The Constitution of Peru of 1993 recognized the natural resources and ecosystem variety of its country as a heritage. In 1900, the National System of Natural Areas that are protected by the Government (SINANPE) was created. This entity depends on the National Service of Protected Areas by the State (SERNANP), Ministry of Environment.
Peru has 75 natural protected areas (15.21% of the country surface area) that are preserved by the National Government: 12 national parks, 9 national sanctuaries, 4 historical sanctuaries, 15 national reserves, 3 wildlife refuges, 2 landscape reserves, 8 communal reserves, 6 protected forests, 2 hunting enclosed lands and 14 reserved zones. A map was also created containing the natural protected areas.
Peru is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world. With over 1,700 species of birds, it has the world's second most diverse avian community, after Colombia.
National Parks are places where the wild flora and fauna are protected and preserved. Natural resources exploitation and human settlements are forbidden.
National System of Natural State Protected Areas
Cutervo, created in 1961 and located in Cajamarca, is the oldest Peruvian National Park. It contains many caves, including the San Andres Cave is a home of the endangered guacharo (oilbird) and golden quetzal.
Manu, located in the Regions of Madre de Dios and Cuzco. It is most representative of Amazon biodiversity. In 1977, UNESCO recognised it as a Reserve of Biosphere; and in 1987, it was pronounced a Natural Heritage of Humanity.
Communal reserves are conservation areas for flora and fauna, allowing traditional use for the rural populations surrounding the areas. The use and marketing of the natural resources within the communal reserve is conducted by the same rural populations.