North Atlantic right whale
|North Atlantic right whale|
|Mother and calf|
|Size compared to an average human|
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice"), is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species. Because of their docile nature, their slow surface-skimming feeding behaviors, their tendencies to stay close to the coast, and their high blubber content (which makes them float when they are killed, and which produced high yields of whale oil), right whales were once a preferred target for whalers, who reportedly considered them the "right" whales to hunt.
At present, they are among the most endangered whales in the world, and they are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. There are about 400 individuals in existence in the western North Atlantic Ocean - they migrate between feeding grounds in the Gulf of Maine and their winter calving areas off Georgia and Florida, an ocean area with heavy shipping traffic. In the eastern North Atlantic, on the other hand – with a total population reaching into the low teens at best – scientists believe that they may already be functionally extinct. Vessel strikes and entanglement in fixed fishing gear, which together account for nearly half of all North Atlantic right whale mortality since 1970, are their two greatest threats to recovery.
- 1 Description
- 2 Behavior
- 3 Taxonomy
- 4 Whaling
- 5 Threats
- 6 Population and distribution
- 7 Conservation status
- 8 Whale watching
- 9 See also
- 10 Gallery
- 11 Footnotes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Like other right whales, the North Atlantic right whale, also known as the northern right whale or black right whale, is readily distinguished from other whales by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, and a long arching mouth that begins above the eye. The body of the whale is very dark grey or black, occasionally with white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids or whale lice.
Adult North Atlantic right whales average 13–16 m (43–52 ft) in length and weigh approximately 40,000 to 70,000 kg (44 to 77 short tons), they are slightly smaller on average than the North Pacific species. The largest measured specimens have been 18.2 m (60 ft) long and 106,000 kg (234,000 lb). Females are larger than males.
Forty percent of a right whale's body weight is blubber, which is of relatively low density. Consequently, unlike many other species of whale, dead right whales float.
There is little data on their life span, but it is believed to be at least fifty years, and some may live more than a century.
Aside from mating activities performed by groups of single female and several males, so called SAG (Surface Active Group), North Atlantic right whales seem less active compared to subspecies in southern hemisphere. However, this could be due to intense difference in number of surviving individuals especially calves that are tend to be more curious and playful than adults, and small amount of observations. They are also known to interact with other baleen whales especially with Humpback whales or Bottlenose dolphins.
North Atlantic right whales recordings are available online. Many effective automated methods, such as Signal Processing, Data Mining and Machine Learning techniques have been developed to detect and classify their calls.
They first give birth at age nine or ten after a year-long gestation; the interval between births seems to have increased in recent[when?] years and now averages three to six years. Calves are 13–15 feet (4.0–4.6 m) long at birth and weigh approximately 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg).
Right whales feed mainly on copepods and other small invertebrates such as krill, pteropods, and larval barnacles, generally by slowly skimming through patches of concentrated prey at or below the ocean surface. Sei whales and Basking sharks (sometimes Minke whales as well) are in positions as food competitors and are known to feed in the same areas, swimming next to each other, but there have not been any conflicts observed between these species.
The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the Balaenidae family serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the North Atlantic right whale and the other members of its family.
|The right whale family, Balaenidae|
Another so-called species of right whale, the "Swedenborg whale" as proposed by Emanuel Swedenborg in the 18th century, was by scientific consensus once thought to be the North Atlantic right whale. However, the 2013 results of DNA analysis of those fossil bones revealed that they were in fact those of the bowhead whale.
Right whales were so-named because whalers thought they were the "right" whale to hunt. As the "right" whale continued to float long after being killed, it was possible to 'flech' or strip the whale of blubber without having to take it onboard ship. Combined with the right whale's lack of speed through water, feeding habits, and coastal habitat, they were easy to catch, even for whalers equipped only with wooden boats and hand-held harpoons.
Basques were the first to commercially hunt this species. They began whaling in the Bay of Biscay as early as the eleventh century. The whales were hunted initially for whale oil but, as meat preservation technology improved, their value as food increased. Basque whalers reached eastern Canada by 1530. The last Basque whaling voyages were made prior to the commencement of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A few attempts were made to revive the trade, but they failed. Shore whaling continued sporadically into the 19th century. It had previously been assumed that Basque whaling in eastern Canada had been the primary cause for the depletion of the sub-population in the western North Atlantic, but later genetic studies disproved this.
Setting out from Nantucket and New Bedford in Massachusetts and from Long Island, New York, Americans took up to one hundred right whales each year, with the records including one report of 29 whales killed in Cape Cod Bay in a single day during January 1700. By 1750, the North Atlantic right whale population was, for commercial purposes, depleted. Yankee whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. The population was so low by the mid-19th century that the famous Whitby whaler Rev. William Scoresby, son of the successful British whaler William Scoresby senior (1760–1829), claimed to have never seen a right whale (although he mainly hunted bowhead whales off eastern Greenland, outside the normal range of right whales).
Based on back calculations using the present population size and growth rate, the population may have numbered fewer than 100 individuals by 1935. As it became clear that hunting right whales was unsustainable, international protection for right whales came into effect, as the practice was banned globally in 1937. The ban was largely successful, although violations continued for several decades. Madeira took its last two right whales in 1968.
