List of cetacean species

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Cetacea is an infraorder that comprises the 89 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. It is divided into toothed whales (Odontoceti) and baleen whales (Mysticeti), which diverged from each other some time in the Eocene 26 to 17 million years ago (mya). Cetaceans are descended from land-dwelling hoofed mammals, and the now extinct archaeocetes represent the several transitional phases from terrestrial to completely aquatic.[1] Historically, cetaceans were thought to have descended from the wolf-like mesonychids, but cladistic analyses confirm their placement with even-toed ungulates in the order Cetartiodactyla.[2][3][4][5][6]

Whale populations were drastically reduced in the 20th century from intensive whaling, and the activity was globally banned in 1982.[7] Smaller cetaceans are at risk of accidentally getting caught by fishing vessels using, namely, seine fishing, drift netting, or gill netting operations.[8]

Conventions[edit]

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (0 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (3 species)
 EN Endangered (10 species)
 VU Vulnerable (7 species)
 NT Near threatened (6 species)
 LC Least concern (37 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (27 species)
 NE Not evaluated (3 species)

The following is a list of existing (extant) species of the infraorder cetacea, organized taxonomically into parvorders, superfamilies when applicable, families, subfamilies when applicable, genus, and then species. In tabular form, seven descriptors are given for each species: the common name; the scientific name; the IUCN Red List status; a global population estimate; a global map with its range; its weight with an image of its shape, and its size relative to a human; and a photograph.

Conservation status codes listed follow the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015).[9]

Where available, the global population estimate has been listed. When not cited or footnoted differently, these are from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015).[9]

Mysticeti: baleen whales[edit]

The baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form the parvorder Mysticeti. Baleen whales are characterized by having baleen plates for filter feeding and two blowholes.[10]

Family Balaenidae: right whales[edit]

The family Balaenidae, the right whales, contains two genera and four species. All right whales have no ventral grooves; a distinctive head shape with a strongly arched, narrow rostrum, bowed lower jaw; lower lips that enfold the sides and front of the rostrum; and long, narrow, elastic baleen plates (up to nine times longer than wide) with fine baleen fringes.[11]

Genus Balaena Linnaeus, 1758 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List status Global population estimate Range Size Picture
Bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 12,682–39,950 Bowhead whale range Bowhead whale size
60 t (66 short tons)
Bowhead whale
Genus Eubalaena Gray, 1864 – 3 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List status Global population estimate Range Size Picture
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis
Müller, 1776
EN IUCN 300-350 North Atlantic right whale range North Atlantic right whale size
40–80 t (44–88 short tons)
North Atlantic right whale
North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica
Lacépède, 1818
EN IUCN 404-2,108[12] North Pacific right whale range North Pacific right whale size
60–80 t (66–88 short tons)
North Pacific right whale
Southern right whale Eubalaena australis
Desmoulins, 1822
LC IUCN 7,500 Southern right whale range Southern right whale size
40–80 t (44–88 short tons)
Southern right whale

Family Balaenopteridae: rorquals[edit]

Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale. They take their name from a Norwegian word meaning "furrow whale": all members of the family have a series of longitudinal folds of skin running from below the mouth back to the navel (except the sei whale, which has shorter grooves). They allow the mouth to expand immensely when feeding.[13] All rorquals have these unique folds.[11]

Subfamily Balaenopteridae – one genus, eight species
Genus Balaenoptera – eight species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus
Linnaeus, 1758
EN IUCN 10,000–25,000 Blue whale range Blue whale size
50–150 t (55–165 short tons)
Blue whale
Bryde's whale Balaenoptera brydei
Olsen, 1913
LC IUCN 90,000–100,000 Bryde's whale range Bryde's whale size
14–30 t (15–33 short tons)
Bryde's whale
Common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN 200,000 Common minke whale range Common minke whale size
6–11 t (6.6–12.1 short tons)
Common minke whale
Eden's whale[a] Balaenoptera edeni
Anderson, 1879
LC IUCN Unknown Eden's whale range Unknown Eden's whale (illustration)
Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus
Linnaeus, 1758
VU IUCN 100,000 Fin whale range Fin whale size
30–80 t (33–88 short tons)
Fin whale
Omura's whale Balaenoptera omurai
Wada et al., 2003
DD IUCN Unknown Unknown Unknown Omura's whale
Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis
Lesson, 1828
EN IUCN 57,000 Sei whale range Sei whale size
20–25 t (22–28 short tons)
Sei whales
Antarctic minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis
Burmeister, 1867
NT IUCN 515,000 Antarctic minke whale range Antarctic minke whale size
6–10 t (6.6–11.0 short tons)
Antarctic minke whale
Subfamily Megapterinae – 1 genus, 1 species
Genus Megaptera Gray, 1846 – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
Borowski, 1781
LC IUCN 80,000 Humpback whale range Humpback whale size
25–30 t (28–33 short tons)
Humpback whale

Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale[edit]

The pygmy right whale shares several characteristics with the right whales, with the exception of having a dorsal fin. Also, pygmy right whales' heads are no more than one-fourth the size of their bodies, whereas the right whales' heads are about one-third the size of their bodies.[11] The pygmy right whale is the only extant member of its family.

Genus Caperea Gray, 1864 – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy right whale Caperea marginata
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown Pygmy right whale range Pygmy right whale size
3–3.5 t (3.3–3.9 short tons)
Pygmy right whale (illustration)

Family Eschrichtiidae: gray whale[edit]

Eschrichtiidae only has one living member: the gray whale. It is the only benthic feeding baleen whale, filtering small organisms from the mud of shallow seas. They also have a gestation period of over a year, which is unusual for baleen whales.[11]

Genus Eschrichtius – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus
Lilljeborg, 1861
LC IUCN 26,000 Gray whale range Gray whale size
15–40 t (17–44 short tons)
Gray whale

Odontoceti: toothed whales[edit]

The toothed whales (parvorder Odontoceti), as the name suggests, are characterized by having teeth (rather than baleen). Toothed whales are active hunters, feeding on fish, squid, and in some cases other marine mammals.[15]

Family Delphinidae: oceanic dolphins[edit]

Oceanic dolphins are the members of the family Delphinidae. As the name implies, they tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine.

The Delphinidae are characterized by having distinct beaks (unlike the Phocoenidae), two or more fused cervical vertebrae and 20 or more pairs of teeth in their upper jaws. None is more than 4 m long.[11]

