List of federally recognized tribes

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Federally recognized tribes[1]

As of July 2015, 567 Native American tribes were legally recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the United States.

Description[edit]

In the United States, the Indian tribe is a fundamental unit, and the constitution grants Congress the right to interact with tribes. More specifically, the Supreme Court of the United States in United States v. Sandoval, 231 U.S. 28 (1913), warned, "it is not... that Congress may bring a community or body of people within range of this power by arbitrarily calling them an Indian tribe, but only that in respect of distinctly Indian communities the questions whether, to what extent, and for what time they shall be recognized and dealt with as dependent tribes" (at 46).[2] Federal tribal recognition grants to tribes the right to certain benefits, and is largely controlled by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

While trying to determine which groups were eligible for federal recognition in the 1970s, government officials became acutely aware of the need for consistent procedures. To illustrate, several federally unrecognized tribes encountered obstacles in bringing land claims; United States v. Washington (1974) was a court case that affirmed the fishing treaty rights of Washington tribes; and other tribes demanded that the U.S. government recognize aboriginal titles. All the above culminated in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, which legitimized tribal entities by partially restoring Native American self-determination.

Following the decisions made by the Indian Claims Commission, the BIA in 1978 published final rules with procedures that groups had to meet to secure federal tribal acknowledgment. There are seven criteria. Four have proven troublesome for most groups to prove: long-standing historical community, outside identification as Indians, political authority, and descent from an historical tribe. Tribes seeking recognition must submit detailed petitions to the BIA's Office of Federal Acknowledgment. Consequently, the Federal Acknowledgment Process can take years, even decades; delays of 12–14 years are not uncommon. The Shinnecock Indian Nation formally petitioned for recognition in 1978 and was recognized 32 years later, in 2010. At a Senate Committee on Indian Affairs hearing, witnesses testified that the process was "broken, long, expensive, burdensome, intrusive, unfair, arbitrary and capricious, less than transparent, unpredictable, and subject to undue political influence and manipulation."[3][4]

In May 2013 the United States' Federal Register issued an official list of 566 tribes that are Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.[5] The website USA.gov, the federal government's official web portal, also maintains a constantly updated list of tribal governments. Ancillary information present in former versions of this list but no longer contained in the current listing have been included here in italics print.

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See also[edit]

Similar entities in Canada

References[edit]

