Kraftwerk performing in Kiev, Ukraine, in 2008
|Origin||Düsseldorf, West Germany|
Kraftwerk (German pronunciation: [ˈkʀaftvɛɐk], "power station") are a German electronic music band formed by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider in 1969 in Düsseldorf. In the 1970s, they were among the first successful pop acts to popularize electronic music and are widely considered to be innovators and pioneers of the genre. The band was fronted by both Hütter and Schneider until Schneider's departure in 2008.
Kraftwerk began as part of Germany's krautrock scene in the early 1970s, releasing three albums in an experimental rock style before embracing electronic instrumentation, including synthesizers, drum machines, vocoders, and self-made instruments, in the middle of the decade. On commercially successful albums such as Autobahn (1974), Trans-Europe Express (1977), and The Man-Machine (1978), they developed a distinctive style of so-called "robot pop" that combined electronic music with pop melodies, sparse arrangements, and repetitive rhythms, while adopting a stylized image which often employed matching suits. Following the releases of Computer World (1981) and Electric Café (1986), member Wolfgang Flür left the group in 1987. Their last album Tour de France Soundtracks was released in 2003. Founding member Schneider departed in 2008.
Kraftwerk have exerted a lasting and profound influence across many genres of modern music, including synthpop, hip hop, ambient, post-punk, techno, and club music, and have inspired a wide and diverse range of artists. According to The Observer, "no other band since the Beatles has given so much to pop culture." In January 2014, the Recording Academy honored Kraftwerk with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. As of 2016, the remaining members of Kraftwerk continue to tour.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Formation and early years (1969–73)
- 1.2 International breakthrough: Autobahn and Radioactivity (1974–76)
- 1.3 Trans-Europe Express, The Man-Machine and Computer World (1977–82)
- 1.4 Tour de France and Electric Café (1983–89)
- 1.5 The Mix (1990–99)
- 1.6 Touring the globe (2000–09)
- 1.7 The Catalogue and continued touring (2010–present)
- 2 Music
- 3 Influence and legacy
- 4 Members
- 5 Discography
- 6 Awards and achievements
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Formation and early years (1969–73)
Florian Schneider (flutes, synthesizers, violin) and Ralf Hütter (organ, synthesizers) met as students at the Robert Schumann Hochschule in Düsseldorf in the late 1960s, participating in the German experimental music and art scene of the time, which the Melody Maker jokingly dubbed "krautrock".
The duo had originally performed together as part of a quintet known as Organisation. This ensemble released one album, Tone Float in 1969, issued on RCA Records in the UK, and split shortly thereafter. Schneider became interested in synthesizers deciding to acquire one in 1970.
While visiting an exhibition in their hometown about visual artists Gilbert and George, they saw "two men wearing suits and ties, claiming to bring art into everyday life. The same year, Hütter and Schneider start bringing everyday life into art and form Kraftwerk".
Early Kraftwerk line-ups from 1970 to 1974 fluctuated, as Hütter and Schneider worked with around a half-dozen other musicians during the preparations for and the recording of three albums and sporadic live appearances, most notably guitarist Michael Rother and drummer Klaus Dinger, who left to form Neu! The only constant figure in these line-ups was Schneider, whose main instrument at the time was the flute; at times he also played the violin and guitar, all processed through a varied array of electronic devices. Hütter, who left the band for eight months, played synthesizer and keyboards (including Farfisa organ and electric piano).
Their first three albums were free-form experimental rock without the pop hooks or the more disciplined song structure of later work. Kraftwerk, released in 1970, and Kraftwerk 2, released in 1972, were mostly exploratory musical improvisations played on a variety of traditional instruments including guitar, bass, drums, organ, flute, and violin. Post-production modifications to these recordings were used to distort the sound of the instruments, particularly audio-tape manipulation and multiple dubbings of one instrument on the same track. Both albums are purely instrumental. Live performances from 1972 to 1973 were made as a duo, using a simple beat-box-type electronic drum machine, with preset rhythms taken from an electric organ. These shows were mainly in Germany, with occasional shows in France. Later in 1973, Wolfgang Flür joined the group for rehearsals, and the unit performed as a trio on the television show Aspekte for German television network ZDF.
With Ralf und Florian, released in 1973, Kraftwerk began to move closer to its now classic sound, relying more heavily on synthesizers and drum machines. Although almost entirely instrumental, the album marks Kraftwerk's first use of the vocoder, which would in time become one of its musical signatures. Kraftwerk's futuristic and robotic sound was influenced by the 'adrenalized insurgency' of Detroit artists of the late '60s such as MC5 and the Stooges.
The input, expertise, and influence of producer and engineer Konrad "Conny" Plank was highly significant in the early years of Kraftwerk. Plank also worked with many of the other leading German electronic acts of that time, including members of Can, Neu!, Cluster, and Harmonia. As a result of his work with Kraftwerk, Plank's studio near Cologne became one of the most sought-after studios in the late 1970s. Plank coproduced the first four Kraftwerk albums.
International breakthrough: Autobahn and Radioactivity (1974–76)
"Kosmische" or "krautrock" groups like Kraftwerk often experimented with construction of textures and did not stress virtuosity as much as other bands.
