List of heads of state of Haiti

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This page lists the heads of state of Haiti since the beginning of the Haitian Revolution in 1791. Full independence of Haiti was declared in 1804.

Between 1806 and 1820 Haiti was divided between the northern State, renamed Kingdom of Haiti in 1811, and the southern Republic of Haiti. Between 1822 and 1844 the Republic of Haiti ruled over the entire island of Hispaniola, during the period known as the unification of Hispaniola.

Heads of State of Haiti[edit]

Saint-Domingue (1791–1804)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
N/A Général Toussaint Louverture.jpg Toussaint Louverture
(1743–1803)
1 January 1791 6 May 1802 Independent Leader of the Haitian Revolution (1 January 1791 – 6 May 1802)
Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue (1797 – 7 July 1801)
Governor-General for Life of the entire island of Hispaniola (7 July 1801 – 6 May 1802)
Vacant (6 May 1802–1 January 1804)
N/A Jean-Jacques-Dessalines.jpg Jean-Jacques Dessalines
(1758–1806)
1 January 1804 22 September 1804 Independent Governor-General of Haiti

First Empire of Haiti (1804–1806)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
1 Jean-Jacques-Dessalines.jpg Jacques I
(1758–1806)
22 September 1804 17 October 1806 8 October 1804 Emperor of Haiti

State of Haiti (1806–1811)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
N/A Henri Christophe.jpg Henri Christophe
(1767–1820)
17 October 1806 28 March 1811 Independent Provisional Chief of the Haitian Government (17 October 1806 – 17 February 1807)
President (17 February 1807 – 28 March 1811)

Note: Rule limited to the northern State of Haiti

Kingdom of Haiti (1811–1820)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
N/A Henri Christophe.jpg Henri I
(1767–1820)
28 March 1811 8 October 1820 2 June 1811 King of Haiti
Note: Rule limited to the northern Kingdom of Haiti

Republic of Haiti (1806–1822)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
1 Alexandre Pétion.jpg Alexandre Pétion
(1770–1818)
17 October 1806 29 March 1818 Independent President (17 October 1806 – 9 October 1816)
President for Life (9 October 1816 – 29 March 1818)

Note: Rule limited to the southern Republic of Haiti
2 Président Jean-Pierre Boyer.jpg Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
30 March 1818 9 February 1822 Independent President for Life
Note: United the northern Kingdom and the southern Republic in 1820

Republic of Haiti during the unification of Hispaniola (1822–1844)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
(2) Président Jean-Pierre Boyer.jpg Jean-Pierre Boyer
(1776–1850)
9 February 1822 13 February 1843 Independent President for Life
3 Charles Rivière-Hérard.jpg Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
4 April 1843 27 February 1844 Independent President

Republic of Haiti (1844–1849)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
(3) Charles Rivière-Hérard.jpg Charles Rivière-Hérard
(1789–1850)
27 February 1844 3 May 1844 Independent President
4 Philippe Guerrier.jpg Philippe Guerrier
(1757–1845)
3 May 1844 15 April 1845 Independent President
5 Jean-Louis Pierrot.jpg Jean-Louis Pierrot
(1761–1857)
16 April 1845 24 March 1846 Independent President
6 Jean-Baptiste Riché.jpg Jean-Baptiste Riché
(1780–1847)
24 March 1846 28 February 1847 Independent President
7 Soulouque-mossell-361.jpg Faustin Soulouque
(1782–1867)
2 March 1847 26 August 1849 Independent President

Second Empire of Haiti (1849–1859)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Period of reign Coronation Title(s)
2 Faustin I.jpg Faustin I
(1782–1867)
26 August 1849 22 January 1859 18 April 1852 Emperor of Haiti