  1. ^ 0 No data
    1. Absentee Shawnee
    2. Acoma
    3. Agua Caliente
    4. Alabama-Coushatta
    5. Alabama-Quassarte Creeks
    6. Allegany
    7. Apache
    8. Bad River
    9. Barona Ranch
    10. Battle Mountain
    11. Bay Mills
    12. Benton Paiute
    13. Berry Creek
    14. Big Bend
    15. Big Cypress
    16. Big Lagoon
    17. Big Pine
    18. Big Valley
    19. Bishop
    20. Blackfeet
    21. Bridgeport
    22. Brighton
    23. Burns Paiute Colony
    24. Cabezon
    25. Caddo
    26. Cahuilla
    27. Campo
    28. Camp Verde
    29. Canoncito
    30. Capitan Grande
    31. Carson
    32. Catawba
    33. Cattaraugus
    34. Cayuga
    35. Cedarville
    36. Chehalis
    37. Chemehuevi
    38. Cherokee
    39. Cheyenne-Arapahoe
    40. Cheyenne River
    41. Chickasaw
    42. Chitimacha
    43. Choctaw
    44. Citizen Band Of Potawatomi
    45. Cochiti
    46. Coeur D'alene
    47. Cold Springs
    48. Colorado River
    49. Colville
    50. Comanche
    51. Coos, Lower Umpqua & Siuslaw
    52. Coquille
    53. Cortina
    54. Coushatta
    55. Cow Creek
    56. Creek
    57. Crow
    58. Crow Creek
    59. Cuyapaipe
    60. Deer Creek
    61. Delaware
    62. Devils Lake
    63. Dresslerville Colony
    64. Dry Creek
    65. Duckwater
    66. Duck Valley
    67. Eastern Shawnee
    68. East Cocopah
    69. Ely Colony
    70. Enterprise
    71. Fallon/Stillwater
    72. Flandreau Indian School
    73. Flathead
    74. Fond Du Lac
    75. Fort Apache
    76. Fort Belknap
    77. Fort Berthold
    78. Fort Bidwell
    79. Fort Hall
    80. Fort Independence
    81. Fort Mcdermitt
    82. Fort Mcdowell
    83. Fort Mohave
    84. Fort Peck
    85. Fort Yuma
    86. Ft. Sill Apache
    87. Gila Bend
    88. Gila River
    89. Goshute
    90. Grande Ronde
    91. Grand Portage
    92. Grand Traverse
    93. Greater Leech Lake
    94. Grindstone
    95. Hannahville
    96. Havasupai
    97. Hoh
    98. Hollywood
    99. Hoopa Valley
    100. Hopi
    101. Houlton Maliseets
    102. Hualapai
    103. Inaja
    104. Iowa
    105. Isabella
    106. Isleta
    107. Jackson
    108. Jemez
    109. Jicarilla
    110. Kaibab
    111. Kalispel
    112. Kaw
    113. Kialegee Creek
    114. Kickapoo
    115. Kiowa
    116. Klamath
    117. Kootenai
    118. L'anse
    119. Lac Courte Oreilles
    120. Lac Du Flambeau
    121. Lac Vieux Desert
    122. Laguna
    123. Las Vegas
    124. Laytonville
    125. La Jolla
    126. La Posta
    127. Likely
    128. Lone Pine
    129. Lookout
    130. Los Coyotes
    131. Lovelock Colony
    132. Lower Brule
    133. Lower Elwah
    134. Lower Sioux
    135. Lummi
    136. Makah
    137. Manchester
    138. Manzanita
    139. Maricopa
    140. Mashantucket Pequot
    141. Mattaponi
    142. Menominee
    143. Mescalero
    144. Miami
    145. Miccosukee
    146. Middletown
    147. Mille Lacs
    148. Mission
    149. Moapa
    150. Modoc
    151. Mole Lake
    152. Montgomery Creek
    153. Morongo
    154. Muckleshoot
    155. Nambe
    156. Narragansett
    157. Navajo
    158. Nett Lake
    159. Nez Perce
    160. Nipmoc-Hassanamisco
    161. Nisqually
    162. Nooksack
    163. Northern Cheyenne
    164. Northwestern Shoshone
    165. Oil Springs
    166. Omaha
    167. Oneida
    168. Onondaga
    169. Ontonagon
    170. Osage
    171. Otoe-Missouri
    172. Ottawa
    173. Out
    174. Ozette
    175. Paiute
    176. Pala
    177. Pamunkey
    178. Pascua Yaqui
    179. Passamaquoddy
    180. Paucatauk Pequot
    181. Paugusett
    182. Pawnee
    183. Pechanga
    184. Penobscot
    185. Peoria
    186. Picuris
    187. Pine Ridge
    188. Poarch Creek
    189. Pojoaque
    190. Ponca
    191. Poosepatuck
    192. Port Gamble
    193. Port Madison
    194. Potawatomi
    195. Prairie Isle
    196. Puertocito
    197. Puyallup
    198. Pyramid Lake
    199. Quapaw
    200. Quillayute
    201. Quinault
    202. Ramah
    203. Ramona
    204. Red Cliff
    205. Red Lake
    206. Reno-Sparks
    207. Rincon
    208. Roaring Creek
    209. Rocky Boys
    210. Rosebud
    211. Round Valley
    212. Rumsey
    213. Sac And Fox
    214. Salt River
    215. Sandia
    216. Sandy Lake
    217. Santa Ana
    218. Santa Clara
    219. Santa Domingo
    220. Santa Rosa
    221. Santa Rosa (North)
    222. Santa Ynez
    223. Santa Ysabel
    224. Santee
    225. San Carlos
    226. San Felipe
    227. San Ildefonso
    228. San Juan
    229. San Manual
    230. San Pasqual
    231. San Xavier
    232. Sauk Suiattle
    233. Seminole
    234. Seneca-Cayuga
    235. Sequan
    236. Shagticoke
    237. Shakopee
    238. Sheep Ranch
    239. Sherwood Valley
    240. Shingle Spring
    241. Shinnecock
    242. Shoalwater
    243. Shoshone
    244. Siletz
    245. Sisseton
    246. Skokomish
    247. Skull Valley
    248. Soboba
    249. Southern Ute
    250. Spokane
    251. Squaxon Island
    252. St. Croix
    253. St. Regis
    254. Standing Rock
    255. Stewarts Point
    256. Stockbridge Munsee
    257. Summit Lake
    258. Susanville
    259. Swinomish
    260. Taos
    261. Te-Moak
    262. Tesuque
    263. Texas Kickapoo
    264. Tohono O'odham
    265. Tonawanda
    266. Tonikawa
    267. Torres Martinez
    268. Toulumne
    269. Trindad
    270. Tulalip
    271. Tule River
    272. Tunica-Biloxi
    273. Turtle Mountains
    274. Tuscarora
    275. Twentynine Palms
    276. Umatilla
    277. Uintah And Ouray
    278. United Keetoowah Band Of Cherokee
    279. Upper Sioux
    280. Upper Skagit
    281. Ute Mountain
    282. Vermilion Lake
    283. Viejas
    284. Walker River
    285. Warm Springs
    286. Washoe
    287. West Cocopah
    288. White Earth
    289. Wichita
    290. Wind River
    291. Winnebago
    292. Winnemucca
    293. Woodford Indian Community
    294. Wyandotte
    295. Xl Ranch
    296. Yakama
    297. Yankton
    298. Yavapai
    299. Yerington
    300. Yomba
    301. Ysleta Del Sur
    302. Yurok
    303. Zia
    304. Zuni
  2. ^ Sheffield (1998) p56
  3. ^ Federal Recognition: Can the BIA's Acknowledgment Process Be Fixed?, Indian Country Today (August 8, 2012).
  4. ^ Fixing the Federal Acknowledgment Process (S. Hrg. 111-470), Hearing Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate (Nov. 4, 2009).
  5. ^ INDIAN ENTITIES RECOGNIZED AND ELIGIBLE TO RECEIVE SERVICES FROM THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS: Federal Register, Volume 78, Number 87 dated May 6, 2013 (78 F.R. 26384)
  6. ^ Heim, Joe (2 July 2015). "A renowned Virginia Indian tribe finally wins federal recognition". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 

