List of Mongol rulers

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8 of 15 Khagans of the Mongol Empire.
Mongol Empire and its fragmentation
Imperial Seal of Güyük Khan
Imperial Seal of Bogd Khan

This is a list of Mongol rulers. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Khamag Mongol (1120s–1206)[edit]

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)[edit]

Great Khans and Yuan dynasty[edit]

With the establishment of the Yuan dynasty in 1271, the Kublaids became Yuan emperors, who were considered as Khagan for the Mongols and Huangdi (Chinese emperor) for native Chinese.

  • Genghis Khan (1206–1227)
  • Tolui Khan (as Regent) (1227–1229)
  • Ögedei Khan (1229–1241)
  • Töregene Khatun (as Regent) (1243–1246)
  • Güyük Khan (1246–1248)
  • Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) (1248–1251)
  • Möngke Khan (1251–1259)
  • Ariq Böke (1259–1264)
  • Kublai Khan (1260–1294) - Khagan title: Setsen; Temple name: Shizu (1271–1294) Era name: Zhiyuan (至元) (1264–1294)
  • Temür Khan - Khagan title: Öljeitu; Temple name: Chengzong - (1294–1307); Era names: Yuanzhen (元貞) (1295–1297); Dade (大德) (1297–1307)
  • Külüg Khan - Khagan title: Khülük; Temple name: Wuzong - (1308–1311); Era name: Zhida (至大) (1308–1311)
  • Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan - Temple name: Renzong - (1311–1320); Era names: Huangqing (皇慶) (1312–1313); Yanyou (延祐) (1314–1320)
  • Gegeen Khan - Khagan title: Gegeen; Temple name: Yingzong - (1321–1323); Era name: Zhizhi (至治) (1321–1323)
  • Yesün-Temür - Temple name: Taiding Di - (1323–1328); Era names: Taiding (泰定) (1321–1328); Zhihe (致和) 1328
  • Ragibagh Khan - Temple name: Tianshun Di; Era name: Tianshun (天順) (1328)
  • Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür - Khagan title: Jayaaatu; Temple name: Wenzong - (1328–1329 / 1329–1332); Era names: Tianli (天歷) (1328–1330); Zhishun (至順) (1330–1332)
  • Khutughtu Khan Kusala - Khagan title: Khutughtu; Temple name: Mingzong; Era name: Tianli (天歷) (1329)
  • Rinchinbal Khan - Temple name: Ningzong; Era name: Zhishun (至順) (1332)
  • Toghon Temür - Khagan title: Ukhaantu; Temple name: Huizong ; Shundi - (1333–1370); Era names: Zhishun (至順) (1333); Yuantong (元統) (1333–1335); Zhiyuan (至元) (1335–1340); Zhizheng (至正) (1341–1368); Zhiyuan (至元) 1368–1370

Golden Horde[edit]

Left wing (White Horde)[edit]

This Horde was annexed by Abu'l-Khayr Khan of the Shaybanids in 1446.

Right wing (Blue Horde)[edit]

Actual rulers of the Golden Horde (Jochid Ulus, Kipchak Khanate) were members of the House of Batu until 1361.

Great Horde (1466–1502)[edit]

Main article: Great Horde

Ilkhanate[edit]

After the murder of Arpa, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.

Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):

  • Togha Temür (c. 1338–1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338–1349; by the Jalayirids 1338–1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338–1341, 1344, 1353)
  • Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür)

Chobanids (1335–1357)[edit]

Main article: Chobanids

Jalayirid Sultanate (1335–1432)[edit]

Main article: Jalayirid Sultanate

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

Main article: Injuids

Arghun Dynasty (1479?–1599?)[edit]

Main article: Arghun Dynasty

Chagatai Khanate[edit]

The Chagatai Khanate is split into two parts, western and eastern.

Moghulistan (Eastern Chagatai Khanate)[edit]

From 1370 on, the Chagatai Khans were puppets of Timur.