Republic of Haiti (1859–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
8 Fabre Geffrard.gif Fabre Geffrard
(1806–1878)
22 January 1859 13 March 1867 Independent President
Nissage Saget.jpg Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
20 March 1867 2 May 1867 Independent Provisional President
9 Sylvain Salnave.jpg Sylvain Salnave
(1827–1870)
4 May 1867 27 December 1869 Independent President
10 Nissage Saget.jpg Nissage Saget
(1810–1880)
27 December 1869 14 May 1874 Liberal Party President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Council of Secretaries of State 14 May 1874 14 June 1874 Independent Council of Secretaries of State
11 Michel Domingue.jpg Michel Domingue
(1813–1877)
14 June 1874 15 April 1876 Independent President
12 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
23 April 1876 17 July 1879 Liberal Party Provisional President (23 April 1876 – 17 July 1876)
President (17 July 1876 – 17 July 1879)
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Joseph Lamothe
(–1891)
26 July 1879 2 October 1879 Provisional President Independent
13 Salomon 200.jpg Lysius Salomon
(1815–1888)
2 October 1879 10 August 1888 National Party President
Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
10 August 1888 16 October 1888 Liberal Party Provisional President
14 François Denys Légitime.jpg François Denys Légitime
(1841–1935)
16 October 1888 23 August 1889 Liberal Party President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Monpoint Jeune
(1830–1905)
23 August 1889 17 October 1889 Independent Provisional President
15 Florvil Hyppolite portrait.jpg Florvil Hyppolite
(1828–1896)
17 October 1889 24 March 1896 National Party President
16 Tirésias Simon Sam portrait.jpg Tirésias Simon Sam
(1835–1916)
31 March 1896 12 May 1902 National Party President
Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal.jpg Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
(1832–1905)
26 May 1902 17 December 1902 Liberal Party Provisional President
17 Pierre Nord Alexis, 1905.jpg Pierre Nord Alexis
(1820–1910)
21 December 1902 2 December 1908 Military President
18 Presidentsimon.jpg François C. Antoine Simon
(1843–1923)
6 December 1908 3 August 1911 Liberal Party President
19 Cincinnatus Leconte.jpg Cincinnatus Leconte
(1854–1912)
15 August 1911 8 August 1912 National Party President
Note: Great-Grandson of Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Emperor of Haiti 1804–1806)
20 Tancrede Auguste.jpg Tancrède Auguste
(1856–1913)
8 August 1912 2 May 1913 National Party President
21 Michel Oreste portrait.jpg Michel Oreste
(1859–1918)
12 May 1913 27 January 1914 Independent President
22 Oreste Zamor portrait.jpg Oreste Zamor
(1861–1915)
8 February 1914 29 October 1914 Military President
23 Joseph Davilmar Theodore portrait.jpg Joseph Davilmar Théodore
(1847–1917)
7 November 1914 22 February 1915 Military President
24 Vilbrun Guillaume Sam portrait.jpg Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
(1859–1915)
25 February 1915 28 July 1915 Military President
Notes: Son of Tirésias Simon Sam (President of Haiti 1896–1902).
Also the inspiration for Eugene O'Neil's The Emperor Jones.
25 Dartiguenave.jpg Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave
(1863–1926)
12 August 1915 15 May 1922 Independent President
Note: Served under the United States occupation
26 Louis Borno.jpg Louis Borno
(1865–1942)
15 May 1922 15 May 1930 Independent President
Note: Served under the United States occupation
27 Louis Eugene Roy portrait.jpg Louis Eugène Roy
(1861–1939)
15 May 1930 18 November 1930 Independent President
Note: Served under the United States occupation
28 Stenio Vincent portrait.jpg Sténio Vincent
(1874–1959)
18 November 1930 15 May 1941 Independent President
Note: Served under the United States occupation until 1934
29 Elie Lescot portrait.jpg Élie Lescot
(1883–1974)
15 May 1941 11 January 1946 Liberal Party President
Franck Lavaud portrait.jpg Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
11 January 1946 16 August 1946 Military Chairman of the Military Executive Committee
30 Dumarsais estime portrait.jpg Dumarsais Estimé
(1900–1953)
16 August 1946 10 May 1950 Independent President
Franck Lavaud portrait.jpg Franck Lavaud
(1903–1986)
10 May 1950 6 December 1950 Military Chairman of the Government Junta
31 Paul Magloire portrait.jpg Paul Magloire
(1907–2001)
6 December 1950 12 December 1956 Peasant Worker Movement President
Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis portrait.jpg Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis
(1900–1966)
12 December 1956 3 February 1957 Independent Provisional President
Franck Sylvain portrait.jpg Franck Sylvain
(1909–1987)
7 February 1957 2 April 1957 Independent Provisional President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Executive Government Council 2 April 1957 25 May 1957 Independent Executive Government Council
Daniel fignole portrait.jpg Daniel Fignolé
(1913–1986)
25 May 1957 14 June 1957 Peasant Worker Movement Provisional President
Antonio Thrasybule Kebreau portrait.jpg Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau
(1909–1963)
14 June 1957 22 October 1957 Military Chairman of the Military Council
32 Duvalier (cropped).jpg François Duvalier
(1907–1971)
22 October 1957 21 April 1971 National Unity Party President (22 October 1957 – 22 June 1964)
President for Life (22 June 1964 – 21 April 1971)
33 Baby Doc (centrée).jpg Jean-Claude Duvalier
(1951–2014)
21 April 1971 7 February 1986 National Unity Party President for Life
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Henri Namphy
(1932–)
7 February 1986 7 February 1988 Military President of the National Council of Government
34 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Leslie Manigat
(1930–2014)
7 February 1988 20 June 1988[nb 1] Rally of Progressive National Democrats President
35 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Henri Namphy
(1932–)
20 June 1988 17 September 1988[nb 2] Military President
36 Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Prosper Avril
(1937–)
17 September 1988 10 March 1990 Military President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Hérard Abraham
(1940–)
10 March 1990 13 March 1990 Military Acting President
Presidenta de Haiti.jpg Ertha Pascal-Trouillot
(1943–)
13 March 1990 7 February 1991 Independent Provisional President
37 Clinton&Aristide-2.jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
7 February 1991 29 September 1991[nb 3] Lavalas Political Organization President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Raoul Cédras
(1949–)
29 September 1991 8 October 1991 Military Acting President
Note: Leader of the military junta (29 September 1991 – 12 October 1994)
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Joseph Nérette
(1924–2007)
8 October 1991 19 June 1992 Independent Provisional President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Marc Bazin
(1932–2010)
19 June 1992 15 June 1993 Movement for the Instauration of Democracy in Haiti Acting President
37 Clinton&Aristide-2.jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
15 June 1993 12 May 1994 Lavalas Political Organization President
Note: In exile, but recognized in Haiti
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Émile Jonassaint
(1913–1995)
12 May 1994 12 October 1994 Independent Provisional President
37 Clinton&Aristide-2.jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
12 October 1994 7 February 1996 Lavalas Political Organization President
Note: Served under the United States occupation until 1995
38 Rene Preval.jpg René Préval
(1943–2017)
7 February 1996 7 February 2001 Fanmi Lavalas President
39 Clinton&Aristide-2.jpg Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(1953–)
7 February 2001 29 February 2004[nb 4] Fanmi Lavalas President
Boniface Alexandre.jpg Boniface Alexandre
(1936–)
29 February 2004 14 May 2006 Independent Provisional President
40 Rene Preval.jpg René Préval
(1943–2017)
14 May 2006 14 May 2011 Lespwa
(until November 2009.)
President
(40) Inite
41 Michel Martelly on April 20, 2011.jpg Michel Martelly
(1961–)
14 May 2011 7 February 2016 Repons Peyizan President
Coat of arms of Haiti.svg Council of Ministers 7 February 2016 14 February 2016 Independent Council of Ministers
Jocelerme Privert 2016.jpg Jocelerme Privert
(1953–)
14 February 2016 7 February 2017 Inite Provisional President
Note: Presidential term expired on 14 June 2016
42 Jovenel Moise.jpg Jovenel Moïse
(1968–)
7 February 2017 Incumbent Haitian Tèt Kale Party President

Foreign governors and military commanders[edit]

U.S. Military Commanders
U.S. High Commissioner
U.S. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary
U.S. Military Commanders
United Nations (UNMIH) Force Commanders
U.S. Military Commander
United Nations (MINUSTAH) Force Commanders
Commanders of U.S. Joint Task Force for Haiti Relief

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deposed in the June 1988 coup d'état
  2. ^ Deposed in the September 1988 coup d'état
  3. ^ Deposed in the 1991 coup d'état
  4. ^ Deposed in the 2004 coup d'état