List of Mongol rulers

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8 of 15 Khagans of the Mongol Empire.
Mongol Empire and its fragmentation
Imperial Seal of Güyük Khan
Imperial Seal of Bogd Khan

This is a list of Mongol rulers. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Contents

Xiongnu[edit]

Xiongnu Chanyus (240 BC – 46 AD)[edit]

NB Chanyu names do not always obey Chinese convention
Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Touman (頭曼單于/头曼单于) tóumàn/ t'ou-man 240–209 BC
Maodun (冒頓單于/冒顿单于) mòudùn / mou-tun 209–174 BC a.k.a. Batur (Baγatur)[1]
Laoshang (老上單于/老上单于) lǎoshàng / lao-shang 174–161 BC
Gunchen (軍臣單于/军臣单于) jūnchén / chün-ch'en 161–126 BC
Ichise (伊稚斜單于/伊稚斜单于) yīzhìxié / i-chih-hsieh 126–114 BC
Uwei ( 烏維/ 乌维) 114–105 BC
Ushylu (兒單于/儿单于) ( 烏師廬/乌师庐) 105–102/101 BC "Err Chanyu" (underage)[2]
Guilihu ( 呴犛湖/ 呴犁湖) 102/101–101/100 BC
Chedi (且鞮侯) ( 且鞮侯) 101/100–96 BC a.k.a. Quidi, Chedihou
Hulugu (狐鹿姑單于/狐鹿姑单于) húlùgū / hu-lu-ku 96–85 BC
Huandi (壺衍鞮單于/壺衍鞮单于) húyǎndī / hu-yen-ti 85–68 BC
Hyuilui-Juankui (虛閭權渠單于/虚闾权渠单于) xūlǘquánqú / hsü-lü-ch'üan-ch'ü 68–60 BC
Uyan-Guidi (握衍朐鞮單于/握衍朐鞮单于) wòyǎnqúdī / wo-lu-ch'ü-ti ( 屠耆堂/ 屠耆堂) 60–58 BC
Huhanye (呼韓邪單于/呼韩邪单于) hūhánxié / hu-han-hsieh Giheushyan[3]
( 稽侯狦)
58–31 BC
屠耆單于, 58–56 BC
呼揭單于, 57 BC
車犂單于, 57–56 BC
烏籍單于, 57 BC
閏振單于, 56–54 BC
Zhizhi Chanyu 郅支單于, 55–36 BC
伊利目單于, 49 BC
Fujulei[4]
(復株纍若鞮單于/复株累若鞮单于)
fùzhūléiruòdī/fu-chu-lei-je-ti Dyaotao-mogao[4]
( 彫陶莫皋/ 雕陶莫皋)
31–20 BC "Jodi" in Hunnic means "respectful to parents"[5]
Seuxie[4]
(搜諧若鞮單于/搜谐若鞮单于)
Juimixui[4]
( 且麋胥)
20–12 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Guia[6]
(車牙若鞮單于/车牙若鞮单于)
Juimigui[6]
( 且莫車/挛鞮 且莫车)
12–8 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Uchjulu[6] (烏珠留若鞮單于/乌珠留若鞮单于) Nengzhiyasi[7]
( 囊知牙斯)
8 BC – 13 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Ulei Hyan[8] (烏累若鞮單于/乌累若鞮单于) ( 鹹/挛鞮 咸) 13–18 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Yui[9] (呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于/呼都而尸道皋若鞮单于) ( 輿/挛鞮 舆) 18–46 AD
Wudadi-hou[10] Wudadi (烏達鞮侯/乌达鞮侯) 46 AD

Northern Xiongnu (北匈奴) (46–118 AD)[edit]

Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Punu (蒲奴) Punu 46–48 AD
Youliu[10] (優留) Youliu  ?–87 AD
Bey/Bi (北單于) Běi Chányú 88–? AD
Yuchujian[10] (於除鞬單于) Yuchujian 91–93 AD
Feng-hou (逢侯) Feng, a.k.a. Finghey 94–118 AD

Southern Xiongnu (南匈奴) (48–215/6 AD)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Hu, Han-Sie/Hanxie (呼, 韓邪)
Di II (第二) 醢落尸逐鞮
a.k.a. Bey/Bi (KhuKheniy II) of the East partition
brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations
with Han China in AD 50
48–56/55 AD
Chiu-Fu Yu-Ti
(丘浮 尤提)
Chupu-NoTi 55/56–56/57 AD
I-Fa Wu Yu-Ti
(伊伐 於 慮提)
 ??? 56/57–59 AD
XienTung ShiSuQuTi
(醢僮 尸逐侯提)
Shtongsi SuyGhuTi 59–63 AD

丘除車林提
Kuchi QilinTi 63 AD
HuYeh ShiSuQuTi
(湖邪 尸逐侯提)
Ghushi Shisu Quti 63–85 AD
I-Tu-Yi-Lu-Ti
(伊屠 於 閭提)
Iltu UluTi 85–88 AD
Tuntuhe[10] Siuan[11] XiuLan ShiSuQuTi (休蘭 尸逐侯提) Shulan 88–93 AD
Anguo[10]
(安國)
a.k.a. Arqu started a large scale rebellion against
the Han
93–94 AD
Shizi-hou[10]
(尸逐)
Tindu ShiSuQuTi (亭獨 尸逐侯提) 94–98 AD
Wanchi ShiSuQuTi
(萬氏 尸逐侯提)
opposed by...
...Feng a.k.a. Finghey
98–124 AD
98–118 AD
Wuzhi ShiSuQuTi
(烏稽 尸逐侯提)
 ??? 124–127/128 AD
Xiuli[10] Kuti NoShiSuChin (去特 若尸逐就)[citation needed], committed suicide under Chinese pressure 127/128–140/142?
Cheniu[10] Chu-Xiu ???[citation needed], popularly elected not from Hunnic dynastic lines 140–143 AD
Deuleuchu[12] Ghoran, Hu, Lan NoShiSuChin (呼, 蘭 若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Touluchu,[10] puppet fictitious appointee at the Chinese court 143–147 AD
Guiguir[13] Illin, I-Ling NoShiSuChin (伊陵 若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Jucheer;[14] puppet Chinese appointee that escaped Chinese control; incarcerated by Chinese in 158 AD 147–158 AD (d. 172 AD)
Tude-joshy-zhuogu[15] Dotuk NoShiSuChin (屠特 若尸逐就)[citation needed], a.k.a. Utno Shisu Quti 158–178 AD
Huzheng[16] (呼, 徵) a.k.a. Hu, Ching; Ghuzhin 178–179 AD
Qiangqui
(羌渠)
a.k.a. Qiangquy, Qiangqu,[14] Jiangqu; killed in Xiuchuge Huns rebellion 179–188 AD
Yufuluo
(於扶羅)
a.k.a. Qizi ShiSuQu (特至 尸逐侯)[citation needed]. The last ShiSu.
Homeless puppet Chanyu, overthrown in the Ordos by the unnamed Chanyu of
Xiluo 醯落 and Tu'ge 屠各. Led dozens of refugee
Xiongnu tribes to Pingyang (平阳) in Shanxi.
188–195 AD
Huchuquan (呼廚泉) Yufuluo's brother,[14] he ruled over the Pingyang Xiongnu
after Yufuluo died.
195–215/6 AD