For the period of 1970 to October 2006, humans have been responsible for 48% of the 73 documented mortalities of the North Atlantic right whale. A 2001 forecast showed a declining population trend in the late 1990s, and indicated a high probability that North Atlantic right whales would go extinct within 200 years if the then-existing anthropogenic mortality rate was not curtailed. The combined factors of small population size and low annual reproductive rate of right whales mean that a single death represents a significant increase in mortality rate. Conversely, significant reduction in mortality rate can be obtained by preventing just a few deaths. It was calculated that preventing the deaths of just two females per year would enable the population to stabilize. The data suggests, therefore, that human sources of mortality may have a greater effect relative to population growth rates of North Atlantic right whales than for other whales. The principal factors known to be retarding growth and recovery of the population are ship strikes and entanglement with fishing gear.
The single greatest danger to this species is injury sustained from ship strikes. Between 1970 and October 2006, 37% of all recorded North Atlantic right whale deaths were attributed to collisions. During the years 1999–2003, incidents of mortality and serious injury attributed to ship strikes averaged 1 per year. For the years 2004–2006, that number increased to 2.6. Additionally, it is possible that the official figures actually underestimate the actual ship-strike mortality rates, since whales struck in offshore areas may never be sighted due to low search effort.
In 2002, the International Maritime Organization shifted the location of the Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS, i.e. shipping lanes) in the Bay of Fundy (and approaches) from an area with the highest density of North Atlantic right whales to an area of lower density. This was the first time the IMO had changed a TSS to help protect marine mammals. In 2006, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) established a set of recommended vessel routes to reduce ship strikes in four important eastern-US right whale habitats. In 2007, and again on June 1, 2009, NOAA changed the TSS servicing Boston to reduce vessel collisions with right whales and other whale species. NOAA estimated that implementing an "Area To Be Avoided" (ATBA) and narrowing the TSS by 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) would reduce the relative risk of right whale ship strikes by 74% during April–July (63% from the ATBA and 11% from the narrowing of the TSS).
Fishing gear entanglement
The next greatest source of human-induced mortality is entanglement in fixed fishing gear such as bottom-set groundfish gillnet gear, cod traps and lobster pots. Between 1970 and October 2006, there have been 8 instances where entanglements have been the direct cause of death of North Atlantic right whales. This represents 11% of all deaths documented during that period. From 1986 to 2005, there were a total of 61 confirmed reports of entanglements, including the aforementioned mortalities. It is likely that official figures underestimate the actual impacts of entanglement. It is believed that chronically entangled animals may in fact sink upon death, due to loss of buoyancy from depleted blubber reserves, and therefore escape detection.
Beyond direct mortality, it is believed that whales that survive entanglement episodes may suffer other negative effects that may weaken it, reduce fertility, or otherwise affect it so that it is more likely to become vulnerable to further injury. Because whales often free themselves of gear following an entanglement event, scarring may be a better indicator of fisheries interaction than entanglement sightings. A 2012 analysis of the scarification of right whales showed that through 2009, 82.9% of all North Atlantic right whales have experienced at least one fishing gear entanglement; 59.0% have had more than one such experience. In all, from 1980–2009, an average of 15.5% of the population are entangled in fishing gear annually.
In 2007, so as to protect northern right whales from serious injury or mortality from entanglement in gillnet gear in their calving area in Atlantic Ocean waters off the southeast United States, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) revised regulations implementing the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan (ALWTRP). This plan expands the restricted area to include the waters off of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida. It also prohibits gillnet fishing or even gillnet possession in those waters for a period of five months, beginning on November 15 of each year, which coincides with the annual right whale calving season.
When entanglement prevention efforts fail, disentanglement efforts occasionally succeed, despite the fact that such efforts are more frequently impossible or unsuccessful. Nevertheless, they do in fact make a significant difference. During the period 2004-2008 there were at least four documented cases of entanglements for which the intervention of disentanglement teams averted a likely death of a right whale. For the first time in 2009 and again in 2011, scientists successfully used chemical sedation of an entangled whale to reduce stress on the animal and to reduce the time spent working with it. After disentangling the whale, scientists attached a satellite tracking tag, administered a dose of antibiotics to treat entanglement wounds and then another drug to reverse the sedation. Despite concerns that the trauma might impair reproduction, researchers confirmed in January 2013 that three disentangled whales had given birth.
Recently,[when?] the US Navy proposed plans to build a new undersea naval sonar training range immediately adjacent to northern right whale calving grounds in shallow waters off the Florida/Georgia border. In September 2012, legal challenges by leading environmental groups including the Natural Resources Defense Council were denied in federal court, allowing the Navy to proceed.
Climate change poses a threat to the North Atlantic right whale as global temperatures increase and ocean processes change. Long migratory periods, gestations, and time gaps between calves results in slow-growing right whale populations. A brief change in food availability can affect right whale populations for years after. Females must have access to plenty of food to successfully make it through pregnancy and produce enough milk to rear a calf. To illustrate the species’ sensitivity to food availability, in 1998 zooplankton populations dropped dramatically following a climate shift. Even though zooplankton abundance began to rise again in 1999, right whales have such a long reproduction and migratory cycle that the population was greatly affected by the minimal food availability from the year before. In 1999, only one right whale calf was born, compared to the 21 that were born in 1996, before the climate shift. In 2001, after the zooplankton populations greatly recovered, 30 calves were born.