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The release of Autobahn in 1974 saw Kraftwerk moving away from the sound of its first three albums. Hütter and Schneider had invested in newer technology such as the Minimoog and the EMS Synthi AKS, helping give Kraftwerk a newer, "disciplined" sound. Autobahn would also be the last album that Conny Plank would engineer. After the commercial success of Autobahn in the US, where it peaked at number 5 in the Billboard top 200, Hütter and Schneider invested in updating their studio, thus lessening their reliance on outside producers. At this time the painter and graphic artist Emil Schult became a regular collaborator, designing artwork, cowriting lyrics, and accompanying the group on tour.
The year 1975 saw a turning point in Kraftwerk's live shows. With financial support from Phonogram Inc., in the US, they were able to undertake a multi-date tour to promote the Autobahn album, a tour which took them to the US, Canada and the UK for the first time. The tour also saw a new, stable, live line-up in the form of a quartet. Hütter and Schneider continued playing keyboard synthesizers such as the Minimoog and ARP Odyssey, with Schneider's use of flute diminishing. The pair also started singing live for the first time, Schneider processing his voice with a vocoder live. Wolfgang Flür and new recruit Karl Bartos performed on self-built electronic percussion instruments. Bartos also used a Deagan vibraphone on stage. The Hütter-Schneider-Bartos-Flür formation remained in place until the late 1980s and is now regarded as the classic live line-up of Kraftwerk. Emil Schult generally fulfilled the role of tour manager.
After the 1975 Autobahn tour, Kraftwerk began work on a follow-up album, Radio-Activity (German title: Radio-Aktivität). After further investment in new equipment, the Kling Klang Studio became a fully working recording studio. The group used the central theme in radio communication, which had become enhanced on their last tour of the United States. With Emil Schult working on artwork and lyrics, Kraftwerk began to compose music for the new record. Even though Radio-Activity was less commercially successful than Autobahn in the UK and United States, the album served to open up the European market for Kraftwerk, earning them a gold disc in France. Kraftwerk made videos and performed several European live dates to promote the album. With the release of Autobahn and Radio-Activity, Kraftwerk left behind avant-garde experimentation and moved towards the electronic pop tunes for which they are best known.
In 1976, Kraftwerk toured in support of the Radio-Activity album. David Bowie was among the fans of the record and invited the band to support him on his Station to Station tour, an offer the group declined. Despite some innovations in touring, Kraftwerk took a break from live performances after the Radio-Activity tour of 1976.
Trans-Europe Express, The Man-Machine and Computer World (1977–82)
After having finished the Radio-Activity tour Kraftwerk began recording Trans-Europe Express (German: Trans-Europa Express) at the Kling Klang Studio. Trans-Europe Express was mixed at the Record Plant Studios in Los Angeles. It was around this time that Hütter and Schneider met David Bowie at the Kling Klang Studio. A collaboration was mentioned in an interview (Brian Eno) with Hütter, but it never materialised. The release of Trans-Europe Express in March 1977 was marked with an extravagant train journey used as a press conference by EMI France. The album won a disco award in New York later that year.
In May 1978 Kraftwerk released The Man-Machine (German: Die Mensch-Maschine), recorded at the Kling Klang Studio. Due to the complexity of the recording, the album was mixed at Studio Rudas in Düsseldorf. The band hired sound engineer Leanard Jackson from Detroit to work with Joschko Rudas on the final mix. The Man-Machine was the first Kraftwerk album where Karl Bartos was cocredited as a songwriter. The cover, produced in black, white and red, was inspired by Russian artist El Lissitzky and the Suprematism movement. Gunther Frohling photographed the group for the cover, a now-iconic image which featured the quartet dressed in red shirts and black ties. Kraftwerk did not release another album for three years.
In May 1981 Kraftwerk released Computer World (German: Computerwelt) on EMI records. It was recorded at Kling Klang Studio between 1978 and 1981. Much of this time was spent modifying the studio to make it portable so the band could take it on tour. Some of the electronic vocals on Computer World were generated using a Texas Instruments language translator. "Computer Love" was released as a single backed with the Man-Machine track "The Model". Radio DJs were more interested in the B-side so the single was repackaged by EMI and re-released with "The Model" as the A-side. The single reached number one in the UK, making "The Model" Kraftwerk's most successful song in that country. As a result, the Man-Machine album also became a success in the UK, peaking at number 9 in the album chart in February 1982. The band's live set focused increasingly on song-based material, with greater use of vocals and the use of sequencing equipment for both percussion and music. In contrast to their cool and controlled image, the group used sequencers interactively, which allowed for live improvisation. Ironically Kraftwerk did not own a computer at the time of recording Computer World.
Kraftwerk returned to live performance with the Computer World tour of 1981, where the band effectively packed up its entire Kling Klang studio and took it along on the road. They also made greater use of live visuals including back-projected slides and films synchronized with the music as the technology developed, the use of hand-held miniaturized instruments during the set (for example, during "Pocket Calculator"), and, perhaps most famously, the use of replica mannequins of themselves to perform on stage during the song "The Robots".