Xiongnu Han Zhao (Former Han) state (304–329)[edit]

Rulers of the Han Zhao:

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Duration of reigns Era names and their according range of years
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Han 304–319
Gao Zu (高祖 gaō zǔ) Guangwen, ch. 光文, pinyin guāng wén Liu Yuan, ch. 劉淵, pinyin liú yuān 304–310

Yuanxi (元熙 yuán xī) 304–308
Yongfeng (永鳳 yǒng fèng) 308–309
Herui (河瑞 hé ruì) 309–310

None None Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé 7 days in 310 None
Lie Zong (烈宗 liè zōng) Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, py. zhāo wǔ Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng 310–318

Guangxing (光興 guāng xīng) 310–311
Jiaping (嘉平 jiā pīng) 311–315
Jianyuan (建元 jiàn yuán) 315–316
Linjia (麟嘉 lín jiā) 316–318

None Yin, ch. 隱 py. yǐn Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn a month and days in 318 Hanchang (漢昌 hàn chāng) 318
Former Zhao 319–329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò 318–329 Guangchu (光初 guāng chū) 318–329
None None Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙; py. liú xī; 329 None

Note: Liu Xi was Liu Yao's crown prince who was thrust into the leadership role when Liu Yao was captured by Later Zhao's emperor Shi Le, but he never took the imperial title.

Xia state (407–431)[edit]

Chieftains of the Tiefu and rulers of the Xia:

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
Chieftains of the Tiefu
Did not exist Did not exist 劉去卑 Liú Qùbēi 260–272 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán 272–309 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉虎 Liú Hǔ 309–341 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng 341–356 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu 356–358 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí 358–359 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén 359–391 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó 391–407 Did not exist
Rulers of the Xia
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) 赫連勃勃 Hèlián Bóbó 407–425 Longsheng (龍升 Lóngshēng) 407–413
Fengxiang (鳳翔 Fèngxiáng) 413–418
Changwu (昌武 Chāngwǔ) 418–419
Zhenxing (真興 Zhēnxīng) 419–425
Did not exist Did not exist 赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng 425–428 Chengguang (承光 Chéngguāng) 425–428
Did not exist Did not exist 赫連定 Hèlián Dìng 428–431 Shengguang (勝光 Shèngguāng) 428–431

Xiongnu Northern Liang state (397–460)[edit]

Rulers of the Northern Liang:

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Northern Liang 397–439 (as Gaochang "wang" 442–460)
Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye (段業 Duàn Yè) 397–401 Shenxi (神璽 Shénxǐ) 397–399

Tianxi (天璽 Tiānxǐ) 399–401

Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Wuxuan (武宣 Wǔxuān) Juqu Mengxun (沮渠蒙遜 Jǔqú Méngxùn) 401–433 Yongan (永安 Yǒngān) 401–412

Xuanshi (玄始 Xuánshǐ) 412–428

Chengxuan (承玄 Chéngxuán) 428–430

Yihe (義和 Yìhé) 430–433

Did not exist Ai (哀王 āi) Juqu Mujian (沮渠牧犍 Jǔqú Mùjiān) 433–439 Yonghe (永和 Yǒnghé) 433–439
Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Wuhui (沮渠無諱 Jǔqú Wúhuí) 442–444 Chengping (承平 Chéngpíng) 443–444
Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Anzhou (沮渠安周 Jǔqú ānzhōu) 444–460 Chengping (承平 Chéngpíng) 444–460

Da Chanyu (大單于) (216–431)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Liu Bao (劉豹) Yufuluo's son. He changed the Chanyu clan name from
Luanti to Liu – meaning Dragon in the Xiongnu
Language. He bore the title 匈奴 單于 but ruled only
over the West partition in Jiuyuan (九原) of the
Pingyang Xiongnu newly partitioned into North, South,
left (West), right (East), and Centre by Cao Cao
216–260AD
劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi Huchuquan's son. Cao Cao ordered him to rule
over the north partition of Pingyang Xiongnu as
Tiefu Right Virtuous King (鐵弗 右贤王).
260–272
劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán Son of 劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi. Bore the title 鐵弗 右贤王 272–309
Liu Yuan (劉淵) Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Guangwen (光文). Son of Liu Bao (劉豹). Bore the title Hun Chanyu 匈奴 單于. Of Hun tribe Yuanhai, so Chinese annals use Yuanhai as his name[17] 309–310
Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé Han Zhao state, personal name Xuantai 玄泰 7 days in 310
Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, personal name Xuanmen 玄門, nickname Zai 載 310–318
Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Yin, ch. 隱, personal name Shiguang 士光 a month and days in 318
Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Hou Zhu 後主, personal name Yongming 永明 318–329
Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙 Last ruler of Han Zhao; statutory Chanyu, probably never raised to the throne 329
Liu Hu 劉虎 Liu Qubei's grandson. He was not allowed to call himself Chanyu 329–341
劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng  ??? 341–356
劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu  ??? 356–358
劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí  ??? 358–359
劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén Posthumously named "Emperor Huan" 359–391
劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó a.k.a. Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) established Xiongnu Xia 407 and in 413 reverted surname to 赫連 Hèlián 391–425
赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng  ??? 425–428
赫連定 Hèlián Dìng Last native ruler of Huns in China 428–431

Xianbei[edit]

Wuhuan (49–207)[edit]

Xianbei Empire (93–234)[edit]

  • Bianhe (49 AD)
  • Yuchoupen (54)
  • Cizhiqian (121–132)
  • Tanshihuai (reigned 156–181)
  • Helian (181–185)
  • Kuitou (185–187)
  • Budugen(187–234)

Murong Xianbei (181–233)[edit]

  • Chieftain Murong (181 AD)
  • Murong Mohuba (238)
  • Murong Muyan (246)
  • Murong Shegui (died 283)
  • Murong Shan (died 285)
  • Murong Hui (285–333)

Xianbei Southern Liang (397–414)[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Liezu (烈祖 Lièzǔ) Wu (武 Wǔ) Tufa Wugu (禿髮烏孤 Tūfǎ Wūgū) 397–399 Taichu (太初 Tàichū) 397–399
Did not exist Kang (康 Kāng) Tufa Lilugu (禿髮利鹿孤 Tūfǎ Lìlùgū) 399–402 Jianhe (建和 Jiànhé) 399–402
Did not exist Jing (景; Jǐng) Tufa Rutan (禿髮傉檀 Tūfǎ Rǔtán) 402–414 Hongchang (弘昌 Hóngchāng) 402–404
Jiaping (嘉平 Jiāpíng) 409–414