Zooplankton abundance has been found to be associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the most influential climate force in the Northern Hemisphere. Periodically, pressure anomalies in the system shift from positive to negative as determined by the NAO Index, affecting temperatures and wind patterns. Abundant zooplankton populations have been linked to a positive NAO Index. As global temperatures increase, the NAO is predicted to shift more often and to greater intensities. These shifts will likely greatly affect the abundance of zooplankton, posing a great risk for right whale populations that cannot rapidly adapt to a new food source.
Population and distribution
It is not known how many populations of North Atlantic right whales existed prior to whaling, but the majority of studies usually consider that there were historically two populations, one each in the eastern and western North Atlantic. There are however two other hypotheses which claim, respectively, one super-population among the entire North Atlantic (with mixing of eastern and western migratory routes occurring at locations in relatively high latitudes such as in the Denmark Strait), and three sub-populations of eastern, western, and central Atlantic right whales (with the central stock ranging from Greenland's Cape Farewell in summer to the Azores and Bermuda in winter, although recent study indicates that the Azores had probably been a migratory corridor rather than a wintering ground).
Recent studies revealed that modern counterparts of the eastern and western populations are much closer genetically to each other than previously thought. Right whales' habitat can be affected dramatically by climate changes along with Bowhead whales.
In spring, summer and autumn, the western North Atlantic population feeds in a range stretching from New York to Nova Scotia. Particularly popular feeding areas are the Bay of Fundy, the Gulf of Maine and Cape Cod Bay. In winter, they head south towards Georgia and Florida to give birth. According to census of individual whales identified using photo-identification techniques, the latest available stock assessment data (August 2012) indicates that a minimum of 396 recognized individuals were known to be alive in the western North Atlantic in 2010, up from 361 in 2005. Distributions within other parts of Bay of Fundy is rather unknown although whales are occasionally observed at various locations in northern parts such as in Baxters Harbour. or at Campobello Island.
Though their numbers are still scarce, some right whales migrate regularly into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, notably around the Gaspé Peninsula and in the Chaleur Bay and sometimes up to Anticosti Island, Tadoussac and in the St. Lawrence River. For example, in the survey conducted by the Canadian Whale Institute in 2006, three whales were detected off the peninsula. Some whales including cow and calf pairs also appear around Cape Breton Island with notable increasing regularities in recent years. Further, the whales' regular range is known to reach up to off Newfoundland and the Labrador Basin.
Parts of the western group, especially for those seen regularly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence display different migratory or calving routines than the normal whales and these are so-called "Offshore Whales". There could be various areas along or off the west coasts where could have been frequented by whales potentially and might be re-colonized in the future such as Quoddy, Eastport, Plymouth Harbor, Sagamore Beach, Island of Nantucket, Florida Bay, Pamlico Sound, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Long Island Sound and vicinity to New York, the mouth of Potomac River, Delaware and Chesapeake Bay, the mouth of Altamaha River, Cape Canaveral, Sebastian Inlet and around Melbourne, and so on. As the population grows, it's also highly possible that more whales would start using rivers or river mouths, shallow estuaries, smaller inlets or bays. Whales have already seen repeatedly at various of these such as Indian River Inlet, Delaware River, Cape Cod Canal, Jacksonville Drum, and so on.
In early 2009, scientists recorded a record number of births among the western North Atlantic population. 39 new calves were recorded, born off the Atlantic coast of Florida and Georgia:
"Right whales, for the first time in a long time, are doing their part: they're having the babies; they're having record numbers of babies. We need to be vigilant and still do our part to prevent the whales from being killed."
— Monica Zani, New England Aquarium, Endangered right whales appear to be on the rebound, CNN.com
In contrast, 2012 appears to have been the worst calving season since 2000, with only seven calves sighted – and one of those is believed to have died. This is significantly below the annual average of 20 calves per year over the last decade. As the gestation period for right whales is a year long, researchers believe that a lack of food in the whales' summer feeding grounds in the Bay of Fundy during the summer of 2010 may be linked to the poor season in 2012.
The right whale was purported to have reached a population of 500 in the North Atlantic, which was assumed to have been achieved for the first time in centuries, when counted in 2013. The population of the whale has been increasing at about 2.5 percent per year, but this is below the optimal goal of 6 or 7 percent that researchers were hoping to attain.
In the eastern North Atlantic, the right whale population probably numbers in the low tens at best, with little information known about their distribution and migration pattern. Scientists believe that this population may be functionally extinct. The last catch occurred in 1967 from a pod? of three animals including a cow-calf pair: one escaped in Madeira and one was taken in the Azores.