Tour de France and Electric Café (1983–89)
In 1982 Kraftwerk began to work on a new album that initially had the working title Technicolor but due to trademark issues was changed to Techno Pop. One of the songs from these recording sessions was "Tour de France", which EMI released as a single in 1983. This song was a reflection of the band's new-found obsession for cycling. After the physically demanding Computer World tour, Ralf Hütter had been looking for forms of exercise that fitted in with the image of Kraftwerk; subsequently he encouraged the group to become vegetarians and take up cycling. "Tour de France" included sounds that followed this theme including bicycle chains, gear mechanisms and the breathing of the cyclist. At the time of the single's release Ralf Hütter tried to persuade the rest of the band that they should record a whole album based on cycling. The other members of the band were not convinced, and the theme was left to the single alone. "Tour de France" was released in German and French. The vocals of the song were recorded on the Kling Klang Studio stairs to create the right atmosphere. "Tour de France" was featured in the 1984 film Breakin', showing the influence that Kraftwerk had on black American dance music.
During the recording of "Tour de France", Ralf Hütter was involved in a serious cycling accident. He suffered head injuries and remained in a coma for several days. During 1983 Wolfgang Flür was beginning to spend less time in the studio. Since the band began using sequencers his role as a drummer was becoming less frequent. He preferred to spend his time travelling with his girlfriend. Flür was also experiencing artistic difficulties with the band. After his final work on the 1986 album Electric Café (a.k.a. Techno Pop) he hardly returned to the Kling Klang Studio. In 1987 he left the band and was replaced by Fritz Hilpert.
The Mix (1990–99)
After years of withdrawal from live performance Kraftwerk began to tour Europe more frequently. In February 1990 the band played a few secret shows in Italy. Karl Bartos left the band shortly afterwards. The next proper tour was in 1991, for the album The Mix. Hütter and Schneider wished to continue the synth-pop quartet style of presentation, and recruited Fernando Abrantes as a replacement for Bartos. Abrantes left the band shortly after though. In late 1991, long-time Kling Klang Studio sound engineer Henning Schmitz was brought in to finish the remainder of the tour and to complete a new version of the quartet that remained active until 2008.
In 1997 Kraftwerk made a famous appearance at the dance festival Tribal Gathering held in England. In 1998, the group toured the US and Japan for the first time since 1981, along with shows in Brazil and Argentina. Three new songs were performed during this period, which remain unreleased. Following this trek, the group decided to take another break.
In July 1999 the single "Tour de France" was reissued in Europe by EMI after it had been out of print for several years. It was released for the first time on CD in addition to a repressing of the 12-inch vinyl single. Both versions feature slightly altered artwork that removed the faces of Flür and Bartos from the four-man cycling paceline depicted on the original cover. In 1999 ex-member Flür published his autobiography in Germany, Ich war ein Roboter. Later English-language editions of the book were titled Kraftwerk: I Was a Robot.
The single "Expo 2000" was released in December 1999. The track was remixed and re-released as "Expo Remix" in November 2000.
Touring the globe (2000–09)
In August 2003 the band released Tour de France Soundtracks, its first album of new material since 1986's Electric Café. In January and February 2003, before the release of the album, the band started the extensive Minimum-Maximum world tour, using four customised Sony VAIO laptop computers, effectively leaving the entire Kling Klang studio at home in Germany. The group also obtained a new set of transparent video panels to replace its four large projection screens. This greatly streamlined the running of all of the group's sequencing, sound-generating, and visual-display software. From this point, the band's equipment increasingly reduced manual playing, replacing it with interactive control of sequencing equipment. Hütter retained the most manual performance, still playing musical lines by hand on a controller keyboard and singing live vocals and having a repeating ostinato. Schneider's live vocoding had been replaced by software-controlled speech-synthesis techniques. In November, the group made a surprising appearance at the MTV European Music Awards in Edinburgh, Scotland, performing "Aerodynamik". The same year a promotional box set entitled 12345678 (subtitled The Catalogue) was issued, with plans for a proper commercial release to follow. The box featured remastered editions of the group's eight core studio albums, from Autobahn to Tour de France Soundtracks. This long-awaited box-set would eventually be released in a different set of remasters in November 2009.
In June 2005 the band's first-ever official live album, Minimum-Maximum, which was compiled from the shows during the band's tour of spring 2004, received extremely positive reviews. The album contained reworked tracks from existing studio albums. This included a track titled "Planet of Visions" that was a reworking of "Expo 2000". In support of this release, Kraftwerk made another quick sweep around the Balkans with dates in Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey, and Greece. In December, the Minimum-Maximum DVD was released. During 2006, the band performed at festivals in Norway, Ireland, the Czech Republic, Spain, Belgium, and Germany.
In April 2008 the group played three shows in US cities Minneapolis, Milwaukee, and Denver, and were a coheadliner at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. This was their second appearance at the festival since 2004. Further shows were performed in Ireland, Poland, Ukraine, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Singapore later that year. The touring quartet consisted of Ralf Hütter, Henning Schmitz, Fritz Hilpert, and video technician Stefan Pfaffe, who became an official member in 2008. Original member Florian Schneider was absent from the lineup. Hütter stated that he was working on other projects. On 21 November, Kraftwerk officially confirmed Florian Schneider's departure from the band. The Independent commented on that incident: "There is something brilliantly Kraftwerkian about the news that Florian Schneider, a founder member of the German electronic pioneers, is leaving the band to pursue a solo career. Many successful bands break up after just a few years. It has apparently taken Schneider and his musical partner, Ralf Hütter, four decades to discover musical differences." Kraftwerk's headline set at Global Gathering in Melbourne, Australia, on 22 November was cancelled moments before it was scheduled to begin, due to a Fritz Hilpert heart problem.