Xianbei Western Qin (385–431)[edit]

Rulers of the Xianbei Western Qin

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Liezu (烈祖 Lièzǔ) Xuanlie (宣烈 Xuānliè) 乞伏國仁 Qǐfú Guórén 385–388 Jianyi (建義 Jiànyì) 385–388
Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ) Wuyuan (武元 Wǔyuán) 乞伏乾歸 Qǐfú Gānguī 388–400, 409–412 Taichu (太初 Taìchū) 388–400
Gengshi (更始 Gèngshǐ) 409–412
Taizu (太祖 Taìzǔ) Wenzhao (文昭 Wénzhāo) 乞伏熾磐 Qǐfú Chìpán 412–428 Yongkang (永康 Yǒngkāng) 412–419
Jianhong (建弘 Jiànhóng) 420–428
Did not exist Houzhu (後主 Hoùzhǔ) 乞伏暮末 Qǐfú Mùmò 428–431 Yonghong (永弘 Yǒnghóng) 428–431

Xianbei Former Yan (337–370)[edit]

Rulers of the Former Yan:

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Taizu (太祖 Taìzǔ) Wenming (文明 Wénmíng) 慕容皝 Mùróng Huǎng 337–348 Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 337–348
Liezong (烈宗 Lièzōng) Jingzhao (景昭 Jǐngzhāo) 慕容儁 Mùróng Jùn 348–360 Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 348–353
Yuanxi (元璽 Yuánxǐ) 353–357
Guangshou (光壽 Guāngshoù) 357–360
Did not exist You (幽 Yōu) 慕容暐 Mùróng Wěi 360–370 Jianxi (建熙 Jiànxī) 360–370

Xianbei Western Yan (384–394)[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
Did not exist Did not exist 慕容泓 Mùróng Hóng 384 Yanxing (燕興 Yànxīng) 384
Did not exist Wei (威 wēi) 慕容沖 Mùróng Chōng 384–386 Yanxing (燕興 Yànxīng) 384
Gengshi (更始 Gèngshǐ) 385–386
Did not exist Did not exist 段隨 Duàn Suí 386 Changping (昌平 Chāngpíng) 386
Did not exist Did not exist 慕容顗 Mùróng Yǐ 386 Jianming (建明 Jiànmíng) 386
Did not exist Did not exist 慕容瑤 Mùróng Yáo 386 Jianping (建平 Jiànpíng) 386
Did not exist Did not exist 慕容忠 Mùróng Zhōng 386 Jianwu (建武 Jiànwǔ) 386
Did not exist Did not exist 慕容永 Mùróng Yǒng 386–394 Zhongxing (中興 Zhōngxīng) 386–394

Murong Xianbei Later Yan (384–409)[edit]

Rulers of the Later Yan:

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Wucheng (武成 Wǔchéng) 慕容垂 Mùróng Chuí 384–396 Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 384–386
Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 386–396
Liezong (烈宗 Lièzōng) Huimin (惠愍 Huìmǐn) 慕容寶 Mùróng Bǎo 396–398 Yongkang (永康 Yǒngkāng) 396–398
Unknown Unknown 蘭汗/兰汗 Lán Hàn 398 Qinglong (青龍/青龙 Qīnglóng) 398
Zhongzong (中宗 Zhōngzōng) Zhaowu (昭武 Zhāowǔ) 慕容盛 Mùróng Shèng 398–401 Jianping (建平 Jiànpíng) 398
Changle (長樂 Chánglè) 399–401
Unknown Zhaowen (昭文 Zhaowén) 慕容熙 Mùróng Xī 401–407 Guangshi (光始 Guāngshǐ) 401–406
Jianshi (建始 Jiànshǐ) 407
Unknown Huiyi (惠懿 Huìyì) 慕容雲/慕容云 Mùróng Yún1
or 高雲/高云 Gāo Yún1
407–409 Zhengshi (正始 Zhèngshǐ) 407–409
1 The family name of Gao Yun was changed to Murong when he was adopted by the royal family. If Gao Yun was counted as a ruler of the Later Yan, the state would end in 409. It ended in 407 otherwise.

Murong Tuyuhun Kingdom (284–672)[edit]

Rulers of the Murong Tuyuhun Kingdom:

Regal names Family names and given name Durations of reigns
Henan Wang (河南王) 慕容吐谷渾 Mùróng Tǔyùhún 284–317
Henan Wang (河南王) 慕容吐延 Mùróng Tǔyán 317–329
Tuyuhun Wang (吐谷渾王) 慕容葉延 Mùróng Yèyán 329–351
Tuyuhun Wang (吐谷渾王) 慕容碎奚 Mùróng Suìxī 351–371
Bailan Wang (白蘭王) 慕容視連 Mùróng Shìlián 371–390
Tuyuhun Wang (吐谷渾王) 慕容視羆 Mùróng Shìpí 390–400
Da Chanyu (大單于) 慕容烏紇褆 Mùróng Wūgētí 400–405
Wuyin Khan (戊寅可汗)/
Da Chanyu (大單于)/
Wu Wang (武王)
慕容樹洛干 Mùróng Shùluògān 405–417
Bailan Wang (白蘭王) 慕容阿柴 Mùróng Āchái 417–424
Hui Wang (惠王)/
Longxi Wang (隴西王)
慕容慕璝 Mùróng Mùguī 424–436
Henan Wang (河南王) 慕容慕利延 Mùróng Mùlìyán 436–452
Henan Wang (河南王)/
Xiping Wang (西平王)
慕容拾寅 Mùróng Shíyín 452–481
Henan Wang (河南王) 慕容度易侯 Mùróng Dùyìhóu 481–490
慕容伏連籌 Mùróng Fúliánchóu 490–540
Khan 慕容夸呂 Mùróng Kuālǔ 540–591
Khan 慕容世伏 Mùróng Shìfú 591–597
Busabo Khan (步薩鉢可汗) 慕容伏允 Mùróng Fúyǔn 597–635
Zhugulüwugandou Khan (趉故呂烏甘豆可汗)/
Daning Wang (大寧王)/
Xiping Jun Wang (西平郡王)
慕容順 Mùróng Shùn 635
Wudiyebaledou Khan (烏地也拔勒豆可汗)/
Heyuan Jun Wang (河源郡王)
慕容諾曷鉢 Mùróng Nuòhébō 635–672

Tuoba Xianbei[edit]

Tuoba Xianbei Dai state and chieftains of Tuoba Xianbei Clan 219–377 (as Princes of Dai 315–377)[edit]