Cintra Bay and Bahia Gorrei, about 150 kilometers south of Villa Cisneros in the Western Sahara, the only known historical calving ground for this group, host no animals (or if any, then likely very few) nowadays, holding a situation similar to the Bay of Biscay area where many whales once congregated throughout years. Although there were several sightings in the late 20th century (see Bay of Biscay) and catch records indicate whales historically used the bay for both feeding and wintering, it is still unclear whether or not the Biscayne coasts were ever used as calving grounds. Other parts of coastlines or oceanic islands from Iberian Peninsula and Portugal to Morocco in north to south possibly reaching even Mauritania. Locations such as Dakhla Peninsula and Bay of Arguin had been served potentially as wintering grounds similar to the Cintra and Gorrei Bays region. Historic presence of any wintering grounds in Mediterranean Sea is unknown.
Entire European regions including French coasts, Hebrides, North Sea and Baltic Seas, and further north up to Swedish, Norwegian and Svalbard areas were once ranged by whales. Phenology of catche records in the early twentieth century in Nordic countries shows that whale presences in northern waters was at peak in June. In Ireland, catches were concentrated in the first half of June until 1930s and preceded catch in the Scottish bases of the Hebrides which were concentrated in the second half of June and July, and this indicates that those whales were likely to migrate along Irish coasts. Of all modern whaling grounds in European waters, Hebrides and the Shetland Islands were the center of whaling in the early 20th century, and any records afterwards these catches became scarce in eastern Atlantic where only two cow-calf pairs had been documented.
Any calm waters in north such as Porth Neigwl, the Wadden Sea region, Cornwall coasts, Moray Firth and in Irish Sea could have been migratory colliders/feeding or resting grounds, or seasonal habitats to stay for less-migrating or resident (fully or partially) individuals. Some might have reached to entrance of Baltic Sea and northern Scandinavian. Based on historical records, Scandinavian waters once had been a potential feeding area, and this idea corresponds with behaviors of the below mentioned vagrant individual "Porter" recorded in 1999 when he stayed in the fjord for several weeks, indicating the area provided to him a feasible condition for summering.
Sightings and confirmations in recent years
There have been a few sightings further east over the past few decades, with several sightings close to Iceland in 2003. There was speculation that these could be the remains of a virtually extinct Eastern Atlantic stock, but examination of old whalers' records suggest that they are more likely to be strays from further west. A few have been sighted in waters adjacent to Norway (two documented sightings in 1926 and 1999), Ireland, Irish Sea, the Bay of Biscay in Spain, off the Iberian Peninsula, a cow-calf pair at Cape St. Vincent in Portugal, and continuous sightings of a single animal off the southwestern Tenerife in the Canary Islands in 1995. Subsequently, there have been two more sightings in Benderlau, La Gomera and some other observations were reported in Portugal and Galicia. A whale of unknown species, thought to be a right whale, was seen off Steenbanken, Schouwen-Duiveland (Netherlands) in July 2005 and was possibly the same animal previously seen off Texel in the West Frisian Islands. Another possible sighting was made along Lizard Point, Cornwall in May 2012.
Right whales have also on rare occasion been observed in the Mediterranean Ocean. Since the two records of a stranding (Italy) and a capture of one of a pair seen (Algeria) in early 20th century, only one possible sighting have been confirmed. In May 1991, a petty officer of the Italian Navy happened to be in the water with his camera about 13 km (8.1 mi) off the small island of Sant' Antioco (southwestern Sardinia), when a right whale happened to swim by – his photos comprise the only confirmed sighting in the 20th century. Earlier known occurrences of right whales in the Mediterranean include the stranding of a juvenile near Taranto (southeastern Italy) in 1877 and the sighting of two (one of which was later captured) in the bay of Castiglione (Algiers) in 1888 and Portugal. The Norway sightings appear to be of vagrants, or strays from the western Atlantic stock. Catch records at Cape Verde Islands in spring-summer seasons are highly doubtful.
Below is a list of some of recent records of right whales in eastern North Atlantic (not all of above-mentioned records and excluding vagrant records, according to the Spanish edition of this article).
|1901||Orio||Capture||Nores and Pérez, 1983|
|1914||Azores||Captura failed||Brown, 1986|
|Prior to 1930||In front of Porto||Capture||Teixeira,1979|
|1959||Madeira||Capture (a pregnant female)||Jonsgård (by Freitas et al., 2012), Brown, 1986|
|1967||Madeira||Capture*||Maul and Sergeant, 1977|
|1978||Cape Finisterre (Galicia)||Observation||Aguilar, 1981|
|1980||Bay of Biscay||Observation||Brown, 1986|
|2º mitad S. XX||Dutch coast||Bones found||Kompanje and Smeenk, 1996|
|1991||13 km (8.1 miles) off Sant' Antioco, Sardinia (Italy)||Possible Observation (The only underwater sighting)|
|1993||Near A Coruña, Estaca de Bares (Galicia)||Land-based Observation (breaching individual)||Arcos and Mosquera, 1994|
|1995||Cape St. Vincent (Portugal)||Observation (the only cow-calf pair in recent times)||Martin and Walter, 1997|
|Channel between Tenerife and La Gomera||Observation||Erika Urquiola Pascual,Viceconsejerìa de Medio Ambiente|
|La Gomera||Two separate observations||Benderlau|
|Channel between Tenerife and Gran Canaria||Observation|
|Between Punta de Teno and Punta Scratch||Observation||(Martín et al., 1998; Aguilar, 1999)|
|2005||Wadden Sea (off Steenbanken, Schouwen-Duiveland, possibly same as the whale seen tail-slapping close to beaches in Texel) (Netherlands)||Possible Observation|||
|2012||Lizard Point, Cornwall (possibly encountered by a kayaker in nearby areas previously) (England)||Possible Observations (observed from land and water by multiple observers, very close to shore)|||
- * Accompanied by a cow-calf pair freed themselves.