Genus Cephalorhynchus Gray, 1846 – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Chilean dolphin Cephalorhynchus eutropia
Gray, 1846
NT IUCN Unknown Chilean dolphin range Chilean dolphin size
60 kg (130 lb)
Chilean dolphin
Commerson's dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN 3,400 Commerson's dolphin range Commerson's dolphin size
35–60 kg (77–132 lb)
Commerson's dolphin
Heaviside's dolphin Cephalorhynchus heavisidii
Gray, 1828
NT IUCN Unknown Heaviside's dolphin range Heaviside's dolphin size
40–75 kg (88–165 lb)
Heaviside's dolphin
Hector's dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori
Van Beneden, 1881
EN IUCN (subspecies Māui dolphin CR IUCN) 12,000–18,500 (subspecies Māui dolphin 57–75 in 2016) Hector's dolphin range (Maui's dolphin in green) Hector's dolphin size
35–60 kg (77–132 lb)
Hector's dolphin
Genus Delphinus – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Arabian common dolphin[b] Delphinus tropicalis
van Bree, 1971
NE Unknown Arabian common dolphin size
65–105 kg
Arabian common dolphin
Long-beaked common dolphin[c] Delphinus capensis
Gray, 1828
DD IUCN Unknown [d] Long-beaked common dolphin range Long-beaked common dolphin size
80–150 kg (180–330 lb)
Long-beaked common dolphin
Short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Unknown Short-beaked common dolphin range Short-beaked common dolphin size
70–110 kg (150–240 lb)
Short-beaked common dolphin
Genus Feresa – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata
Gray, 1875
LC IUCN Unknown [e] Pygmy killer whale range Pygmy killer whale size
160–350 kg (350–770 lb)
Pygmy killer whale
Genus Globicephala – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas
Traill, 1809
LC IUCN Unknown [f] Long-finned pilot whale range Long-finned pilot whale size
3–3.5 t (3.3–3.9 short tons)
Long-finned pilot whale
Short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown [g] Short-finned pilot whale range Short-finned pilot whale size
1–3 t (1.1–3.3 short tons)
Short-finned pilot whale
Genus Grampus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus
G. Cuvier, 1812
LC IUCN Unknown [h] Risso's dolphin range Risso's dolphin size
300 kg (660 lb)
Risso's dolphin
Genus Lagenodelphis – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei
Fraser, 1956
LC IUCN Unknown Fraser's dolphin range Fraser's dolphin size
209 kg (461 lb)
Fraser's dolphin
Genus Lagenorhynchus Gray, 1846 – six species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN 200,000 – 300,000 Atlantic white-sided dolphin range Atlantic white-sided dolphin size
235 kg (518 lb)
Atlantic white-sided dolphin
Dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN Unknown Dusky dolphin range Dusky dolphin size
100 kg (220 lb)
Dusky dolphin
Hourglass dolphin Lagenorhynchus cruciger
Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
LC IUCN 140,000 Hourglass dolphin range Hourglass dolphin size
90–120 kg (200–260 lb)
Hourglass dolphin
Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Gill, 1865
LC IUCN 1,000,000 Pacific white-sided dolphin range Pacific white-sided dolphin size
85–150 kg (187–331 lb)
Pacific white-sided dolphin
Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis
Peale, 1848
LC IUCN Unknown [i] Peale's dolphin range Peale's dolphin size
115 kg (254 lb)
Peale's dolphin
White-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN 100,000 [j] White-beaked dolphin range White beaked dolphin size
180 kg (400 lb)
White-beaked dolphin
Genus Lissodelphis – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis borealis
Peale, 1848
LC IUCN 400,000 [k] Northern right whale dolphin range Northern right whale dolphin size
115 kg (254 lb)
Northern right whale dolphin
Southern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis peronii
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN Unknown [l] Southern right whale dolphin range Southern right whale dolphin size
60–100 kg (130–220 lb)
Southern right whale dolphin
Genus Orcaella Gray, 1866 – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni
Beasley, Robertson & Arnold, 2005
VU IUCN 9,000 - 10,000 Australian snubfin dolphin range Australian snubfin dolphin size
130–145 kg (287–320 lb)
Australian snubfin dolphin
Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris
Gray, 1866
EN IUCN Unknown Irrawaddy dolphin range Irrawaddy dolphin size
130 kg (290 lb)
Irrawaddy dolphin
Genus Orcinus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Killer whale Orcinus orca
Linnaeus, 1758
DD IUCN 100,000 [m] Killer whale range Killer whale size
4.5 t (5.0 short tons)
Killer whale
Genus Peponocephala – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Melon-headed whale Peponocephala electra
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown [n] Melon-headed whale range Melon-headed whale size
225 kg (496 lb)
Melon-headed whale
Genus Pseudorca – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens
Owen, 1846
NT IUCN Unknown [o] False killer whale range False killer whale size
1.5–2 t (1.7–2.2 short tons)
False killer whale
Genus Sousa – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic humpback dolphin Sousa teuszi
Kükenthal, 1892
CR IUCN 1,500 Atlantic humpback dolphin range Atlantic humpback dolphin size
100–150 kg (220–330 lb)
Atlantic humpback dolphin
Australian humpback dolphin Sousa sahulensis
Jefferson & Rosenbaum, 2014
VU IUCN 10,000 Australian humpback dolphin
Indian Ocean humpback dolphin Sousa plumbea
Cuvier, 1829
EN IUCN Unknown Indian humpback dolphin range Indian humpback dolphin size Indian humpback dolphin
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis
Osbeck, 1765
VU IUCN Unknown Pacific humpback dolphin range Pacific humpback dolphin size
250–280 kg (550–620 lb)
Pacific humpback dolphin
Genus Sotalia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis
Bénéden, 1864
NT IUCN Unknown Costero range
Solid color
Costero size
35–45 kg (77–99 lb)
Costero
Tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis
Gervais & Deville, 1853
DD IUCN Unknown Tucuxi range
Hashed color
Tucuxi size
35–45 kg (77–99 lb)
Tucuxi
Genus Stenella Gray, 1866 – five species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis
Cuvier, 1829
LC IUCN 100,000 Atlantic spotted dolphin range Atlantic spotted dolphin size
100 kg
Atlantic spotted dolphin
Clymene dolphin Stenella clymene
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown Clymene dolphin range Clymene dolphin size
75–80 kg (165–176 lb)
Clymene dolphin
Pantropical spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN 3,000,000 Pantropical spotted dolphin range Pantropical spotted dolphin size
100 kg (220 lb)
Pantropical spotted dolphin
Spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN Unknown Spinner dolphin range Spinner dolphin size
90 kg (200 lb)
Spinner dolphin
Striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba
Meyen, 1833
LC IUCN 2,000,000 Striped dolphin range Striped dolphin size
100 kg (220 lb)
Striped dolphin
Genus Steno – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis
Lesson, 1828
LC IUCN 150,000 Rough-toothed dolphin range Rough-toothed dolphin size
100–135 kg (220–298 lb)
Rough-toothed dolphin
Genus Tursiops – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Burrunan dolphin[p] Tursiops australis
Charlton-Robb, 2011
NE Unknown Burrunan dolphin
Common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus
Montagu, 1821
LC IUCN 600,000[16] Common bottlenose dolphin range Common bottlenose dolphin size
150–650 kg (330–1,430 lb)
Common bottlenose dolphin
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus
Ehrenberg, 1833
DD IUCN Unknown Indo-Pacific dolphin range
230 kg
Indo-Pacific dolphin