Posthumous name Full name Period of Reign Other
神元 Shényuán 拓拔力微 Tuòbá Lìwéi 219–277 Temple Name: 始祖 Shízǔ
章 Zhāng 拓拔悉鹿 Tuòbá Xīlù 277–286
平 Píng 拓拔綽 Tuòbá Chuò 286–293
思 Sī 拓拔弗 Tuòbá Fú 293–294
昭 Zhāo 拓拔祿官 Tuòbá Lùguān 294–307
桓 Huán 拓拔猗㐌 Tuòbá Yītuō 295–305
穆 Mù 拓拔猗盧 Tuòbá Yīlú 295–316
None 拓拔普根 Tuòbá Pǔgēn 316
None 拓拔 Tuòbá[18] 316
平文 Píngwén 拓跋鬱律 Tuòbá Yùlǜ 316–321
惠 Huì 拓拔賀傉 Tuòbá Hèrǔ 321–325
煬 Yáng 拓拔紇那 Tuòbá Hénǎ 325–329 and 335–337
烈 Liè 拓拔翳槐 Tuòbá Yìhuaí 329–335 and 337–338
昭成 Zhaōchéng 拓拔什翼健 Tuòbá Shíyìjiàn 338–377 Era name: 建國 Jiànguó

Tuoba Xianbei Northern Wei Dynasty (386–535)[edit]

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according ranges of years
Northern Wei Dynasty 386–535
Convention: Northern Wei + posthumous name
The imperial Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of Emperor Xiaowen in 496 so their names in this table will also thus be "Yuan" subsequently.
Dao Wu Di (道武帝 daò wǔ dì) Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪 tuò bá guī) 386–409 Dengguo (登國 dēng guó) 386–396
Huangshi (皇始 huáng shǐ) 396–398
Tianxing (天興 tiān xīng) 398–404
Tianci (天賜 tiān cì) 404–409
Ming Yuan Di (明元帝 míng yuán dì) Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣 tuò bá sì) 409–423 Yongxing (永興 yǒng xīng) 409–413
Shenrui (神瑞 shén ruì) 414–416
Taichang (泰常 tài cháng) 416–423
Tai Wu Di (太武帝 tài wǔ dì) Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾 tuò bá táo) 424–452 Shiguang (始光 shǐ guāng) 424–428
Shenjia (神䴥 shén jiā) 428–431
Yanhe (延和 yán hé) 432–434
Taiyan (太延 tài yán) 435–440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tài píng zhēn jūn) 440–451
Zhengping (正平 zhèng píng) 451–452
Nan An Wang (南安王 nán ān wáng) Tuoba Yu (拓拔余 tuò bá yú) 452 Chengping (承平 chéng píng) 452
Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wén chéng dì) Tuoba Jun (拓拔濬 tuò bá jùn) 452–465 Xingan (興安 xīng ān) 452–454
Xingguang (興光 xīng guāng) 454–455
Tai'an (太安 tài ān) 455–459
Heping (和平 hé píng) 460–465
Xian Wen Di (獻文帝 xiàn wén dì) Tuoba Hong (拓拔弘 tuò bá hóng) 466–471 Tian'an (天安 tiān ān) 466–467
Huangxing (皇興 huáng xīng) 467–471
Xiao Wen Di (孝文帝 xiào wén dì) Yuan Hong (元宏 yuán hóng) 471–499 Yanxing (延興 yán xīng) 471–476
Chengming (承明 chéng míng) 476
Taihe (太和 tìi hé) 477–499
Xuan Wu Di (宣武帝 xuān wǔ dì) Yuan Ke (元恪 yuán kè) 499–515 Jingming (景明 jǐng míng) 500–503
Zhengshi (正始 zhèng shǐ) 504–508
Yongping (永平 yǒng píng) 508–512
Yanchang (延昌 yán chāng) 512–515
Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuan Xu (元詡 yuán xǔ) 516–528 Xiping (熙平 xī píng) 516–518
Shengui (神龜 shén guī) 518–520
Zhengguang (正光 zhèng guāng) 520–525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiào chāng) 525–527
Wutai (武泰 wǔ tài) 528
Youzhu (幼主 yòu zhǔ) Yuan Zhao[19] (元釗 yuán xhāo) 528 None
Xiao Zhuang Di (孝莊帝 xiào zhuāng dì) Yuan Ziyou (元子攸 yuán zǐ yōu) 528–530[20] Jianyi (建義 jiàn yì) 528
Yongan (永安 yǒng ān) 528–530
Chang Guang Wang (長廣王 cháng guǎng wáng) Yuan Ye (元曄 yuán yè) 530–531 Jianming (建明 jiàn míng) 530–531
Jie Min Di (節閔帝 jié mǐn dì) Yuan Gong (元恭 yuán gōng) 531–532 Putai (普泰 pǔ tài) 531–532
An Ding Wang (安定王 ān dìng wáng) Yuan Lang (元朗 yuán lǎng) 531–532 Zhongxing (中興 zhōng xīng) 531–532
Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiào wǔ dì) or
Chu Di (出帝 chū dì)
Yuan Xiu (元脩 yuán xiū) 532–535 Taichang (太昌 tài chāng) 532
Yongxing (永興 yǒng xīng) 532
Yongxi (永熙 yǒng3 xī) 532–535

Eastern Wei (534–550)[edit]

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Eastern Wei Dynasty 534–550
Convention: Eastern Wei + posthumous name
Xiao Jing Di (孝靜帝 xiào jìng dì) Yuan Shanjian (元善見 yuán shàn jiàn) 534–550 Tianping (天平 tiān píng) 534–537
Yuanxiang (元象 yuán xiàng) 538–539
Xinghe (興和 xīng hé) 539–542
Wuding (武定 wǔ dìng) 543–550

Western Wei (535–557)[edit]

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Western Wei Dynasty 535–556
Convention: Western Wei + posthumous name
Wen Di (文帝 wén dì) Yuan Baoju (元寶炬 yuán bǎo jù) 535–551 Datong (大統 dà tǒng) 535–551
Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Yuan Qin (元欽 yuán qīn) 552–554 Did not exist
Gong Di (恭帝 gōng dì) Tuoba Kuo (拓拔廓 tuò bá kuò) 554–556 Did not exist

Northern Qi (550–577)[edit]

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern Qi Dynasty 550–577
Convention: Northern Qi + posthumous name
Wen Xuan Di (文宣帝 wén xuān dì) Gao Yang (高洋 gāo yáng) 550–559 Tianbao (天保 tiān bǎo) 550–559
Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Gao Yin (高殷 gāo yīn) 559–560 Qianming (乾明 qián míng) 560
Xiao Zhao Di (孝昭帝 xiào zhāo dì) Gao Yan (高演 gāo yǎn) 560–561 Huangjian (皇建 huáng jiàn) 560–561
Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wǔ chéng dì) Gao Dan (高湛 gāo dān) 561–565 Taining (太寧 tài níng) 561–562
Heqing (河清 hé qīng) 562–565
Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Gao Wei (高緯 gāo wěi) 565–577[21] Tiantong (天統 tiān tǒng) 565–569
Wuping (武平 wǔ píng) 570–576
Longhua (隆化 lóng huà) 576
You Zhu (幼主 yòu zhǔ) Gao Heng (高恆 gāo héng) 577[22][23] Chengguang (承光 chéng guāng) 577