- Fishermen in the border zone between Galicia and Asturias claim to have seen repeatedly "dark whales with white bellies" jumping near the coasts (see Spanish page of this article).
Vagrants from the Western Population
Some eastern sightings have been officially confirmed to be of vagrants from the western population. A right whale seen off Cape Cod in May 1999 was later seen in the Kvænangen fjord in Troms, Northern Norway in September 1999. This individual was later confirmed to be "Porter", an adult male in the catalog (No.1133). He was seen again back in Cape Cod in winter 2000, having traveled for over 7,120 miles (=11500 km), making this the longest ever traveling record of right whales. The area vicinity to Scandinavian Peninsula was once in the historical "North Cape Ground", one of the major whaling grounds for this species in the 17th century.
In January 2009, one animal was sighted off Pico Island, Azores, the first confirmed appearance there since 1888. This animal was later identified as the a female from the western Atlantic group, and nicknamed as "Pico" according to this event.
Some individuals are known to show interesting patterns of movements which may possibly help researchers to deepen understandings of future re-colonization to eastern Atlantic, if possible.
Possible central population
As above mentioned, the existence of a possible third population, ranging from near Iceland or Greenland in the north to Bermudas in the south, has been mentioned by several biologists. Some right whales are now said to live primarily in Icelandic waters and occasionally join to the western population. In July 2003, during a search for the possibility of right whales inhabiting the historical Cape Farewell region carried out by the research team of the New England Aquarium with Jean Lemire and a Quebec film company, a female right whale - later named "Hidalgo" due to a scar mark on her head resembling a horse – was recorded in the Irminger Sea, southwest of the Iceland coast.
In 2009, right whales appeared in waters around Greenland although their origin was not confirmed. Prior to this, no right whales had been killed or confirmed present off the coast of Greenland for around 200 years except for the sighting of "1718", a unique animal seen only twice (off Cape Farewell in July 1987 and at the Nova Scotian Shelf in June 1989). Several sightings in the area made in the 1970s may or may not be of right whales, as the critically endangered population of Bowhead whales are also present in the area.
On a global level, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS, or the “Bonn Convention”) is a multilateral treaty specializing in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes. CMS has listed the North Atlantic right whale on Appendix I, which identifies it as a migratory species threatened with extinction. This obligates member nations to strive towards strict protection of these animals, habitat conservation or restoration, mitigation of obstacles to migration, and control of other factors that might endanger them.
Additionally, CMS encourages concerted action among the range states of many Appendix I species. To that end, a small portion of the eastern Atlantic population's range is covered by the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS). The Atlantic area bounded on the west by a line running from Cape St. Vincent in southwest Portugal to Casablanca, Morocco, and on the east by the Straight of Gibraltar.
Another multilateral treaty, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, (CITES, or the “Washington Convention”), also lists the North Atlantic right whale on its own Appendix I. Being so listed prohibits international trade (import or export) in specimens of this species or any derivative products (e.g. food or drug products, bones, trophies), except for scientific research and other exceptional cases with a permit specific to that specimen.
Either land based or organized Whale watching activities are available along east coasts from Canada in north to Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida to south. Stellwagen Bank Sanctuary has also been designed for watching this species. Onlookers lucky enough can spot them from shores time to time on whales' migration seasons especially for feeding (vicinity to Cape Cod such as at Race Point and Brier Island), and breeding/calving (off Georgia to Florida coasts) when whales strongly approach shores or enters rivers or estuaries such as at Outer Banks, Pamlico Sound, Indian River Inlet, Cape Lookout, Virginia Beach, Virginia, beaches on Florida (e.g. most notably at Flagler, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Ponte Vedra, Crescent, and Cocoa, and any others like Ormond, New Smyrna, South Melbourne, Wrightsville, Vero), Boynton, and so on. There are some piers used for lookout points such as at Jacksonville and Wrightsville.
Due to the species' status, as of 2014, there is no whale watching location in eastern and mid Atlantic, and oceanic islands feasible to observe right whales regularly. Among these, only off Iceland right whales have been encountered during watching tours (save for expeditions and land-based observations targeting for birds and other faunas), and several observations were made in Iceland during the 2000s.
Eubalaena glacialis on Wikimedia Commons.
- The use of Order Cetartiodactyla, instead of Cetacea with Suborder Mysticeti, is favored by most evolutionary mammalogists working with molecular data  and is supported the IUCN Cetacean Specialist Group and by Taxonomy Committee  of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world. See Cetartiodactyla and Marine mammal articles for further discussion.
- Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R.L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N. (2012). "Eubalaena glacialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Appendices I, II and III". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Agnarsson, I.; May-Collado, LJ. (2008). "The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 48 (3): 964–985. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.046. PMID 18590827.