In 2009, Kraftwerk performed concerts with special 3D background graphics in Wolfsburg, Germany; Manchester, UK; and Randers, Denmark. Members of the audience were able to watch this multimedia part of the show with 3D glasses, which were given out. During the Manchester concert (part of the 2009 Manchester International Festival) four members of the GB cycling squad (Jason Kenny, Ed Clancy, Jamie Staff and Geraint Thomas) rode around the Velodrome while the band performed "Tour de France". The group also played several festival dates, the last being at the Bestival 2009 in September, on the Isle of Wight.
Kraftwerk finally released The Catalogue box set on 16 November. It is a 12" album-sized box set containing all eight remastered CDs in cardboard slipcases, as well as LP-sized booklets of photographs and artwork for each individual album.
The Catalogue and continued touring (2010–present)
Although not officially confirmed, Ralf Hütter suggested that a second boxed set of their first three experimental albums—Kraftwerk, Kraftwerk 2 and Ralf and Florian—could be on its way, possibly seeing commercial release after their next studio album: "We've just never really taken a look at those albums. They've always been available, but as really bad bootlegs. Now we have more artwork. Emil has researched extra contemporary drawings, graphics, and photographs to go with each album, collections of paintings that we worked with, and drawings that Florian and I did. We took a lot of Polaroids in those days." Kraftwerk also released an iOS app called Kraftwerk Kling Klang Machine. The Lenbach House in Munich exhibited some Kraftwerk 3-D pieces in Autumn 2011. Kraftwerk performed three concerts to open the exhibit.
Kraftwerk played at Ultra Music Festival in Miami on 23 March 2012. Initiated by Klaus Biesenbach, the Museum of Modern Art of New York organized an exhibit titled Kraftwerk – Retrospective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 where the band performed their studio discography from Autobahn to Tour de France over the course of eight days to sell-out crowds. The exhibit later toured to the Tate Gallery as wekk as to K21 in Düsseldorf. Kraftwerk performed at the No Nukes 2012 Festival in Tokyo, Japan. Kraftwerk were also going to play at the Ultra Music Festival in Warsaw, but the event was cancelled; instead, Kraftwerk performed at Way Out West in Gothenburg. A limited edition version of the Catalogue box set was released during the retrospective, restricted to 2000 sets. Each box was individually numbered and inverted the colour scheme of the standard box. In December, Kraftwerk stated on their website that they would be playing their Catalogue in Düsseldorf and at London's Tate Modern. Kraftwerk tickets were priced at £60 in London, but fans compared that to the $20 ticket price for tickets at New York's MoMA in 2012, which caused consternation. Even so, the demand for the tickets at The Tate was so high that it shut down the website.
In March 2013, the band was not allowed to perform at a music festival in China due to unspecified "political reasons". In an interview in June after performing the eight albums of The Catalogue in Sydney, Ralf Hütter stated: "Now we have finished one to eight, now we can concentrate on number nine." In July, they performed at the 47th Montreux Jazz Festival. The band also played a 3-D concert on 12 July at Scotland's biggest festival – T in the Park – in Balado, Kinross, as well as 20 July at Latitude Festival in Suffolk, and 21 July at the Longitude Festival in Dublin.
In October 2013 the band played four concerts, over two nights, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. The venue, Evoluon (the former technology museum of Philips Electronics, now a conference center) was handpicked by Ralf Hütter, for its retro-futuristic UFO-like architecture. Bespoke visuals of the building, with the saucer section descending from space, were displayed during the rendition of Spacelab.
In 2014, Kraftwerk brought their four-night, 3D Catalogue tour to the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, and at NYC's United Palace Theatre. They also played at the Cirkus in Stockholm, Sweden and at the music festival Summer Sonic in Tokyo, Japan. In November 2014 the 3D Catalogue live set was played in Paris, France, at the brand new Fondation Louis-Vuitton from 6 to 14 November. and then in the iconic Paradiso concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands, where they played before in 1976. In 2015, Ralf Hütter, being told that the Tour de France would be starting that year in the nearby Dutch city of Utrecht, decided that Kraftwerk would perform during the "Grand Depart". Eventually the band played three concerts 3 and 4 July in TivoliVredenburg performing "Tour de France Soundtracks" and visited the start of the Tour in-between.
In April 2017, Kraftwerk announced 3-D The Catalogue, a live album and video documenting performances of all eight albums in The Catalogue that was released 26 May 2017. It is available in multiple formats, the most extensive of which being a 4-disc Blu-ray set with a 236-page hardback book.