Northern Zhou (557–581)[edit]

Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Northern Zhou Dynasty 557–581
Convention: Northern Zhou + posthumous name
Xiao Min Di (孝閔帝 xiào mǐn dì) Yuwen Jue (宇文覺 yǔ wén jué) 557 Did not exist
Ming Di (明帝 míng dì) or Xiao Ming Di (孝明帝 xiào míng dì) Yuwen Yu (宇文毓 yǔ wén yù) 557–560 Wucheng (武成 wǔ chéng) 559–560
Wu Di (武帝 wǔ dì) Yuwen Yong (宇文邕 yǔ wén yōng) 561–578 Baoding (保定 bǎo dìng) 560–565
Tianhe (天和 tiān hé) 566–572
Jiande (建德 jiàn dé) 572–578
Xuanzheng (宣政 xuān zhèng) 578
Xuan Di (宣帝 xuān dì) Yuwen Yun (宇文贇 yǔ wén yūn) 578–579 Dacheng (大成 dà chéng) 579
Jing Di (靜帝 jìng dì) Yuwen Chan (宇文闡 yǔ wén chǎn) 579–581[24] Daxiang (大象 dà xiàng) 579–581
Dading (大定 dà dìng) 581

Nirun (300?–555)[edit]

The Rourans (Nirun in Mongolian) were the first people who used the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors (which are, therefore, assumed to be Mongolic in origin), replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic.[25]

Temple names Regal names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names
and their according durations
Chinese convention: for those who have regal names, use regal names; otherwise, use family name and given name, or use given name + "Khan"
Yùjiǔlǘ Mùgǔlǘ (郁久閭木骨閭) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Chēlùhuì (郁久閭車鹿會) 330s
Yùjiǔlǘ Tǔnúgūi (郁久閭吐奴傀) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Bátí (郁久閭跋提) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Dìsùyuán (郁久閭地粟袁) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Pǐhóubá (郁久閭匹侯跋) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Màngētí (郁久閭縵紇提) 4th century
Yùjiǔlǘ Héduōhàn (郁久閭曷多汗) 4th century
Qiudoufa Khan (丘豆伐可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Shèlún (郁久閭社崙) 402–410
Aikugai Khan (藹苦蓋可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Húlǜ (郁久閭斛律) 410–414
Mouhanheshenggai Khan (牟汗紇升蓋可汗)
(Bukha Yesunggei Khaan)
Yùjiǔlǘ Dàtán (郁久閭大檀) 414–429
Chilian Khan (敕連可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Wútí (郁久閭吳提) 429–444
Chu Khan (處可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Tǔhèzhēn (郁久閭吐賀真) 444–450
Shouluobuzhen Khan (受羅部真可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Yúchéng (郁久閭予成) 450–485 Yongkang Yǒngkāng (永康) 464–484
Fumingdun Khan (伏名敦可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Dòulún (郁久閭豆崙) 485–492 Tàipíng (太平) 485–491
Houqifudaikezhe Khan (侯其伏代庫者可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Nàgài (郁久閭那蓋) 492–506 Tàiān (太安) 492–505
Tuohan Khan (佗汗可汗) (Toghon Khaan) Yùjiǔlǘ Fútú (郁久閭伏圖) 506–508 Shǐpíng (始平) 506–507
Douluofubadoufa Khan (豆羅伏跋豆伐可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Chǒunú (郁久閭醜奴) 508–520 Jiànchāng (建昌) 508–520
Chiliantoubingdoufa Khan (敕連頭兵豆伐可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Ānàgūi (郁久閭阿那瓌) 520–552
Mi'oukeshegou Khan (彌偶可社句可汗) Yùjiǔlǘ Póluómén (郁久閭婆羅門) 521–524
Yùjiǔlǘ Tiěfá (郁久閭鐵伐) 552–553
Yùjiǔlǘ Dēngzhù (郁久閭登注) 553
Yùjiǔlǘ Kāngtí (郁久閭康提) 553
Yùjiǔlǘ Ānluóchén (郁久閭菴羅辰) 553–554
Yùjiǔlǘ Dèng Shūzǐ (郁久閭鄧叔子) 555

Khitan[edit]

The period of the Ancient Eight Tribes of the Khitan Xianbei (470–585)[edit]

  • Hechen (何辰) a Khitan chieftain (mofuhe) (契丹莫弗贺) (ca.470)
  • Mer-gan (Hanzi : 勿于 pinyin : Wuyu) another mohfuhe (ca. 479)
  • Duomi Khagan (多彌可汗) (ca. 585)

The Dahe Tribal Confederation of the Khitan (618–730) (大賀氏)[edit]

Governor-general of Songmo (松漠都督)[edit]

Name of the clan (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characters
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
大賀氏 Dahe 咄羅/咄罗 Duoluo 618/622–627
大賀氏 Dahe 摩會/摩会 Mohui 627–644
大賀氏 Dahe 窟哥 (Li) Kuge 644–653/658
Unknown Unknown 阿不固/阿卜固 Abugu 653/658–660
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown 660–675
大賀氏 Dahe 李盡忠 Li Jinzhong 675–696
内稽氏 Neiji tribe 孫萬榮 Sun Wanrong 696–697
大賀氏 Dahe 李失活 (Li) Shihuo 697–717
大賀氏 Dahe 李娑固 (Li) Suogu 718–720
大賀氏 Dahe (李鬱干)/鬱于/郁于 (Li) (Yugan)/Yuyu 720–722/724
大賀氏 Dahe (李吐干)/吐于 (Li) (Tugan)/Tuyu 722/724–725
大賀氏 Dahe 李邵固 (Li) Shaogu 725–730

Khitan prefecture of Xuanzhou (玄州)[edit]

Khitans tribes who did not belong to the Dahe confederation but living at the same period

Name of the clan (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characte rs
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
(李)去閭 (Li) Qulü
據曲/曲據 Juqu /Quju 646–648

Other Khitan chieftains (酋長)[edit]

  • Tanmozhe (貪沒折) (ca. 630)

The Yaonian Tribal Confederation (730–906) (遥辇氏)[edit]

The supreme chieftain of the Khitan (khagans)[edit]

Title name (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characters
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
洼可汗 Wa khaghan 屈列 Julü (Qulie) 730–734
北平郡王 Prince of Beiping 过折/過折 (Li) Guozhe 735
阻午可汗 Zuwu Khagan 遥辇俎里
(李懷節/李怀秀/李懷秀)
Dinian Zuli
Li Huaixiu/Li Huaijie
735–745
胡剌可汗 Hula khaghan 楷洛/楷落 Kailuo 746–778
苏可汗/蘇可汗 Su khaghan Unknown Unknown 778–800
巴刺可汗 Bala khaghan Unknown Unknown 800–820
昭古可汗 Zhaogu khaghan Unknown Unknown 820–842
耶谰可汗 Yelan khaghan 屈戌 Qushu 842–860
鮮質可汗 Xianzhi khaghan 習爾 Xi'er /Xi'erzhi 860–882
痕德廑可汗 Hendeji khaghan 钦德/欽德 Qinde 882–906

Khitan Empire (907–1125)[edit]

There were nine emperors of the Liao Dynasty, which at its height ruled over an area composing modern day Mongolia and northern China for over two hundred years. The emperors of the Liao Dynasty were Khitans from Yelü clan.