- Price, SA.; Bininda-Emonds, OR.; Gittleman, JL. (2005). "A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals – Cetartiodactyla". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80 (3): 445–473. doi:10.1017/s1464793105006743. PMID 16094808.
- Montgelard, C.; Catzeflis, FM.; Douzery, E. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution 14 (5): 550–559. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025792. PMID 9159933.
- Spaulding, M.; O'Leary, MA.; Gatesy, J. (2009). "Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution". PLoS ONE 4 (9): e7062. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7062S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007062. PMC 2740860. PMID 19774069.
- Cetacean Species and Taxonomy. iucn-csg.org
- "The Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Species and subspecies".
- "ITIS Standard Report: Eubalaena glacialis (Müller, 1776)". ITIS on-line database. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- Perrin, W.F. (2012). "Eubalaena glacialis Müller, 1776". World Cetacea Database. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) 5-year review: Summary and Evaluation" (PDF). Gloucester, MA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service. August 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
The western North Atlantic population numbered at least 361 individuals in 2005 and at least 396 in 2010 (Waring et al. 2012).
- Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2007). "Recovery potential assessment for right whale (Western North Atlantic population)" (PDF). Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2007/027. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2011-01-23). "Scientists Successfully Use Sedation to Help Disentangle North Atlantic Right Whale". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
- Center for Coastal Studies. 2007. May 2007 . Retrieved on May 13. 2014
- Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute. 2015. Julie ALBERT 11/19/14 North Atlantic Right Whales on YouTube. Retrieved on January 02. 2015
- "Right Whale's Up-Call, Cornell Bioacoustics Resear". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "More Right Whale calls, Cornell Bioacoustics Resea". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- M. Pourhomayoun, P. Dugan, M. Popescu, and C. Clark (2013). Bioacoustic Signal Classification Based on Continuous Region Features, Grid Masking Features and Artificial Neural Network. International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML).
- John D. Sutter (April 3, 2009). "Endangered right whales appear to be on the rebound". CNN. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- http://teacheratsea.wordpress.com/2012/05/22/ellen-odonnell-theres-a-lot-of-food-in-the-ocean-and-one-more-whale-to-feed-may-20-2012/. retrieved on 13-05-2014
- Rosenbaum, H. C., R. L. Brownell Jr.; M. W. Brown C. Schaeff, V. Portway, B. N. White, S. Malik, L. A. Pastene, N. J. Patenaude, C. S. Baker, M. Goto, P. Best, P. J. Clapham, P. Hamilton, M. Moore, R. Payne, V. Rowntree, C. T. Tynan, J. L. Bannister and R. Desalle (2000). "World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: Questioning the number of right whale species" (PDF). Molecular Ecology 9 (11): 1793–802. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01066.x. PMID 11091315.
- "Whale bones found in highway were not from mystery whale". ScienceNordic.com. February 7, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Ward-Geiger, L.I.; Silber, G.K.; Baumstark, R.D.; Pulfer, T.L. (3 March 2005). "Characterization of Ship Traffic in Right Whale Critical Habitat" (PDF). Coastal Management (Taylor & Francis Inc.) 33 (3): 263–278. doi:10.1080/08920750590951965. ISSN 0892-0753. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
- Aguilar A (1986). "A review of old Basque whaling and its effect on the right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) of the North Atlantic". Rep. Int. Whal. Commn (Special Issue 10): 191–99.
- Kenney, Robert D. (2002). William F. Perrin, Bernd Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen, ed. North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Right Whales. The Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (Academic Press). pp. 806–813. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- Rastogi, T., Brown, M. W., Mcleod, B. A., Frasier, T. R., Grenier, R., Cumbaa, S. L., Nadarajah, J. and White, B. N. (2004). Genetic analysis of 16th-century whale bones prompts a revision of the impact of Basque whaling on right and bowhead whales in the western North Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 8(10):1647-1654, 10.1139/z04-146
- Frasier, T. R., Mcleod, B. A., Bower, R., Brown, M., and White, B. N. (2007). Right Whales Past and Present as Revealed by their Genes in: Urban Whale: North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads pp. 200-231, edited by Kraus, S. and Rolland, R.
- Waring, G.T.; Josephson E, Maze-Foley K, Rosel, PE, Editors (December 2010). "NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE (Eubalaena glacialis): Western Atlantic Stock" (PDF). U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments. NOAA Tech Memo (National Marine Fisheries Service). NMFS NE 219: 8–18.
- Scarff JE (1986b). "Occurrence of the barnacles Coronula diadema, C. reginae and Cetopirus complanatus (Cirripedia) on right whales" (PDF). Scientific Reports of the Whale Research Institute 37: 129–153.
- Fujiwara, M.; Caswell, H. (29 November 2001). "Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale" (PDF). Nature 414 (6863): 537–541. doi:10.1038/35107054. PMID 11734852. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Schreiber, Laurie (February 2012). "Right Whale Mother and Fetus Skeletons Reconstructed". Fishermen's Voice. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "Vessel collisions and cetaceans: What happens when they don’t miss the boat" (PDF). Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society website. p. 4.