Kraftwerk have been recognized as pioneers of electronic music as well as subgenres such as electropop, art pop, and synth-pop. In its early incarnation, the band pursued an avant-garde, experimental rock style inspired by the compositions of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Hütter has also listed the Beach Boys as a major influence. The group was also inspired by the funk music of James Brown and, later, punk rock. They were initially connected to the German krautrock scene. In the mid-1970s, they transitioned to an electronic sound which they described as "robot pop". Kraftwerk's lyrics dealt with post-war European urban life and technology—traveling by car on the Autobahn, traveling by train, using home computers, and the like. They were influenced by the modernist Bauhaus aesthetic, seeing art as inseparable from everyday function. Usually, the lyrics are very minimal but reveal both an innocent celebration of, and a knowing caution about, the modern world, as well as playing an integral role in the rhythmic structure of the songs. Many of Kraftwerk's songs express the paradoxical nature of modern urban life: a strong sense of alienation existing side-by-side with a celebration of the joys of modern technology.
All of Kraftwerk's albums from Trans Europe Express onwards have been released in separate versions: one with German vocals for sale in Germany, Switzerland and Austria and one with English vocals for the rest of the world, with occasional variations in other languages when conceptually appropriate. Live performance has always played an important part in Kraftwerk's activities. Also, despite its live shows generally being based around formal songs and compositions, live improvisation often plays a noticeable role in its performances. This trait can be traced back to the group's roots in the first experimental Krautrock scene of the late 1960s, but, significantly, it has continued to be a part of its playing even as it makes ever greater use of digital and computer-controlled sequencing in its performances. Some of the band's familiar compositions have been observed to have developed from live improvisations at its concerts or sound-checks.
Throughout their career, Kraftwerk have pushed the limits of music technology with some notable innovations, such as self-made instruments and custom-built devices. The group has always perceived their Kling Klang Studio as a complex music instrument as well as a sound laboratory; Florian Schneider in particular developed a fascination with music technology, with the result that the technical aspects of sound generation and recording gradually became his main fields of activity within the band. Alexei Monroe called Kraftwerk the "first successful artists to incorporate representations of industrial sounds into non-academic electronic music."
Kraftwerk used a custom-built Vocoder on their albums Ralf und Florian and Autobahn; the device was constructed by engineers P. Leunig and K. Obermayer of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig. Hütter and Schneider hold a patent for an electronic drum kit with sensor pads, filed in July 1975 and issued in June 1977. It must be hit with metal sticks which are connected to the device to complete a circuit that triggers analog synthetic percussion sounds. The band first performed in public with this device in 1973, on the television program Aspekte (on the all-German channel Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen), where it was played by Wolfgang Flür. They created drums machines for Autobahn and Trans-Europe Express
On the Radio-Activity tour in 1976 Kraftwerk tested out an experimental light-beam-activated drum cage allowing Flür to trigger electronic percussion through arm and hand movements. Unfortunately, the device did not work as planned, and it was quickly abandoned. The same year Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider commissioned Bonn-based "Synthesizerstudio Bonn, Matten & Wiechers" to design and build the Synthanorma Sequenzer with Intervallomat, a 4×8 / 2×16 / 1×32 step-sequencer system with some features that commercial products couldn't provide at that time. The music sequencer was used by the band for the first time to control the electronic sources creating the rhythmic sound of the album Trans-Europe Express.
The band is notoriously reclusive, providing rare and enigmatic interviews, using life-size mannequins and robots to conduct official photo shoots, refusing to accept mail and not allowing visitors at the Kling Klang Studio, the precise location of which they used to keep secret. Another notable example of this eccentric behavior was reported to Johnny Marr of the Smiths by Karl Bartos, who explained that anyone trying to contact the band for collaboration would be told the studio telephone did not have a ringer, since during recording, the band did not like to hear any kind of noise pollution. Instead, callers were instructed to phone the studio precisely at a certain time, whereupon the phone would be answered by Ralf Hütter, despite never hearing the phone ring. Chris Martin, lead singer of UK group Coldplay, anecdotally recalled, in a late 2007 article in Q magazine about Kraftwerk, the process of requesting permission to use the melody from the track "Computer Love" in its 2005 release "Talk" from its album X&Y. He recalled writing them a letter and sending it through the lawyers of the respective parties and several weeks later receiving an envelope containing a handwritten reply that simply said "yes".
Influence and legacy
According to music journalist Neil McCormick, Kraftwerk might be "the most influential group in pop history". NME wrote: "'The Beatles and Kraftwerk' may not have the ring of 'the Beatles and the Stones', but nonetheless, these are the two most important bands in music history". AllMusic wrote that their music "resonates in virtually every new development to impact the contemporary pop scene of the late- 20th century." The Stranger called them "electronic music's Beatles and Velvet Underground: They both popularized it and inspired thousands of people to create their own unconventional sounds with synths and computers."