Liao Dynasty 907–1125
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Shen Tian Huangdi Yelü Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907–926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916–922[26]
Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922–926[27]
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Xiao Wu Huangdi Yelü Deguang (耶律德光 Yēlǜ Déguāng) 926–947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926–937[28]
Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 937–947[29]
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947[30]
Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Tian Shou Huangdi Yelü Ruan (耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn) 947–951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947–951[31]
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Yelü Jing (耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng) 951–969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951–969[32]
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Yelü Xian (耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xián) 969–982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969–979[33]
Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979–982[34]
Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Wen Wu Da Xiao Xuan Huangdi Yelü Longxu (耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lóngxù) 982–1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982[34]
Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983–1012[35]
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012–1021[36]
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021–1031[37]
Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Xiao Zheng Huangdi Yelü Zongzhen (耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn) 1031–1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031–1032[38]
Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032–1055[39]
Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Yelü Hongji (耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hóngjī) 1055–1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055–1064[40]
Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065–1074[41]
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075–1084[42]
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085–1094[43]
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095–1101[44]
Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) Yelü Yanxi (耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ) 1101–1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101–1110[45]
Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111–1120[46]
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121–1125[47]

Dongdan Kingdom (926–936)[edit]

Northern Liao (1122–1123)[edit]

Kara-Khitan Khanate (1124/1125–1221)[edit]

Sovereigns of Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124 or 1125–1221
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Convention[citation needed] Period of Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Dezong (德宗 Dézōng) Tianyouwuliedi (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòuwǔlièdì) Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1 use birth name 1124–1144 Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125–1134

Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134–1144

Did not exist Gantianhou (感天后 Gǎntiānhòu) (regent) Tabuyan (塔不煙 Tǎbùyān) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1144–1150 Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144–1150
Emperor Renzong of Western Liao (仁宗 Rénzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè) "Xi Liao" + temple name 1150–1164 Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) or Xuxing (Xùxīng 續興)2 1150–1164
Did not exist Chengtianhou (承天后 Chéngtiānhòu) (regent) Yelü Pusuwan (耶律普速完 Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1164–1178 Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164–1178
Did not exist Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ) or Modi (末帝 Mòdì) Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ) use birth name 1178–1211 Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178–1218
Did not exist Did not exist Kuchlug/ (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ) use birth name 1211–1218
1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[48]

Khar-Khitan Sultanate (1220s–1306)[edit]

Shiwei[edit]

  • Chaniandoufa (544 AD)
  • Dasheng Duacheng (835)
  • Dale (859–873)

Khamag Mongol (1120s–1206)[edit]

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)[edit]

With the establishment of the Great Yuan in 1271, the Kublaids became emperors of the Great Yuan, who were considered as Khagan for the Mongols and Huangdi (Chinese emperor) for native Chinese.

  • Genghis Khan (1206–1227)
  • Tolui Khan (as Regent) (1227–1229)
  • Ögedei Khan (1229–1241)
  • Töregene Khatun (as Regent) (1243–1246)
  • Güyük Khan (1246–1248)
  • Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) (1248–1251)
  • Möngke Khan (1251–1259)
  • Ariq Böke (1259–1264)
  • Kublai Khan (1260–1294) - Khagan title: Setsen; Temple name: Shizu (1271–1294) Era name: Zhiyuan (至元) (1264–1294)
  • Temür Khan - Khagan title: Öljeitu; Temple name: Chengzong - (1294–1307); Era names: Yuanzhen (元貞) (1295–1297); Dade (大德) (1297–1307)
  • Khayisan - Khagan title: Khülük; Temple name: Wuzong - (1308–1311); Era name: Zhida (至大) (1308–1311)
  • Ayurbarwada - Temple name: Renzong - (1311–1320); Era names: Huangqing (皇慶) (1312–1313); Yanyou (延祐) (1314–1320)
  • Shidebala - Khagan title: Gegeen; Temple name: Yingzong - (1321–1323); Era name: Zhizhi (至治) (1321–1323)
  • Yesün-Temür - Temple name: Taiding Di - (1323–1328); Era names: Taiding (泰定) (1321–1328); Zhihe (致和) 1328
  • Ragibagh - Temple name: Tianshun Di; Era name: Tianshun (天順) (1328)
  • Tugh Temür - Khagan title: Jayaaatu; Temple name: Wenzong - (1328–1329 / 1329–1332); Era names: Tianli (天歷) (1328–1330); Zhishun (至順) (1330–1332)
  • Kuśala - Khagan title: Khutughtu; Temple name: Mingzong; Era name: Tianli (天歷) (1329)
  • Rinchinbal - Temple name: Ningzong; Era name: Zhishun (至順) (1332)
  • Toghun Temür - Khagan title: Ukhaantu; Temple name: Huizong ; Shundi - (1333–1370); Era names: Zhishun (至順) (1333); Yuantong (元統) (1333–1335); Zhiyuan (至元) (1335–1340); Zhizheng (至正) (1341–1368); Zhiyuan (至元) 1368-1370

Golden Horde[edit]

Left wing (White Horde)[edit]

This Horde was annexed by Abu'l-Khayr Khan of the Shaybanids in 1446.

Right wing (Blue Horde)[edit]

Actual rulers of the Golden Horde (Jochid Ulus, Kipchak Khanate) were members of the House of Batu until 1361.

Great Horde (1466–1502)[edit]

Il khans of Il Khanate[edit]

After the murder of Arpa, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.

Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):

  • Togha Temür (c. 1338-1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338-1349; by the Jalayirids 1338-1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338-1341, 1344, 1353)
  • Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür)

Chobanids (1335–1357)[edit]

Jalayirid Sultanate (1335–1432)[edit]

Title/Name[50] Personal Name Reign
Taj-ud-Din
تاج الدین
Hasan Buzurg 1336–1356
Mu'izz-ud-duniya wa al-Din
معزالدنیا والدین
Bahadur Khan
بهادرخان
Shaikh Awais Jalayir 1356–1374
Jalal-ud-Din
جلال الدین
Shaikh Hasan Jalayir 1374
Ghiyas-ud-Din
‏غیاث الدین
Shaikh Hussain Jalayir 1374–1382
Shaikh Bayazid Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Ajam at Soltaniyeh & Contender for the throne
1382–1384
Sultan
سلطان
Sultan Ahmed Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Arab at Baghdad & Contender for the throne
1382–1410
Shah Walad Jalayir
son of Shaikh Ali Jalayir
1410–1411
Sultan
سلطان
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir
under tutelage of Tandu Khatun
1411 (1st reign)
Sultan
سلطان
Awais bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1411–1421
Sultan
سلطان
Muhammad bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421
Sultan
سلطان
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421–1425 (2nd reign)
Hussain bin Ala-ud-Daulah bin Sultan Ahmed Jalayir 1425–1432
Kara Koyunlu conquest of southern Iraq

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

  • Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah (1304–1325)
  • Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau (1336–1338/9)
  • Amir Jalal al-Din Mas'ud Shah (in opposition to Kai-Khusrau) (c. 1338–c. 1342)
  • Shams al-Din Muhammad (in opposition to Mas'ud Shah) (1339)
  • Shaikh Abu Ishaq (c. 1343–1357)

Arghun Dynasty (1479?–1599?)[edit]

Chagatai Khanate[edit]

The Chagatai Khanate is split into two parts, western and eastern.

Moghulistan/Eastern Chagatai Khanate[edit]

From 1370 on, the Chagatai Khans were puppets of Timur.

Qara Del (1383–1513)[edit]

Al-Adil Kitbugha-Sultan of Mamluk Sultanate (1294–1296)[edit]

Timurid Dynasty (1370–1507)[edit]

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Timur ruled over Chagatai Khanate with Soyurghatmïsh Khan as nominal Khan followed by Sultan Mahmud Khan. He himself adopted the Muslim Arabic title of Amir. In essence the Khanate was finished and Timurid Empire was firmly established.
Amir
امیر
Timur Lang
تیمور لنگ
Timur Beg Gurkani
تیمور بیگ گورکانی
1370–1405 CE
Amir
امیر
Pir Muhammad bin Jahangir Mirza
پیر محمد بن جہانگیر میرزا
1405–1407 CE
Amir
امیر
Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah
خلیل سلطان بن میران شاہ
1405–1409 CE
Amir
امیر
Shahrukh Mirza
شاھرخ میرزا
1405–1447 CE
Amir
امیر
Ulugh Beg
الغ بیگ
Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay
میرزا محمد طارق
1447–1449 CE
Division of Timurid Empire
Transoxiana Khurasan/Herat/Fars/Iraq-e-Ajam
Abdal-Latif Mirza
میرزا عبداللطیف
Padarkush
(Father Killer)
1449–1450
Abdallah Mirza
میرزا عبد اللہ
1450–1451
Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor
میرزا ابوالقاسم بابر بن بایسنقر
1451–1457
Mirza Shah Mahmud
میرزا شاہ محمود
1457
Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah
ابراھیم میرزا
1457–1459
Abu Sa'id Mirza
ابو سعید میرزا
(Although Abu Sa'id Mirza re-united most of the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of Uzbek Chief, Abul-Khayr Khan (grandfather of Muhammad Shayabani Khan), he agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turkomen under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turkomen under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id. After Abu Sa'id's death another era of fragmentation follows.)
1451–1469
**Transoxiana is Divided Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1469 1st reign
Yadgar Muhammad Mirza
میرزا یادگار محمد
1470 (6 weeks)
Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1470–1506 2nd reign
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek Conquer Herat
Samarkand Bukhara Hissar Farghana Balkh Kabul
Sultan Ahmad Mirza
سلطان احمد میرزا
1469–1494
Umar Shaikh Mirza II
عمر شیخ میرزا ثانی
1469–1492
Sultan Mahmud Mirza
سلطان محمود میرزا
1469–1495
Ulugh Beg Mirza II
میرزا الغ بیگ
1469–1502
Sultan Baysonqor Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
بایسنقر میرزا بن محمود میرزا
1495–1497
Sultan Ali bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان علی بن محمود میرزا
1495–1500
Sultan Masud Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان مسعود بن محمود میرزا
1495–?
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1492–1497
Khusroe Shah خسرو شاہ
(Usurper)
?–1503
Mukim Beg Arghun مقیم ارغون
(Usurper)
?–1504
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1500–01
Jahangir Mirza II
جہانگیر میرزا
(puppet of Sultan Ahmed Tambol)
1497–?
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1503–1504
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1503–04
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1504–1511
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
(Never till his conquest of India were the dominions of Babur as extensive as at this period. Like his grandfather Abu Sa'id Mirza, he managed to re-unite the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of Shah of Iran, Ismail I. His dominions stretched from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the farthest limits of Ghazni and comprehended Kabul and Ghazni;Kunduz and Hissar; Samarkand and Bukhara; Farghana; Tashkent and Seiram)
1511–1512
Uzbeks under Ubaydullah Sultan عبید اللہ سلطان re-conquer Transoxiana and Balkh
1512
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1512–1530
Timurid Empire in Central Asia becomes extinct under the Khanate of Bukhara of the Uzbeks. However, Timurid dynasty moves on to conquer India under the leadership of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur in 1526 CE and established the Timurid dynasty of India.

Mongolian Khaganate (1368–1635)[edit]

Khagans of the Mongolian Khaganate:

Genghisid Setsen Khans of Eastern Mongolia (1627–1922)[edit]

Ancestry of Navaanneren (previous Setsen Khans):