Miller, Mark Edwin. Forgotten Tribes: Unrecognized Indians and the Federal Acknowledgment Process. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004; Bison Books, 2006.

Federal Register[edit]

The Federal Register is used by the BIA to publish the list of "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs". Tribes in the contiguous 48 states and those in Alaska are listed separately.

Current version[edit]

Former versions[edit]

  • Federal Register, Volume 77, Number 155 dated August 10, 2012 (77 FR 47868) – 566 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 190 dated October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60810), with a supplemental listing published in Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 207 dated October 27, 2010 (75 FR 66124) – 565+1 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 74, Number 153 dated August 11, 2009 (74 FR 40218) – 564 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 73, Number 66 dated April 4, 2008 (73 FR 18553) – 562 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 72, Number 55 dated March 22, 2007 (72 FR 13648) – 561 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 70, Number 226 dated November 25, 2005 (70 FR 71194) – 561 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 68, Number 234 dated December 5, 2003 (68 FR 68180) – 562 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 67, Number 134 dated July 12, 2002 (67 FR 46328) – 562 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 65, Number 49 dated March 13, 2000 (65 FR 13298) – 556 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 63, Number 250 dated December 30, 1998 (63 FR 71941) – 555 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 62, Number 205 dated October 23, 1997 (62 FR 55270) – 555 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 61, Number 220 dated November 13, 1996 (61 FR 58211) – 555 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 60, Number 32 dated February 16, 1995 (60 FR 9250) – 552 entities
  • Federal Register, Volume 58, Number 202 dated October 21, 1993 (58 FR 54364)
  • Federal Register, Volume 53, Number 250 dated December 29, 1988 (53 FR 52829)
  • Federal Register, Volume 47, Number 227 dated November 24, 1982 (47 FR 53133) – First time listing that includes native entities within the state of Alaska
  • Federal Register, Volume 44, Number 26 dated February 6, 1979 (44 FR 7235) – First listing of Indian tribal entities within the contiguous 48 states