Kraftwerk's musical style and image can be heard and seen in 1980s synthpop groups such as Gary Numan, Ultravox, John Foxx, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Human League, Depeche Mode, Visage, and Soft Cell. Kraftwerk would also go on to influence other forms of music such as hip hop, house, and drum and bass, and they are also regarded as pioneers of the electro genre. Most notably, "Trans Europe Express" and "Numbers" were interpolated into "Planet Rock" by Afrika Bambaataa & the Soul Sonic Force, one of the earliest hip-hop/electro hits. Kraftwerk helped ignite the New York electro-movement. Techno was created by three musicians from Detroit, often referred to as the 'Belleville three' (Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson & Derrick May), who fused the repetitive melodies of Kraftwerk with funk rhythms. The Belleville three were heavily influenced by Kraftwerk and their sounds because Kraftwerk's sounds appealed to the middle-class blacks residing in Detroit at this time. Depeche Mode's composer Martin Gore emphasized: "For anyone of our generation involved in electronic music, Kraftwerk were the godfathers". Vince Clarke of Erasure, Yazoo and Depeche Mode, is also a notable disco and Kraftwerk fan. Daniel Miller, founder of Mute Records, purchased the vocoder used by Kraftwerk in their early albums, comparing it to owning "the guitar Jimi Hendrix used on 'Purple Haze'." Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys, founding members of OMD, have stated that Kraftwerk was a major reference on their early work, and covered "Neon Lights" on the 1991 album, Sugar Tax. The electronic band Ladytron were inspired by Kraftwerk's song "The Model" when they composed their debut single "He Took Her To a Movie". Richard D James a.k.a. Aphex Twin, has noted Kraftwerk as one of his biggest influences and called Computer World as a very influential album towards his music and sound. Björk has cited the band as one of her main musical influences. Electronic musician Kompressor has cited Kraftwerk as an influence. The band was also mentioned in the song "Rappers We Crush" by Kompressor and MC Frontalot ("I hurry away, get in my Chrysler. Oh, the dismay!/Someone's replaced all of my Backstreet Boys with Kraftwerk tapes!"). Dr. Alex Paterson of the Orb listed The Man-Machine as one of his 13 most favourite albums of all time. According to NME, Kraftwerk’s pioneering "robot pop" also spawned groups like Prodigy, and Daft Punk.
Kraftwerk inspired many acts from other styles and genres. David Bowie's "V-2 Schneider", from the 1977's Heroes album, was a tribute to Florian Schneider. Post-punk bands Joy Division and New Order were heavily influenced by the band. Joy Division frontman Ian Curtis was a fan, and showed his colleagues records that would influence their music. New Order also would sample "Uranium" in its biggest hit "Blue Monday". Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded a cover of "Hall of Mirrors" on their 1987 album Through the Looking Glass which was lauded by Ralf Hütter: "In general, we consider cover versions as an appreciation of our work. The version of "Hall of Mirrors" by Siouxsie and the Banshees is extraordinary, just like the arrangements of Alexander Bălănescu for his Bălănescu Quartet release [of Possessed, 1992]. We also like the album El Baile Alemán of Señor Coconut a lot." Members of Blondie have admitted on several occasions that Kraftwerk were an important reference for their sound by the time they were working on their third album Parallel Lines. The worldwide hit "Heart of Glass" turned radically from an initial reggae-flavoured style to its distinctive electronic sound in order to imitate the technological approach of Kraftwerk's albums and adapt it to a disco concept. U2 recorded a cover version of "Neon Lights" as did Simple Minds. LCD Soundsystem sampled and built a song entirely around the Kraftwerk single 'Robots'. The band also performed some Kraftwerk songs as snippets during live shows. Franz Ferdinand were inspired by Kraftwerk's song "The Model" when writing their song "Walk Away". Rammstein also covered their song, Das Modell releasing it on a non-album single in 1997.
- Ralf Hütter – lead vocals, vocoder, synthesizers, keyboards (1970–present), organ, drums and percussion, bass guitar, guitar (1970–1974)
- Fritz Hilpert – electronic percussion (1989–present)
- Henning Schmitz – electronic percussion, live keyboards (1991–present)
- Falk Grieffenhagen – live video technician (2012–present)
- Florian Schneider – synthesizers, background vocals, vocoder, computer-generated vocals, acoustic and electronic flute, live saxophone, percussion, electric guitar, violin (1970–2008)
- Houschäng Néjadepour – electric guitar (1970–71)
- Plato Kostic (a.k.a. Plato Riviera) – bass guitar (1973)
- Peter Schmidt – drums (1970)
- Karl "Charly" Weiss – drums (1970, died 2009)
- Thomas Lohmann – drums (1970)
- Andreas Hohmann – drums (1970)
- Eberhard Kranemann – bass guitar (1970–71)
- Klaus Dinger – drums (1970–1971, died 2008)
- Michael Rother – electric guitar (1971)
- Emil Schult – electric guitar, electronic violin (1973)
- Wolfgang Flür – electronic percussion (1973–1987)
- Klaus Röder – electric guitar, electronic violin (1974)
- Karl Bartos – electronic percussion, live vibraphone, live keyboards (1975–1991)
- Fernando Abrantes – electronic percussion, synthesizer (1991)
- Stefan Pfaffe – live video technician (2008–2012)
- Kraftwerk (1970)
- Kraftwerk 2 (1972)
- Ralf und Florian (1973)
- Autobahn (1974)
- Radio-Activity (1975)
- Trans-Europe Express (1977)
- The Man-Machine (1978)
- Computer World (1981)
- Electric Café (1986)
- Tour de France Soundtracks (2003)
Awards and achievements
|1982||"Computer World"||Best Rock Instrumental Performance||Nominated|
|2006||Minimum-Maximum||Best Dance/Electronic Album||Nominated|
|2014||Kraftwerk||Lifetime Achievement Award||Won|
|2015||Autobahn||Hall of Fame||Won|
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- Rogers, Jude (27 January 2013). "Why Kraftwerk are still the world's most influential band". The Observer. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Petridis, Alexis. "Desperately Seeking Kraftwerk". The Guardian, 25 July 2003. Retrieved 8 August 2013
- Albiez, David Pattie, Sean (2011). Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop. A&C Black. p. 3.
