2009-05-13.
Jobbik describes itself as “a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party. Its fundamental purpose is protecting Hungarian values and interests.”
- A Jobbik szembefordul a globális kapitalizmussal, mandiner.hu, 2013-10-26
- Vona megmondta: befellegzett a globális kapitalizmusnak, nol.hu, 2013-01-26
- Mazurczak, Filip (27 May 2014). "Euroscepticism and the emergence of East-Central Europe’s far-right". Visegrad Insight. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Jobbik "anti-Zionist" demo goes ahead in Budapest, politics.hu, 2013-05-05
- "Hungary's Jobbik party hold anti-semitic rally in Budapest after ban attempts fail", Telegraph, 2013-05-04
- Ghosh, Palash (December 06 2013) "Strange Bedfellows: Hungarian Far-Right Jobbik Party Embraces Muslim Nations, Seeks 'Eurasian' Ideal Of Statehood" International Business Times. Retrieved August 31, 2014
- Ungváry, Krisztián (5. February 2012) "Turanism: the 'new' ideology of the far right" BZT Media Kft. Retrieved August 31, 2014
- LeBor, Adam (2009-06-09). "Jobbik: Meet the BNP's fascist friends in Hungary". London: The Times Online. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- Chomsky, Noam (2011-04-21) Is the world too big to fail?, Salon.com
- "Jobbik Deputy Campaigns Against 'Israeli' MP". Israel National News. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Hungarians despair of political class". BBC News. 8 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Xpat Opinion: Will Hungary's Jobbik Split?". Xpatloop.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Freeman, Colin (2009-05-24). "Feminine face of Hungary's far-Right Jobbik movement seeks MEP's seat". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-06-07.
- "2012 Report on Global Trends in Anti-Semitism". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Chebel d'Appollonia, Ariane (2012), Frontiers of Fear: Immigration and Insecurity in the United States and Europe, Cornell University Press, p. 245
- Lisiak, Agata Anna (2010), Urban Cultures in (Post) Colonial Central Europe, Purdue University Press, p. 18
- "Jobbik: Nem vagyunk antiszemiták". Mandiner.hu. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe (The New Politics of Resentment). Palgrave MacMillan. p. 4. ISBN 0-312-08390-4.
the majority of radical right-wing populist parties are radical in their rejection of the established socio-cultural and socio-political system
- Albertazzi, Daniele (2007). Radical Twenty-First Century Populism: The Spectre of Western European Democracy. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 0-230-01349-X.
- Leigh Phillips (2010-04-19). "EUobserver / A far-right for the Facebook generation: The rise and rise of Jobbik". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- "Nem nevezhetik szélsőjobboldalinak a Jobbikot a hírműsorok". alfahir.hu. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Zalan, Estzer. "Court rules Jobbik cannot be called 'far-right'". EUobserver. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Jobbik stages demonstration against banks, "foreign speculative capital", politics.hu, 2009-08-04
- "Jobbik rally against World Jewish Congress in Budapest". BBC News. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- Hodgson, Robert (2007-08-17), "Jobbik nationalist, but not violent: Vona", Budapest Times
- Szabó, Gábor (2009-07-15). "Counsel of Dictatorship Smells Blood". Jobbik.com.
Jobbik finds the comments of former minister Péter Bárándy who called for special consideration to disband the party of Jobbik that enjoys a popular support of 15%, astonishing and contrary to elementary democratic values.
- LeBor, Adam (Spring 2008). "Marching Back to the Future: Magyar Garda and the Resurgence of the Right in Hungary". Dissent.
Vona rejects violence, and there is no evidence that Garda members have been involved in violence.
- "Erősíteni kell a nemzettudatot". Naplo-online.hu. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- "Jobbik MEPs to fight for pre-Trianon borders". Politics.hu (MTI). 2009-06-15.
Jobbik will demand territorial autonomy for Szekler land in Romania and will also press for Transcarpathia in Ukraine to become an independent Hungarian district, Szegedi said.
- Zimberg, Alexis. "Nostalgia and Notions of False Empire: The (Un)historical Rise of the Right in Hungary". The Hidden Transcript (Spring 2013): 28–32. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Inder Singh, Anita (2000). Democracy, ethnic diversity, and security in post-communist Europe. Central European University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-275-97258-5.
