The cave is noted for its Paleolithic and Mesolithic material and evidence of human presence. The oldest remains comprise stone tools with an estimated age of 120,000 years. Dated to about 50,000 years ago are Neanderthal skeletal remains including the upper jaw bone of an immature male (14 or 15 years old) which was discovered in 1965 and the right parietal bone of a man which was discovered in 1970.
Later objects and artifacts indicate the presence of mammoth hunters of the Gravettian culture from around 25,000 years ago, as well as reindeer and wild horse hunters from between 13,000 and 10,000 years ago. Bronze Age artifacts have also been found dating back to the 9th and 8th centuries BCE.
- Jelinek, Jan (1980). "Neanderthal Remains in Kůlna Cave, Czechoslovakia". In Schwidetzky, Ilse; Chiarelli, Bruno; Necrasov, Olga (eds.). Physical Anthropology of European Populations. Walter de Gruyter. p. 351. ISBN 3110820978.
- Cummings, Vicki; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers. Oxford University Press. p. 707. ISBN 0191025267.
- "The Sloup-Šošůvka caves". Cave Administration of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Pánek, Tomáš; Hradecký, Jan (2016). Landscapes and Landforms of the Czech Republic. Springer. p. 261. ISBN 3319275372.
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