Family Monodontidae: narwhal and beluga[edit]

The Monodontidae lack dorsal fins, which have been replaced by tough, fibrous ridges just behind the midpoints of their bodies and are probably an adaptation to swimming under ice, as both do in their Arctic habitat. The flippers are small, rounded and tend to curl up at the ends in adulthood. All, or almost all, the cervical vertebrae are unfused, allowing their heads to be turned independently of their bodies.[11]

Genus Delphinapterus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Beluga Delphinapterus leucas
Pallas, 1776
LC IUCN 100,000 [q] Beluga whale range Beluga whale size
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
Beluga whale
Genus Monodon – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Narwhal Monodon monoceros
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 25,000 [r] Narwhal range Narwhal size
900–1,500 kg (2,000–3,300 lb)
Narwhal pod

Family Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmy sperm whales[edit]

The dwarf and pygmy sperm whales resemble sperm whales, but are far smaller. They have blunt, squarish heads with narrow, underslung jaws; the flippers are set far forward, close to the head and their dorsal fins are set far back down the body.[17] They c

Genus Kogia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima
Owen, 1866
DD IUCN Unknown [s] Dwarf sperm whale range Dwarf sperm whale size
250 kg (550 lb)
Dwarf sperm whale (reconstruction)
Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps
Blainville, 1838
DD IUCN Unknown [t] Pygmy sperm whale range Pygmy sperm whale size
400 kg (880 lb)
Pygmy sperm whale

Family Phocoenidae: porpoises[edit]

Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible differences between the two groups are that porpoises have a less pronounced beak, and have spade-shaped teeth as opposed to conical.[18]

Porpoises, divided into seven species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore.

Genus Neophocaena – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Indo-pacific finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides
Cuvier, 1829
VU IUCN[u] Unknown [v] Indo-pacific finless porpoise range Indo-pacific finless porpoise size
30–45 kg (66–99 lb)
Indo-pacific finless porpoise (skeleton)
Narrow-ridged finless porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis
Cuvier, 1829
EN IUCN[w] 1,000 Narrow-ridged finless porpoise range (red color) Finless porpoise size
30–45 kg (66–99 lb)
Narrow-ridged finless porpoise
Genus Phocoena – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis
Burmeister, 1865
NT IUCN Unknown [x] Burmeister's porpoise range Burmeister's porpoise size
50–75 kg (110–165 lb)
(cetacean needed)
Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 700,000 [19] Harbour porpoise range Harbour porpoise size
75 kg
Harbour porpoise
Spectacled porpoise Phocoena dioptrica
Lahille, 1912
LC IUCN Unknown [y] Spectacled porpoise range Spectacled porpoise size
60–84 kg (132–185 lb)
(cetacean needed)
Vaquita Phocoena sinus
Norris & McFarland, 1958
CR IUCN 12 [20] Vaquita range Vaquita size
50 kg (110 lb)
Vaquita
Genus Phocoenoides – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli
True, 1885
LC IUCN 1,100,000 [z] Dall's porpoise range Dall's porpoise size
130–200 kg (290–440 lb)
Dall's porpoise

Family Physeteridae: sperm whale[edit]

The sperm whale characteristically has a large, squarish head one-third the length of its body; the blowhole is slightly to the left hand side; the skin is usually wrinkled; and it has no teeth on the upper jaw.