- Tony Naylor. "Kraftwerk: Minimum-Maximum Live". NME, 2 June 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2013
- Harrington, Richard (27 May 2005). "These Days, Kraftwerk is Packing Light". Washington post. p. WE08. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
- Grammy Academy. "Lifetime Achievement Award: Kraftwerk". Grammy.com, 14 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014
- Bussy, Pascal (1993). Kraftwerk—Man, Machine & Music. SAF Publishing. ISBN 978-0-946719-70-9.
- Pascal Bussy: "Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music", SAF Publishing Ltd., Reprinted 1993, 1997, 1999, ISBN 978-0-946719-70-9
- Flür, Wolfgang (1993). "Kraftwerk": I Was A Robot. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86074-417-4.
- Simon, Reynolds (1999). Generation Ecstasy: into the world of techno and rave culture. Routledge.
- "allmusic ((( Kraftwerk > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". www.allmusic.com. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- Witts, Richard. "Vorsprung durch Technik ? Kraftwerk and the British Fixation with Germany". reproduced in "Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop". Continuum Books 2012
- "Datamath". Datamath. 5 December 2001. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Kraftwerk albums Chart". www.officialcharts.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- 2 Cents: Kraftwerk, Tribal Gathering (25 May 1997).
- "Kraftworld, Kraftwerk 1998" Tour. kraftworld.com. Retrieved on 5 March 2009
- Reid, Graham (27 September 2008). "Interview: Ralf Hutter of Kraftwerk". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- Music. "Kraftwerk's co-founder Florian Schneider leaves band". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Editorials leading article: "Nice Werk". The Independent. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2013
- Illness forces Kraftwerk to miss Melbourne Global Gathering, inthemix.com.au (23 November 2008)
- "MIF.co.uk". MIF.co.uk. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Simpson, Dave (3 July 2009). "Kraftwerk/Steve Reich". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- Kraftwerk to headline Bestival, ventnorblog.com (26 February 2009)
- "More and more remastered Kraftwerk eight-CD promo boxed sets auctioned via eBay". Side-line.com. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Witter, Simon (Spring 2006). "article". Dummy (magazine).
- "Lenbachhaus – Kunstbau". Lenbachhaus.de. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Kraftwerk denied festival appearance in China. The Guardian. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013
- P Street, Andrew. Kraftwerk's Ralf Hütter: 'Now we can concentrate on album number nine'. The Guardian. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013
- Sun cream at the ready as Longtitude festival gets underway in Marlay Park Irish Times, 19 July 2013.
- Reageren Uw reactie Naam E-mail adres Versturen. "Kraftwerk: 'Optreden in Evoluon is geweldig'". Ed.nl. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- saret97. "Kraftwerk - Spacelab (Live @ Evoluon 18-10-2013)". YouTube. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Kraftwerk – KRAFTWERK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 – LAPhil". Kraftwerk.laphil.com. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Summer Sonic 2014 Lineup". Summersonic.com. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Computer World (3-D Le Catalogue): Kraftwerk – Fondation Louis Vuiton, Paris – November 10, 2014". My Concert Archive.
- "Kraftwerk sets 8-night Paradiso residency – NL Times". NL Times.
- Ankeny, Jason. Artist Biography by Jason Ankeny at AllMusic. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- McCormick, Neil. "Kraftwerk: the most influential group in pop history?". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Lusher, Adam. "The Kraftwerk conference: Why a bunch of academics consider the German electropoppers worthy of their own symposium". The Independent. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- John Shepherd (8 July 2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: VolumeII: Performance and Production. A&C Black. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-8264-6322-7.
- The Guardian
- Giles, Jeff. "Beatles to Receive Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Ratliff, Ben. "Made in Detroit, Different Music Models". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Staff. "Kraftwerk brought their 3D tour to United Palace Theatre (pics, set list), do it again tonight". Brooklyn Vegan. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- Stubbs, David. "Ladies und Gentlemen, the future has arrived". The Independent. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- Raihala, Ross. "Review: Kraftwerk rocks Northrop Auditorium, German-style". Twin Cities. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- Coplan, Chris. "Video Surfaces of Kraftwerk's Television Debut in 1970". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- Segal, Dave. "What Does Kraftwerk Mean to You?". The Stranger. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "D>Elektro – MATERIAL – Kraftwerk – Interview 11/76 – P. Alessandrini". Thing.de. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Steven D. Martinson; Renate A. Schulz (2008). Deutsch Als Fremdsprache. Peter Lang. p. 225. ISBN 978-3-03911-627-0.
- Barr, Tim (1998). Kraftwerk: from Dusseldorf to the Future With Love. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0091864903.
- Sperounes, Sandra (14 September 2015), "The man behind Kraftwerk's machines", Edmon Journal, retrieved 28 October 2016
- Monroe, Alexei (2005). Interrogation Machine: Laibach and NSK. Cambridge: The MIT Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-262-63315-9.