  • - Batmunkh Dayan Khaan /1464–1543/, 29th Great Khan and descendant of Genghis Khan (1162–1227) through Kubilai Khan.
  • - Gersenz Jalair Khuntaij /1513–1549/, youngest son of Dayan Khan through Queen Samar Ghailu (also called Jimsgene Khatan).
  • - Amindural /1550/, fourth son of Gersenz, ruled northern Kerulen river area.
  • - Morbuim Taij, son of Amindural.
  • - Khar Zagal /until 1627/, son of Morbuim, ruled until 1627.
  • 1. Sholoi /1627–1652/, son of Morbuim, succeeded his brother Khar Zagal in 1627. First with the title of Setsen Khan.
  • 2. Babu /1652–1683/, fifth son of Sholoi.
  • 3. Norov /1683–1701/, third son of Babu.
  • 4. Ravdan /1688/
  • 5. Omokhei /Sonomdorj/ /1701–1709/, was only 10 years old in 1701, so was brought up under the tutelage of Namjil Erdene Taij, a grandson of Sholoi.
  • 6. Gunchin /1709–1728/, eldest son of Omokhei.
  • 7. Tsevdenbainjuur /1728–1733/, eldest son of Gunchin.
  • 8. Choijav /1733–1735/, grandson of Norov.
  • 9. Damiran/1735–1751/, second son of Gunchin.
  • 10. Manibadar /1751–1767/, eldest son of Damiran.
  • 11. Tsevdenjav /1767–1788/, second son of Damiran.
  • 12. Tseveendorj /1788–1795/, eldest son of Tsevdenjav.
  • 13. Puntsagdorj /1795/, only son of Tseveendorj.
  • 14. Sanzaidorj /1796–1800/, second generation grandson of Choijav.
  • 15. Mahashiri /1800–1807/, paternal uncle of Puntsagdorj.
  • 16. Enkhtor /1807–1816/, son of Mahashiri.
  • 17. Artased/1817–1874/, son of Enkhtor.
  • 18. Tserendorj /1874–1893/, son of Artased.
  • 19. Demchigdorj /1893–1909/, eldest son of Tserendorj.
  • 20. Navaanneren /1910–1922/, eldest son of Tserendondov, who was the son of Orjinjav the son of Artased.

Oirats[edit]

Four Oirad (1399–1634)[edit]

  • Ugetchi Khashikha (c. 1399)
  • Batula (Bahamu, Mahamud) (1399–1408)
  • Togoon (Toghan) (1408–1438)
  • Esen (1438–1454)
  • Amasanj (1454–1455)
  • Ush-Temür (Ish-Temür) (1455–1469)
  • Khishig
  • Arkhan

Rulers of Zunghar Khanate[edit]

Khans of Khoshut Khanate[edit]

  • Güshi Khan Toro-Baikhu (1642–1655)
  • Dayan Ochir Khan (1655–1669)
  • Gonchug Dalai Khan (1669–1698)
  • Lhazang Chingis Khan (1698–1717)

Khotgoid Khanate (?–1691)[edit]

Torghud khans of Kalmyk Khanate[edit]

  • Kho Orluk (d.1644)
  • Shukhur Daiching (1644–1661)
  • Puntsuk (1661–1669)
  • Ayuka Khan (1669–1724)
  • Tseren Donduk Khan (1724–1735)
  • Donduk Ombo Khan (1735–1741)
  • Donduk Dashi Khan (1741–1761)
  • Ubashi Khan (1762–1771)

State of Mongolia (1911–1924)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hirth F. Sinologische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Turk-Volker. Die Ahnentafel Attila's nach Johannes von Thurocz. Bull. Imp. Acad, series V, vol. XIII, 1900, No 2, pp. 221–261.
  2. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 46
  3. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 59
  4. ^ a b c d Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  5. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 107
  6. ^ a b c Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  7. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", Australian National University Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.4, Canberra 1984, [1]
  8. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, p. 105–107
  9. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 108–109
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  11. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 130–134
  12. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 144
  13. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  14. ^ a b c R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  15. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 (True name unknown; the Chinese moniker has negative connotation; confirmed by Chinese Court as Chanyu in 172 AD)
  16. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  17. ^ [2] note 208
  18. ^ No known given name survives.
  19. ^ Empress Dowager Hu initially declared Emperor Xiaoming's "son" (actually a daughter) emperor, but almost immediately after admitted that she was actually female and declared Yuan Zhao emperor instead. Emperor Xiaoming's unnamed daughter was therefore arguably an "emperor" and his successor, but is not commonly regarded as one. Indeed, Yuan Zhao himself is often not considered an emperor.
  20. ^ The Northern Wei imperial prince Yuan Hao, under support by rival Liang Dynasty's troops, declared himself emperor and captured the capital Luoyang in 529, forcing Emperor Xiaozhuang to flee. Yuan Hao carried imperial title and received pledges of allegiance from provinces south of the Yellow River for about three months before Erzhu Rong recaptured Luoyang. Yuan Hao fled and was killed in flight. Due to the briefness of Yuan Hao's claim on the throne and the limited geographic scope of his reign, he is usually not counted among the succession of Northern Wei emperors.
  21. ^ Gao Wei's cousin Gao Yanzong the Prince of Ande (Gao Cheng's son) briefly declared himself emperor around the new year 577 after the soldiers guarding the city of Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) demanded that he claim the title when Gao Wei abandoned Jinyang. Gao Yanzong, however, was almost immediately defeated and captured by Northern Zhou troops, and therefore is generally not considered a true Northern Qi emperor.
  22. ^ In 577, Gao Wei, then with the title Taishang Huang (retired emperor), tried to issue an edict on his son's behalf yielding the throne to his uncle (Gao Huan's son) Gao Jie (高湝) the Prince of Rencheng, but the officials he sent to deliver the edict to Gao Jie surrendered to Northern Zhou rather than delivering the edict to Gao Jie, who was subsequently also captured by Northern Zhou troops. It is questionable whether Gao Jie was even aware of the edict, and in any case, Gao Jie never used imperial title.
  23. ^ As noted above, Emperor Wenxuan's son Gao Shaoyi tried to establish a Northern Qi court in exile on Tujue's territory, but was not successful in his efforts in recapturing formerly Northern Qi territory, and was eventually turned over by Tujue to Northern Zhou. Most historians do not consider him a true Northern Qi emperor, although the matter remains in controversy.
  24. ^ In 580, after Emperor Xuan's death, the general Yuchi Jiong, believing that the regent Yang Jian was about to seize the throne, rose against Yang and declared a son of Emperor Wu's brother Yuwen Zhao (宇文招) the Prince of Zhao, whose name is lost to history, emperor, but as Yuchi was soon defeated, and nothing further was known about the emperor that he declared, that son of Yuwen Zhao is usually not considered an emperor of Northern Zhou.
  25. ^ Grousset (1970), pp. 61, 585, n. 91.
  26. ^ Bo (1977) 842–845.
  27. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 845–849.
  28. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 849–856.
  29. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 856–863.
  30. ^ Bo (1977), p. 863.
  31. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 863–867.
  32. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 867–879.
  33. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 879–882.
  34. ^ a b Bo (1977), pp. 882–883.
  35. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 883–893.
  36. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 893–895.
  37. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 895–896.
  38. ^ Bo (1977), p. 896.
  39. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 896–905.
  40. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 905–908.
  41. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 908–913.
  42. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 913–917.
  43. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 918–921.
  44. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 922–927.
  45. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 927–929.
  46. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 929–932.
  47. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 933–935.
  48. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome. 
  49. ^ Weiers 1986: 505
  50. ^ The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys Series; Author:Clifford Edmund Bosworth ISBN 0–7486–2137–7, ISBN 978-0–7486–2137–8
  51. ^ Alan J.K Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia: Second Edition, (2003), Scarecrow Press, Inc. p.413. ISBN 0810866013
  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system

See also[edit]