Genus Physeter – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
VU IUCN 200,000–2,000,000 [aa] Sperm whale range Sperm whale size
25–50 t (28–55 short tons)
Sperm whale

Family Ziphiidae: beaked whales[edit]

A beaked whale is any of at least 22 species of whale in the family Ziphiidae. Several species have only been described in the last two decades. Six genera have been identified.

They possess a unique feeding mechanism among cetaceans known as suction feeding. They are characterized by having a lower jaw that extends at least to the tip of the upper jaw, a shallow or non-existent notch between the tail flukes, a dorsal fin set far backwards, three of four fused neck vertebrae, extensive skull asymmetry and two conspicuous throat grooves forming a 'V' pattern (which aid in sucking).[11]

Genus Berardius – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Arnoux's beaked whale Berardius arnuxii
Duvernoy, 1851
DD IUCN Unknown [ab] Arnoux's beaked whale range Arnoux's beaked whale size
8 t (8.8 short tons)
Arnoux's beaked whale
Baird's beaked whale Berardius bairdii
Stejneger, 1883
DD IUCN Unknown [ac] Baird's beaked whale range Baird's beaked whale size
12 t (13 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Berardius minimus Berardius minimus
Yamada et al., 2019
NE Unknown (cetacean needed)
Genus Tasmacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Shepherd's beaked whale Tasmacetus shepherdi
Oliver, 1937
DD IUCN Unknown [ad] Shepherd's beaked whale range Shepherd's beaked whale size
2–2.5 t (2.2–2.8 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Genus Ziphius – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris
G. Cuvier, 1823
LC Unknown [ae] Cuvier's beaked whale range Cuvier's beaked whale size
2–3 t (2.2–3.3 short tons)
Cuvier's beaked whale
Subfamily Hyperoodontinae – three genera, 17 species
Genus Hyperoodon – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus
Forster, 1770
DD IUCN 10,000 [af] Northern bottlenose whale range Northern bottlenose whale size
7 t (7.7 short tons)
Northern bottlenose whale
Southern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon planifrons
Flower, 1882
LC IUCN 500,000 Southern bottlenose range Southern bottlenose whale size
6 t (6.6 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Genus Indopacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Tropical bottlenose whale Indopacetus pacificus
Longman, 1926
DD IUCN Unknown [ag] Tropical bottlenose whale range Tropical bottlenose whale size
3.5–4 t (3.9–4.4 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Genus Mesoplodon Gervais, 1850 – 15 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Andrews' beaked whale Mesoplodon bowdoini
Andrews, 1908
DD IUCN Unknown Andrew's beaked whale range Andrew's beaked whale size
1 t (1.1 short tons)
Andrew's beaked whale (skeleton)
Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris
Blainville, 1817
DD IUCN Unknown Blainville's beaked whale range Blainville's beaked whale size Blainville's beaked whale
Deraniyagala's beaked whale Mesoplodon hotaula
P. E. P. Deraniyagala, 1963
DD IUCN Unknown (cetacean needed)
Gervais' beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus
Gervais, 1855
DD IUCN Unknown Gervais' beaked whale range Gervais' beaked whale
1.2 t (1.3 short tons)
Gervais’ beaked whale
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale Mesoplodon ginkgodens
Nishiwaki & Kamiya, 1958
DD IUCN Unknown Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale range Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale size
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale (skull)
Gray's beaked whale Mesoplodon grayi
von Haast, 1876
DD IUCN Unknown Gray's beaked whale range Gray's beaked whale size
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
Gray's beaked whale
Hector's beaked whale Mesoplodon hectori
Gray, 1871
DD IUCN Unknown Hector's beaked whale range Hector's beaked whale size
1 t (1.1 short tons)
Hector's beaked whale
Hubbs' beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
Moore, 1963
DD IUCN Unknown Hubb's beaked whale range Hubb's beaked whale size
1.4 t (1.5 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Perrin's beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini
Dalebout, Mead, Baker, Baker, & van Helding, 2002
DD IUCN Unknown Perrin's beaked whale size
1.3–1.5 t (1.4–1.7 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Pygmy beaked whale Mesoplodon peruvianus
Reyes, Mead, and Van Waerebeek, 1991
DD IUCN Unknown Pygmy beaked whale range Pygmy beaked whale size
800 kg (1,800 lb)
(cetacean needed)
Sowerby's beaked whale Mesoplodon bidens
Sowerby, 1804
DD IUCN Unknown Sowerby's beaked whale range Sowerby's beaked whale size
1–1.3 t (1.1–1.4 short tons)
Sowerby's beaked whale
Spade-toothed whale Mesoplodon traversii, syn. Mesoplodon bahamondi
Gray, 1874
DD IUCN Unknown Spade-toothed whale range Spade-toothed whale size
1.2 t (1.3 short tons)
(cetacean needed)
Stejneger's beaked whale Mesoplodon stejnegeri
True, 1885
DD IUCN Unknown Stejneger's beaked whale range Stejneger's beaked whale size
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
Stejneger's beaked whale (skull)
Strap-toothed whale Mesoplodon layardii
Gray, 1865
DD IUCN Unknown Strap-toothed whale range Strap-toothed whale size
2 t (2.2 short tons)
Strap-toothed whale (skull)
True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus
True, 1913
DD IUCN Unknown True's beaked whale range True's beaked whale size
1.4 t (1.5 short tons)
True's beaked whale