- Vanderlaan & Taggart (2007). "Vessel collisions with whales: the probability of lethal injury based on vessel speed" (PDF). Mar Mam. Sci. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "Recommended Shipping Routes". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "North Atlantic Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction". Office of Protected Resources – NOAA Fisheries. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2009-05-26). "Changes in Vessel Operations May Reduce Risk of Endangered Whale Shipstrikes". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
- Knowlton, AR; Hamilton, PK; Marx, MK; Pettis, HM; Kraus, SD (15 October 2012). "Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: a 30 yr retrospective" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series 466: 293–302. doi:10.3354/meps09923. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- NOAA (June 25, 2007). "NOAA announces rule to protect North Atlantic right whales from gillnet entanglement in Southeast U.S.". Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- "3 endangered right whales rescued from fishing gear reach rare milestone of motherhood". Associated Press (FOX News). January 24, 2013.
- Rolland et al. "Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The Royal Society. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Courthouse News Service". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Right Whales Wronged: Judge allows Navy to expand sonar use in calving ground". Natural Resources Defense Council. September 10, 2012.
- National Geographic Society. "Right Whale". National Geographic. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Climate change: the effects on ocean animals". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- NOAA Climate Prediction Center
- "Study links swings in North Atlantic Oscillation variability to climate warming". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Reeves, R.R. and Mitchell, E. (1986). "American pelagic whaling for right whales in the North Atlantic.". Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 10: 221–254. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Right Whale Special Issue 10: Abstracts" (PDF). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium): 5. December 1986. ISBN 0906975166. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Silvia A M., Steiner L.,Cascao I., Cruz J.M., Prieto R., Cole T., Hamilton K.P.and Baumgartner M. (2012). "Winter sighting of a known western North Atlantic right whale in the Azores" (PDF). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.12: 65–69. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
- "A whale named Pico". Whale and Dolphin Conservation. 11 April 2014. p. nicola.hodgins's blog. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
- "Endangered whale begins to recover after Bay of Fundy shipping lanes moved". Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Whale sighting off Baxters' Harbour, Nova Scotia August 16, 2012 on YouTube. Retrieved on 11 July 2014
- New England Aquarium Right Whale Research Program. 2013. Right Whale with Calf in Unusual Territory on YouTube. December 21. 2014
- "Introduction". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Hear them coming: right whales return to the Gulf of St. Lawrence". Fisheries and Oceans Canada Homepage. 2013-04-22. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- Canadian Whale Institute. RESEARCH, CONSERVATION & STEWARDSHIP PROJECTS. Retrieved on December 18. 2014
- CaptainRobthePirate. 2009. Watching a Northern Right Whale off Eastport, Maine aboard the schooner Sylvina W. Beal (Part 2) on YouTube. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Meg. 2013. What is Wart, the Right Whale, Telling Us?. Cape Cod Bay Watch. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- PromoManagers Features. 2010. Right Whales Return to Sagamore Beach on YouTube. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Parpan G.. Miller C.. 2014. Endangered whale sightings reported in Greenport Harbor. The Suffolk Times. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Schlesinger D.M., Bonacci A.L. (2014). "Baseline Monitoring of Large Whales in the New York Bight" (PDF). New York Natural Heritage Program and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- National Marine Fisheries Service of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Commerce. Designated Critical Habitat; Northern Right Whale. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Starkey J.. Fishermen get a look at whales in inlet. The Coastal Point. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- The Associated Press. 2010. Del. Family Sights Right Whale On Indian Inlet. The CBS Philly. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Delaware Center for the Inland Bays. Video Gallery. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- The Associated Press. 1994. Right Whale takes wrong turn into Delaware River. The Boca Raton News. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- New England Aquarium Right Whale Research Program. 2014. Right Whale in Delaware River, 1994 on YouTube. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Bragg A.M.. 2012. Right whale sighting closes Cape Cod Canal. The Cape Cod Times. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- Capt Daves Sportfishing Charters. 2012. Jacksonville Drum, Sheepshead, Right Whale, fishing on YouTube. Retrieved on December 21. 2014
- "Poor calving season for right whales". savannahnow.com. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Beth Daley (March 17, 2013). "Right whales in the midst of a revival". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Brown.G.S. (1986). "Twentieth-century Records of Right Whales(Eubalaena glacialis) in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean" (PDF). Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 10: 121–127. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- Reeves R.R. (2001). "Overview of catch history, historic abundance and distribution of right whales in the western North Atlantic and in Cintra Bay, West Africa.". Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.2. pp. 187–192.
- Waerebeek V.K., Santillán L., Suazo E. (2009). "ON THE NATIVE STATUS OF THE SOUTHERN RIGHT WHALE EUBALAENA AUSTRALIS IN PERU" (PDF). Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 58 (2009) (The Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research): 75–82. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
- Fairley, J. (1981). Irish whales and Whaling. Blackstaff Press, Belfast.
