NGC 4294

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NGC 4294
NGC4294 - SDSS DR14.jpg
SDSS image of NGC 4294
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 12h 21m 17.8s[1]
Declination11° 30′ 38″[1]
Helio radial velocity355 km/s[1]
Distance55 Mly (17 Mpc)[1]
Group or clusterVirgo Cluster
Apparent magnitude (V)12.5[1]
Size~52,000 ly (16 kpc) (estimated)[1]
Apparent size (V)3.2 x 1.2[1]
Other designations
CGCG 70-24, IRAS 12187+1147, KCPG 330B, MCG 2-32-9, PGC 39925, UGC 7407, VCC 465[1]

NGC 4294 is a barred spiral galaxy[2] with flocculent spiral arms[3] located about 55 million light-years away[2] in the constellation Virgo. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on March 15, 1784[4] and is a member of the Virgo Cluster.[5][6][7]

NGC 4294 appears to be undergoing ram-pressure[8][9] striping edge-on.[8]

Physical characteristics[edit]

NGC 4294 hosts many H II regions.[10][3]

Interaction with NGC 4299[edit]

NGC 4294 appears to be in a pair with NGC 4299[11][12][10][13][9][14][15] and may be possibly tidally interacting.[11][12][10][13][3][9][14][15]

Effects of a tidal interaction on NGC 4294 are evident as the galaxy has a disturbed optical and HI morphology,[12][10] a high global star formation rate,[13][3] and has an observed asymmetry in polarized radio continuum emission.[15]

HI tail[edit]

Chung et al. identified that NGC 4294 has a one sided[16][17] 88,000 ly (27 kpc) tail of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI).[9][18] The tail points to the southwest[16][14] and appears to be a result of ram-pressure.[18][19][9] The tail has no optical counterpart[9][16] and is oriented parallel to the HI tail found in NGC 4299.[16]

As the tail has no optical counterpart, this makes the probability of the tail being caused by tidal interaction low. However, NGC 4299 lies 88,000 ly (27 kpc) from NGC 4294 and the two galaxies have almost the same velocity, with a difference of 120 km/s. This means that the scenario of the tail originating from a tidal interaction cannot be ruled out entirely.[9]

Black Hole[edit]

NGC 4294 may harbor an intermediate-mass black hole with an estimated mass ranging from 3,000 (3*10^3) to 20,000 (2*10^4) solar masses.[20]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4294. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  2. ^ a b "Your NED Search Results". Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  3. ^ a b c d Fathi, K.; Beckman, J. E.; Piñol-Ferrer, N.; Hernandez, O.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Carignan, C. (2009-10-20). "PATTERN SPEEDS OF BARS AND SPIRAL ARMS FROM Hα VELOCITY FIELDS". The Astrophysical Journal. 704 (2): 1657–1675. arXiv:0909.1816. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/704/2/1657. ISSN 0004-637X.
  4. ^ "New General Catalog Objects: NGC 4250 - 4299". Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  5. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (September 1985). "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area. V - Luminosity functions of Virgo Cluster galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 90: 1681. Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B. doi:10.1086/113874. ISSN 0004-6256.
  6. ^ R. B. Tully (1988). Nearby Galaxies Catalog. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35299-4.
  7. ^ "Detailed Object Classifications". Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  8. ^ a b Mei, S.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Cucciati, O.; Voyer, E.; Heinis, S.; Driel, W. van (2012-09-01). "The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS) - II. Constraints on star formation in ram-pressure stripped gas". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 545: A142. arXiv:1209.0272. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219957. ISSN 0004-6361.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh; Vollmer, Bernd (2009-12-01). "VLA IMAGING OF VIRGO SPIRALS IN ATOMIC GAS (VIVA). I. THE ATLAS AND THE H I PROPERTIES". The Astronomical Journal. 138 (6): 1741–1816. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/138/6/1741. ISSN 0004-6256.
  10. ^ a b c d Smith, Beverly J.; Madden, Suzanne C. (1997-07-01). "Interstellar Gas in Low Mass Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 114: 138–146. doi:10.1086/118460. ISSN 0004-6256.
  11. ^ a b Dickel, J. R.; Rood, H. J. (1980-08-01). "The dynamics of some binary galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 85: 1003–1009. doi:10.1086/112763. ISSN 0004-6256.
  12. ^ a b c Warmels, R. H. (1988-01-01). "The H I properties of spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. I - Westerbork observations of 15 Virgo Cluster galaxies. II - One-dimensional Westerbork observations of 21 galaxies". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 72: 19–87. ISSN 0365-0138.
  13. ^ a b c Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. (2004-10-01). "Halpha Morphologies and Environmental Effects in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 613: 866–885. doi:10.1086/423191. ISSN 0004-637X.
  14. ^ a b c Vlahakis, C.; Verstappen, J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Pohlen, M.; Grossi, M.; Fritz, J.; Looze, I. De; Clemens, M.; Ciesla, L. (2012-09-01). "The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XI. Environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 545: A75. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219689. ISSN 0004-6361.
  15. ^ a b c Kenney, J. D. P.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Chyzy, K. T.; Urbanik, M.; Chung, A.; Beck, R.; Soida, M.; Vollmer, B. (2013-04-04). "Large-scale radio continuum properties of 19 Virgo cluster galaxies The influence of tidal interactions, ram pressure stripping, and accreting gas envelopes". doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321163. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ a b c d Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd (2007-04-20). "Virgo Galaxies with Long One-Sided HI Tails". The Astrophysical Journal. 659 (2): L115–L119. doi:10.1086/518034. ISSN 0004-637X.
  17. ^ Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W. J. G.; van Driel, W. (2011-10-01). "Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 416 (4): 2447–2454. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18662.x.
  18. ^ a b Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy (2010-10-20). "Tadpole Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field". The Astrophysical Journal. 722 (2): 1895–1907. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/722/2/1895. ISSN 0004-637X.
  19. ^ Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Knapen, Johan H. (2013-09-02). Secular Evolution of Galaxies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03527-0.
  20. ^ Davis, Benjamin L.; Soria, Roberto; Graham, Alister W. (2018-11-08). "Expected intermediate mass black holes in the Virgo cluster. II. Late-type galaxies". arXiv:1811.03232. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3068. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External links[edit]