Superfamily Platanistoidea: river dolphins[edit]

River dolphins are the five cetaceans which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. These were all previously classified in the superfamily Platanistoidea, but the superfamily is now recognized as paraphyletic and invalid.[21]

Family Iniidae: river dolphins[edit]

This family contains one genus with two species.

Genus Inia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis
Blainville, 1817
EN IUCN Unknown Amazon river dolphin range Amazon river dolphin size
150 kg (330 lb)
Amazon river dolphin
Araguaian river dolphin[ah] Inia araguaiaensis
Hrbek, Da Silva, Dutra, Farias, 2014
NE Unknown Araguaian river dolphin range
Araguaian river dolphin in blue
Araguaian river dolphin size
150 kg (330 lb)
Araguaian river dolphin

Family Lipotidae: baiji[edit]

The family Lipotidae contains only the baiji. DNA evidence suggests it separated from oceanic dolphins about 25 million years ago.[22] The species was declared functionally extinct in 2006 after an expedition to estimate the population found none.

Genus Lipotes – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Baiji Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
CR IUCN 0-13 [ai] Baiji range Baiji size
130 kg (290 lb)
Baiji (illustration)

Family Platanistidae: South Asian river dolphin[edit]

The Platanistidae were originally thought to hold only one species (the South Asian river dolphin), but, based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition, it was split into two separate species in the early 1970s.[23] However, these were demoted to subspecies in 1988.[21]

Genus Platanista – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
South Asian river dolphin Platanista gangetica
Roxburgh, 1801
EN IUCN 1,100 [aj] South Asian river dolphin range South Asian river dolphin size
200 kg (440 lb)
South Asian river dolphin

Family Pontoporiidae: La Plata dolphin[edit]

The La Plata dolphin is the only species of the family Pontoporiidae and genus Pontoporia. These dolphins are known for their long beak in relation to their relatively small body size. They have a small geographic range and are mainly found in the waters along the east coast of South America. La Plata dolphins are exclusively marine organisms, however, they are grouped with river-dolphins due to the fact that they reside in the La Plata River which is a salt-water estuary. With their white or sometimes pale brown coloration, fishermen tend to call them "the white ghost", as they also tend to stray away from any human interaction.[24]

Genus Pontoporia – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
La Plata dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei
Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844
VU IUCN 4,000–4,500 La Plata dolphin range La Plata dolphin size
50 kg (110 lb)
La Plata dolphin (skeleton)