- Lotze K.H., 2005. Radical changes in the Wadden Sea fauna and flora over the last2,000 years. Helgol Mar Res (2005) 59: pp.71–83. Retrieved on 29 July 2014
- "Background Document for the Northern right whale Eubalaena glacialis" (PDF). ISBN 978-1-907390-37-1 Publication Number: 496/2010 (The OSPAR Convention). 2010. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Gross A. (2010). "Background Document for the Northern right whale Eubalaena glacialis" (PDF). Ospar Commission 2010 ISBN 978-1-907390-37-1 Publication Number:496/2010 (OSPAR Convention). Retrieved 2015-01-05.
- "Catalog No: 1133 - Whale Name: PORTER". New England Aquarium Special Section: North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
- Cadhla Ó O., Mackey M., Soto D.A.N., Rogan E., Connolly N. (2004). "Cetaceans and Seabirds of Ireland’s Atlantic Margin Volume II CETACEAN DISTRIBUTION & ABUNDANCE" (PDF). COASTAL & MARINE RESOURCES CENTRE and DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, ECOLOGY & PLANT SCIENCE in Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Giménez I P.D., Mackey M., Cadhla Ó O. "SEA678 Data Report for Offshore Cetacean Populations." (PDF). COASTAL & MARINE RESOURCES CENTRE and DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, ECOLOGY & PLANT SCIENCE in Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
- Kees (C.J.) Camphuysen. "Who has an idea what animal we are looking at here?". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "North Atlantic right whale spotted off Cornwall?". WildlifeExtra.com.
- "WhaleNet Information Archive 1997: Right whale sighting in the Mediterranean Sea (fwd)". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Marine Mammal Society Newsletter, Winter 1996 (Vol 4, No 4).
- Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., E. Politi, A. Bayed, P.-C. Beaubrun and A. Knowlton (1998). "A winter cetacean survey off Southern Morocco, with a special emphasis on suitable habitats for wintering right whales". Sci. Rep. Int. Whaling Commission, SC/49/O3, 48: 547–550.
- Martin AR, Walker FJ (1996-05-16). "SIGHTING OF A RIGHT WHALE (EUBALAENA GLACIALIS) WITH CALF OFF S. W. PORTUGAL". Marine Mammal Science 13 (1): 139–140. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00617.x. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
- Jacobsen, K.O.; Marx, M.; Øien, N. (2003-05-21). "Two-way Trans-Atlantic migration of a North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)". Marine Mammal Science 20 (1): 161–166. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2004.tb01147.x. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
- Nores, C., Pis Millán, J. A. (2001) Determinación de la escápula de ballena encontrada en la Campa Torres. El Castro de la Campa Torres. Ayuntamiento de Gijón. Gijón.
- Teixeira, A. M. (1979). Marine mammals of the Portuhuese coast. Z. Säugetierkd., 44
- Freitas L., Dinis A., Nicolau C., Ribeiro C., Alves F. (2012). [file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Freitas%20etal%202012%20-%20New%20records%20&%20checklist%20cetaceans%20Madeira.pdf "New Records of Cetacean Species for Madeira Archipelago with an Updated Checklist"] (PDF). Bol.Mus.Mun.Funchal 62 (334) 25-43. ISSN 0870-3876 (Madeira Whale Museum): 25–43. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
- Kompanje, E.J.O. & C. Smeenk 1996. Recent bonesof right whales Eubalaena glacialis from thesouthern North Sea. Lutra 39 (2): 66-75.
- Arcos, F. and Mosquera, I. 1993. Observaciòn d’un exemplar de baleabasca, Eubalaena glacialis, en Galicia. Eubalaena 3:21-25.
- Martin, A.; Walker, F.J. (1997). "Sighting of a right whale (Eubalaenaglacialis) with calf off S.W. Portugal". Mar. Mamm. Sci. 13 (1): 139–140. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00617.x.
- Porter's Biography. New England Aquarium Website
- Habitats-Migration Mystery. The North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium Website
- "First North Atlantic right whale sighting in Azores since 1888". WildlifeExtra.com.
- North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium (1997) Are there right whales in the eastern North Atlantic? Right Whale News Volume 4.
- "No. 1412's Biography". New England Aquarium Homepage.
- "Whale Facts - Migration". Right Whale.Ca, Canadian Whale Institute.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (May 20, 2009). "NOAA Expedition Hears Endangered North Atlantic Right Whales off Greenland".
- Newman, Dennis (May 20, 2009). "OSU Researchers Discover 'Extinct' Whales". Natural Oregon.
- SaraJean (2009-05-25). "Greenland: New Home for Right Whales". Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- "Appendices I and II" (PDF). Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). Amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011. 2012. p. 1. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "CMS". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Accobams News". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eubalaena glacialis.|
- North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium
- North Atlantic Right Whale Research at the New England Aquarium
- Digital North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog by New England Aquarium
- North Atlantic Right Whale species information at the Smithsonian Ocean Portal
- NOAA - National Marine Fisheries Service - North Atlantic Right Whale
- Hear right whale audio (U. of R.I., Office of Marine Programs)
- Watch video of northern right whales
- Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies - Whale Rescue / Disentanglement
- Right Whale Listening Network has acoustic autobuoys in between the lanes of the Traffic Separation Scheme approaching Boston.
- Smithsonian Institution - North American Mammals: Eubalaena glacialis
- Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the North Atlantic Right Whale