- "Kraftwerk Vocoder (Barth / Leunig) sold: $12,500". Sequencer.de. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "Aktivitaet Online – Archive – General articles – Kling Klang: The Electronic Garden". Aktivitaet-fanzine.com. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- ""Tomorrow's world" (1976 Tv performance)". YouTube. 23 January 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Flür, Wolfgang (2001). "Kraftwerk": I Was A Robot. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86074-417-4.
- Reynolds, Simon. "Generation Ecstasy". Routledge. 2013.
- "Synthanorma Sequenzer – description by D. Matten" (PDF). Elektropolis.de. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "Top 100 Albums: Kraftwerk Trans-Europe-Express commented by Johnny Marr and Mark Radcliffe". YouTube. 1 April 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Goddard, Simon. "The 21 people who changed music – They are the robots." Q Magazine. November 2007, p. 106.
- McCormick, Neil. (30 January 2013). "Kraftwerk: the most influential group in pop history?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Fink, R. "The story of ORCH5, or, the classical ghost in the hip-hop machine. " Popular Music 24.3 (2005): 339-356. 9 November 2009.
- "KEXP 90.3 FM – KEXP Documentary: POP Goes Electronic".
- "Synth Britannia", BBC Four, 19 October 2009. Excerpt.
- "OMD biography". OMD.uk.com. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- "OMD discography". OMD.uk.com. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Lester, Paul (5 October 2001). "Tank boy". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Pytlik, Mark (2003). Björk: Wow and Flutter. ECW Press. p. 126. ISBN 1-55022-556-1.
- "Bakers Dozen: Alex Paterson Of The Orb Chooses His Favourite 13 Albums". Thequietus.com. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Roy Carr & Charles Shaar Murray (1981). Bowie: An Illustrated Record: p.92
- The album Trans-Europe Express was played over the PA before Joy Division's concerts. New Order's song "Your Silent Face" also has some similarities with "Europe Endless" and had a working title of "KW1", or "Kraftwerk 1". New Order also recorded a song called "Krafty" that appeared as a single and on the album Waiting for the Sirens' Call.
- Butterworth, Michael (30 November 2015). The Blue Monday Diaries: In the Studio with New Order. Plexus Publishing Ltd.
Kraftwerk's Uranium from the 1975 album Radio-Activity, became the model for the keyboard pad sound at the start and end of the track
- "Intervista: I Kraftwerk, redeirelettronica: «Partiamo per il Tour de France»", La Stampa (numero 229), p. 29, 22 August 2003,
In genere lo consideriamo un apprezzamento per il nostro lavoro. La versione di Siouxsie di "Hall Of Mirrors" è straordinaria, come gli arrangiamenti di Alexander Balanescu per quartetto d'archi. Anche il disco di Señor Coconut ci è piaciuto molto.
- "Blondie – Parallel Lines". The Mojo Collection: the ultimate music companion. 2007. p. 410.
We didn't expect the song to be that big (...) We weren't thinking about selling out. We were thinking about Kraftwerk and Eurodisco
- U2 included "Neon Lights" as the B-side of their 2004 single "Vertigo". Simple minds included theirs on an all-cover tunes album by same name.
- "Kraftwerk – About _ Facebook". KraftwerkOfficial. 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Kraftwerk: Über Leverkusen in den Musik-Olymp".
- "KARL BARTOS – Curriculum vitae Karl Bartos". Karl Bartos. 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Bussy, Pascal (1993). Kraftwerk—Man, Machine & Music. SAF Publishing. ISBN 9780946719709.
- Flür, Wolfgang (2001). "Kraftwerk": I Was A Robot. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86074-417-4.
- Tim Barr, "Kraftwerk: From Düsseldorf to the Future" 1998
- Vanni Neri & Giorgio Campani: "A Short Introduction to Kraftwerk" 2000
- Albert Koch: "Kraftwerk: The Music Makers" 2002
- Kraftwerk: "Kraftwerk Photobook" 2005 (included in the Minimum-Maximum Notebook set)
- Sean Albiez and David Pattie: Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop 2010
- David Buckley: Kraftwerk: Publikation 2012
- Toby Mott: Kraftwerk: 45 RPM 2012
- The Guardian: Kraftwerk sue makers of Kraftwerk charging devices 2015
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kraftwerk.|
- Official website
- on 's channelYouTube
- Kraftwerk official _ Free Listening on SoundCloud, Kraftwerk _ Free Listening on SoundCloud – SoundCloud
- ANTENNA – The International Kraftwerk Mailing List (since 2003 September)
- Kraftwerk discography at Discogs
- Kraftwerk FAQ – The Kraftwerk FAQ: Frequently asked questions and answers
- Kraftwerk And The Electronic Revolution – 2008 documentary from Rob Johnstone.
- BBC Radio 1 Kraftwerk documentary – 2006 Kraftwerk documentary with Alex Kapranos
- Kraftwerk Vinyl Site for collectors
- Mats's Kraftwerk Page with lots of images and information, since 1997
|Awards and achievements|
Glenn Gould, Charlie Haden, Lightnin' Hopkins, Carole King, Patti Page, Ravi Shankar, The Temptations
|Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
with The Beatles, Clifton Chenier, The Isley Brothers, Kris Kristofferson, Armando Manzanero
The Bee Gees, Pierre Boulez, Buddy Guy, George Harrison, Flaco Jiménez, The Louvin Brothers, Wayne Shorter