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The Society for Marine Mammalogy considers Eden's whale a smaller morph of the more widespread Bryde's whale based on current research.[14]
  2. ^ As of August 2018, the Arabian common dolphin is considered a subspecies of the common dolphin by the Society for Marine Mammalogy[14]
  3. ^ As of August 2018, the Society for Marine Mammalogy considers the long-beaked common dolphin as an ecologically-induced form of the short-beaked dolphin based on molecular evidence. The Eastern North Pacific long-beaked dolphin population may be a unique species D. bairdii[14]
  4. ^ The total population is unknown but numbers in the hundreds of thousands
  5. ^ The only population estimate is of 38,900 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
  6. ^ Total population is not known. There are estimated to be in excess of 200,000 in the Southern Ocean. The North Atlantic population is not known
  7. ^ Total population not known. There are 150,000 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. There are estimated to be more than 30,000 animals in the western Pacific, off the coast of Japan
  8. ^ The population around the continental shelf of the United States has been recorded to be in excess of 60,000. In the Pacific, a census recorded 175,000 individuals in eastern tropical waters and 85,000 in the west. No global estimate of population exists
  9. ^ Total population unknown but thought to be locally common – it is the most common dolphin found around the Falkland Islands
  10. ^ Estimates of various stocks throughout the North Atlantic give an overall value into the high tens or low hundreds of thousands
  11. ^ Varying population estimates for areas around California and the North Pacific give a total of up to 400,000
  12. ^ Surveys suggest this is the most common dolphin off of Chilean waters
  13. ^ Local estimates include 70–80,000 in the Antarctic, 8,000 in the tropical Pacific (although tropical waters are not the orca's preferred environment, the sheer size of this area — 19 million square kilometres — means there are thousands of orcas), up to 2,000 off Japan, 1,500 off the cooler northeast Pacific and 1,500 off Norway
  14. ^ Estimates for eastern tropical Pacific are 45,000 and another recent survey estimates population to be 1,200 for the eastern Sulu Sea, no global estimate is known
  15. ^ The total population is unknown. The eastern Pacific was estimated to have in excess of 40,000 individuals and is probably the home of the largest grouping
  16. ^ As of August 2018, the Society for Marine Mammalogy does not consider the Burrunan dolphin a distinct species due to problematic methodology in the study proposing its classification. The organization recommends further study to determine its validity.[14]
  17. ^ There are estimated to be 40,000 individuals in the Beaufort Sea, 25,000 in Hudson Bay, 18,000 in the Bering Sea and 28,000 in the Canadian High Arctic. The population in the St. Lawrence estuary is estimated to be around 1000
  18. ^ Aerial surveys suggest a population of around 20,000 individuals. When submerged animals are also taken into account, the true figure may be in excess of 25,000
  19. ^ No global population estimates have been made. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific
  20. ^ No global population estimates have been made. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific
  21. ^ There is not enough data to place finless porpoises on the endangered species list
  22. ^ There are no good estimates of the animals' abundance. However a comparison of two surveys, one from the late 1970s and the other from 1999/2000 shows a decline in population and distribution
  23. ^ In China, they are endangered. Their propensity for staying close to shore places them in great danger from fishing
  24. ^ There are no quantitative data on abundance
  25. ^ Nothing is known of the abundance of this porpoise. It was the most commonly encountered species during preliminary beach surveys undertaken on Tierra del Fuego
  26. ^ The most recent estimate for the North Pacific and Bering Sea is 1,186,000
  27. ^ The total number of sperm whales throughout the world is unknown. Crude estimates, obtained by surveying small areas and extrapolating the result to all the world's oceans, range from 200,000 to 2,000,000 individuals
  28. ^ Arnoux's beaked whales seem to be relatively abundant in Cook Strait during summer
  29. ^ Virtually nothing is known about the abundance of Baird's beaked whales, except they are not rare as was formerly thought
  30. ^ Nothing is known about the relative abundance of this species or its population composition
  31. ^ Because of the difficulty of identifying the species the total global population is unknown
  32. ^ Total population is unknown but likely to be of the order of 10,000
  33. ^ A 2002 survey estimates there are 766 animals around Hawaii. No other population estimates exist for other locales
  34. ^ As of August 2018, the Araguaian river dolphin is not recognized by the Society for Marine Mammalogy, which cites small sample size[14]
  35. ^ A survey from November–December 2006 failed to find any individuals. Another survey, from 1997, counted only 13 individuals. In 1986, surveys estimated the number to be at about 300
  36. ^ Estimates give values of 1,100 Indus river dolphins and maybe as few as 20 Ganges river dolphins