Kara Del (1383–1513)[edit]

Main article: Kara Del

Al-Adil Kitbugha-Sultan of Mamluk Sultanate (1294–1296)[edit]

Main article: Al-Adil Kitbugha

Northern Yuan dynasty (1368–1635)[edit]

Main article: Northern Yuan dynasty

Khans or Khagans of the Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty:

Genghisid Setsen Khans of Eastern Mongolia (1627–1922)[edit]

Ancestry of Navaanneren (previous Setsen Khans):

  • - Batmunkh Dayan Khaan /1464–1543/, 29th Great Khan and descendant of Genghis Khan (1162–1227) through Kubilai Khan.
  • - Gersenz Jalair Khuntaij /1513–1549/, youngest son of Dayan Khan through Queen Samar Ghailu (also called Jimsgene Khatan).
  • - Amindural /1550/, fourth son of Gersenz, ruled northern Kerulen river area.
  • - Morbuim Taij, son of Amindural.
  • - Khar Zagal /until 1627/, son of Morbuim, ruled until 1627.
  • 1. Sholoi /1627–1652/, son of Morbuim, succeeded his brother Khar Zagal in 1627. First with the title of Setsen Khan.
  • 2. Babu /1652–1683/, fifth son of Sholoi.
  • 3. Norov /1683–1701/, third son of Babu.
  • 4. Ravdan /1688/
  • 5. Omokhei /Sonomdorj/ /1701–1709/, was only 10 years old in 1701, so was brought up under the tutelage of Namjil Erdene Taij, a grandson of Sholoi.
  • 6. Gunchin /1709–1728/, eldest son of Omokhei.
  • 7. Tsevdenbainjuur /1728–1733/, eldest son of Gunchin.
  • 8. Choijav /1733–1735/, grandson of Norov.
  • 9. Damiran/1735–1751/, second son of Gunchin.
  • 10. Manibadar /1751–1767/, eldest son of Damiran.
  • 11. Tsevdenjav /1767–1788/, second son of Damiran.
  • 12. Tseveendorj /1788–1795/, eldest son of Tsevdenjav.
  • 13. Puntsagdorj /1795/, only son of Tseveendorj.
  • 14. Sanzaidorj /1796–1800/, second generation grandson of Choijav.
  • 15. Mahashiri /1800–1807/, paternal uncle of Puntsagdorj.
  • 16. Enkhtor /1807–1816/, son of Mahashiri.
  • 17. Artased/1817–1874/, son of Enkhtor.
  • 18. Tserendorj /1874–1893/, son of Artased.
  • 19. Demchigdorj /1893–1909/, eldest son of Tserendorj.
  • 20. Navaanneren /1910–1922/, eldest son of Tserendondov, who was the son of Orjinjav the son of Artased.

Oirats[edit]

Four Oirat (1399–1634)[edit]

  • Ugetchi Khashikha (c. 1399)
  • Batula (Bahamu, Mahamud) (1399–1408)
  • Togoon (Toghan) (1408–1438)
  • Esen (1438–1454)
  • Amasanj (1454–1455)
  • Ush-Temür (Ish-Temür) (1455–1469)
  • Khishig
  • Arkhan

Dzungar Khanate[edit]

Khans of Khoshut Khanate[edit]

  • Güshi Khan Toro-Baikhu (1642–1655)
  • Dayan Ochir Khan (1655–1669)
  • Gonchug Dalai Khan (1669–1698)
  • Lhazang Chingis Khan (1698–1717)

Khotgoid Khanate (late 16th century – late 17th century)[edit]

Main articles: Altan Khan of Khalkha and Khotogoid

Torghud khans of Kalmyk Khanate[edit]

  • Kho Orluk (d. 1644)
  • Shukhur Daiching (1644–1661)
  • Puntsuk (1661–1669)
  • Ayuka Khan (1669–1724)
  • Tseren Donduk Khan (1724–1735)
  • Donduk Ombo Khan (1735–1741)
  • Donduk Dashi Khan (1741–1761)
  • Ubashi Khan (1762–1771)

State of Mongolia (1911–1924)[edit]

Main article: Mongolia (1911–21)

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Weiers 1986: 505
  2. ^ Alan J.K Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia: Second Edition, (2003), Scarecrow Press, Inc. p.413. ISBN 0810866013

Sources[edit]

  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system

See also[edit]