[including the nations of the former Soviet Union] Hungarian and Russian minorities are the largest minority groups in Europe, about one-tenth of all Russians and a quarter of Magyars live outside Russia and Hungary, respectively.
- Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 online; Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359–360 online)
- Heltai-Hopp, András (2009-06-05), "Big players fight domestic battle in EP election", The Budapest Times
- "EP elections – Hungary elections committee finds radical Jobbik's slogan unconstitutional", The Budapest Times, 2009-06-04
- "Basescu asking for a document to be issued to ban presence in Romania of Jobbik party members". AGERPRES. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Miért alakult meg a Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom-párt (Why was the Movement for a Better Hungary founded?), zuglo.jobbik.hu (Hungarian), 2008-06-01
- Pongrácz, Gergely (2003-10-24), Pongrátz Gergely megható beszéde a Jobbik alakuló gyűlésén (Gergely Pongrácz’s moving speech to the Jobbik founding conference), youtube.com (Hungarian @ 6:25),
The torch is now falling from our hands, it is you who must take it up, that spirit, those values, for which so many brother-in-arms died in '56. It is you who must take it onwards. (A fáklya kiesik a kezünkből, nektek kel átvenni, azt a szellemiséget, azokat az eszméket, amiért 56-ba olyan sok bajtársuk halt meg. Nektek kell tovább vinni.)
- Szilágyi, Tamás (2008). "Sacred Characteristics of the Nation: "Hungarianism" as Political Religion?" (PDF). revacern.eu.
The other case, which drew the attention of the public, is the country‐wide cross erecting “actions” of JOBBIK Party during Christmas, which started in 2003... Several Christian intellectual groups have disapproved these actions; however, no clear objection appeared from the churches against the political appropriation of the religious symbol.
- "The nationalist Right Gets Together: "Third way" platform". hvg. 2005-10-17.
- Prosecutors target Jobbik-MIÉP 2006 election vehicle, Politics.hu, 2009-08-19
- "Police investigate "new" Magyar Gárda; former minister mulls banning Jobbik". Politics.hu. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- LeBor, Adam (2009-06-09), Jobbik: Meet the BNP's fascist friends in Hungary, London: timesonline.co.uk,
Jobbik strongly denies that it is anti-Semitic and has condemned the Holocaust. "We are not against anyone, just for Hungary," its leaders say.
- Stancil, Jordan (2009-06-12), Jobbik Rising, thenation.com,
Jobbik denies accusations of racism or anti-Semitism
- Racist Violence Flares In Central And E.Europe, javno.com, 2008-11-21
- Moore, Matthew (2008-11-10), "Hungarian extremist running far-right website from UK", Telegraph (London),
When confronted at his home by the newspaper, Mr Fuzessy insisted he was not claiming benefits in the UK and denied Jobbik was fascist. "My party is radical but it is patriotic, not nationalist," he said. "Millions in Hungary support us. Those who call us Nazis are just communists."
- "Jobbik confident of winning EP seat, party leader says". politics.hu (source: MTI). 2009-05-13.
The party is embroiled in legal action against the liberal Free Democrats, which recently branded the party as "Neo-Nazi", a label which Jobbik vigorously denies.
- Gergely, Andras (2007-03-22), Che's the man for Hungary's young Socialists, reuters.com
- Freeman, Colin (2009-05-24). "Feminine face of Hungary's far-Right Jobbik movement seeks MEP's seat". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
Like her party, Dr Morvai denies being anti-Semitic, homophobic, or racist in any way, dismissing such criticisms as the "favourite topics" of an "ignorant and misled" European Union. But magazines supportive of her party's aims openly play on such fears. One publication available at the venue of a Jobbik press conference last week contained an item entitled "Who decides?" on Hungary's future. The non-Jobbik options were either a dreadlocked Jew, a pair of naked homosexuals, or a dark-skinned thug.
- "Homophobia in Hungary". The Yale Globalist. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2009-08-27.[dead link]
- "Hungarian homophobic party launches paramilitary wing". Pink News. 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Hungary Around the Clock (2009-06-05). "Outrage over obscene anti-Semitic Internet post by Morvai".
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