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jamieson, Barrie G. M. (2016-04-19). Miller, Debra L. (ed.). Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Cetaceans. Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny. 7. CRC Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4398-4257-7.
  2. ^ Agnarsson, I.; May-Collado, LJ. (2008). "The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 48 (3): 964–985. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.046. PMID 18590827.
  3. ^ Price, SA.; Bininda-Emonds, OR.; Gittleman, JL. (2005). "A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals – Cetartiodactyla". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80 (3): 445–473. doi:10.1017/s1464793105006743. PMID 16094808.
  4. ^ Montgelard, C.; Catzeflis, FM.; Douzery, E. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 550–559. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025792. PMID 9159933.
  5. ^ Spaulding, M.; O'Leary, MA.; Gatesy, J. (2009). "Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution". PLoS ONE. 4 (9): e7062. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7062S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007062. PMC 2740860. PMID 19774069.
  6. ^ "Cetacean Species and Taxonomy". IUCN-SSC: Cetacean Specialist Group. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  7. ^ Beckman, Daniel (2013). "Conservation of Cetaceans". Marine Environmental Biology and Conservation. Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-7637-7350-2.open access
  8. ^ Clover, Charles (2008). The End of the Line: How Overfishing is Changing the World and what We Eat. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25505-0.
  9. ^ a b "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ Karlsen, K. (1962). "Development of tooth germs and adjacent structures in the whalebone whale (Balaenoptera physalus)". Hvalrådets Skrifter: Scientific Results of Marine Biological Research. 45: 1–56.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Dr. Anthony R. (1991). Whales and Dolphins. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-3922-7.
  12. ^ Miyashita, T; Kato, H (1998). "Recent data on the status of right whales in the NW Pacific Ocean". International Whaling Commission. Cambridge, UK. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  13. ^ Goldbogen, Jeremy A. (2010). "The Ultimate Mouthful: Lunge Feeding in Rorqual Whales". American Scientist. 98 (2): 124–131. doi:10.1511/2010.83.124.
  14. ^ a b c d e "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies". Society for Marine Mammalogy. May 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  15. ^ Klinowska, M.; Cooke, J. (1991). Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book (PDF). Columbia University Press, NY: IUCN Publications. ISBN 978-2-88032-936-5.
  16. ^ "Common Bottlenose Dolphin". WWF. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  17. ^ Huggenberger, S.; Leidenberger, S.; Oelschläger, H. H. A. (December 13, 2016). "Asymmetry of the nasofacial skull in toothed whales (Odontoceit)". Journal of Zoology. 302 (1): 15–23. doi:10.1111/jzo.12425.
  18. ^ "What's the difference between dolphins and porpoises?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  19. ^ Bjorge, Arne; A Tolley, Krystal (2008). "Harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena". In William F. Perrin; Bernd Wursig; J. G.M. Thewissen (eds.). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. pp. 530–532.
  20. ^ Hoffner, Erik (2018-03-08). "Only 12 vaquita porpoises remain, watchdog group reports". Mongabay. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  21. ^ a b Rice, DW (1998). Marine mammals of the world: Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy. pp. 92–95. ISBN 978-1-891276-03-3.
  22. ^ Zhou, X.; Sun, F.; Xu, S.; et al. (2013). "Baiji genomes reveal low genetic variability and new insights into secondary aquatic adaptations". Nature Communications. 4 (2708). doi:10.1038/ncomms3708. PMC 3826649. PMID 24169659.
  23. ^ Pilleri, G., Marcuzzi, G. and Pilleri, O., 1982. Speciation in the Platanistoidea, systematic, zoogeographical and ecological observations on recent species. Investigations on Cetacea, 14: 15–46.
  24. ^ "National Marine Mammal Laboratory - La Plata Dolphins". Alaska Fisheries Science Center - NOAA Fisheries. NOAA Fisheries. Retrieved 18 March 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]